Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. - Mathis And Jackson
Training is a process of teaching a new employees the basic skills to perform their jobs
- Garry Dessler
A planned process to modify attitude , knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization. -Manpower service commission,1981a
Definition : Efforts made to improve employee’s ability to handle a variety of assignment.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT :
Development is broader in scope and focuses on individual’s gaining new capabilities useful for both present and future jobs.
Focus Time frame Effective Measure TRAINING Learn specific behaviours and actions; demonstrate techniques and processes DEVELOPMENT Understood information concepts and context; develop judgment; expand capacities for assignment. Shorter term Longer term Qualified people available when needed; promotion from within possible; HR-based competitive advantage Performance appraisals, cost benefit analysis, passing tests , or certification
Required and regular training : company with various mandated legal requirements (e.g., occupational safety, EEO) and serves as training for all employees (new employee orientation)
Job/technical training : enable employees to perform their jobs, tasks and responsibilities well (e.g. product knowledge, technical process and procedures, customer relations)
Interpersonal and problem solving training : address both operational and interpersonal problems and seeks improve organizational working relationships.
Development and innovative training : provides a long term focus to enhance individual and organizational capabilities for the future (e.g. business practice, executive development, organizational change)
Companies initially used to emphasize only on production process training i.e. teaching technical skill required to perform jobs, such as training assembles to solder wires or teachers to device lesson plans. however training and development programs and their objectives change in the 1980s and 1990s.
Employers had to adapt to rapid technological changes, improve product and service quality, and boost productivity to stay competitive improving quality often requires remedial-education training, since quality-improvement programs assume employees can use critical thinking skills, produce charts and graphs and analyse data.
Employees must also use or acquire skills in team building, decision making, and communication.
As firms become more technologically advance, employees require training in technological and computer skills (such as desk top publishing and computer aided design and manufacturing).
As increased competition has put a premium on better service, employers have turned increasingly to customer-service training to provide employees with the tools and abilities they need to deal more effectively with customers, such as effective listening skills.
More employers today are also taking advantage of the fact that training can strengthen employee commitment.this is one reason why high commitment firms like toyota provide two weeks of training per year for all employers-about double the national average
Planning and strategic training are two important aspects of human resource development, whereby there are no set procedures which organisations should strictly follow in creating a human resource development plan (HRM). However the eight points listed bellow can act as a guidance.
A HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN:
Discern the training and developing requirements from organisational strategy and business objectives.
Analyse the training requirements for effective work performance in organisational functions and jobs.
Analysing the existing qualities and training needs of current employees.
Devise an HRD plan which fills the gap between organisational requirements and the present skills and knowledge of the employees.
Decide on the appropriate training and development methods to be used for individuals and groups.
Decide who is to have responsibility for the plan and its various parts.
Implement the plan and evaluate its progress.
Amend the HRD plan in the light of monitoring/evaluation and changes in business strategy.
Organisational strategy HRM strategy Training and development strategy Analysis of needs Training programs Monitor and Evaluate
Strategic training- It focuses on efforts that develop competencies, value and competitive advantages for the organizations which means training must be based on organizations strategic plans and HR planning efforts.
Strategic training also implies that HR and training professionals need to be involved in organizational change and strategic planning in order to develop training plans and activities that support management’s strategic decisions.
Vestibule or simulated training : training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced. In this it is not necessary to rely on computer.
Computer based training : in this trainee uses computer-based system to interactively increase his/her knowledge/skills. It reduces the learning time and is cost effective.
A trainer in a central location can train a group of employees at remote locations via television hookups.
An increasingly popular way to train employees defined as “a means of joining two or more distant groups using a combination of audio and visual equipment.” It allows people in one location to communicate live with people in another city or country or with groups in several other cities.
Behaviour Modeling – It is the most elementary way to learn. It is learning by copying someone else’s behaviours.It is used extensively as the primary means for training supervisors and managers in interpersonal skills.
Reinforcement and immediate confirmation- Reinforcement means people tend to repeat responses that give them some type of positive reward and avoid actions associated with negative consequences. Immediate confirmation means people learn best if reinforcement and feedback is given after training.
Transfer of training- In transfer of training, trainers should design training intervention for the highest possible transfer of training. This transfer occurs when trainees actually use on the job what they learnt in training.
Effective transfer needs following:
Trainees can use things learned in training and apply it to the job.
Employees maintain their use of the learned material overtime .
The penultimate stage in the training strategy is the evaluation and monitoring of training. It is the most important and often the most neglected or least adequately carried out part of the training process.
It is both- Simplistic and Complicated.
Simplistic because monitoring is a process whereby information is gleaned from trainee and then the course and the program are amended in the light of these comments.
Complicated because there are other ‘stakeholders’ in the process besides the trainees, i.e. designers of the courses, the trainers and the sponsors.
Questionnaires (Feedback forms) or ‘happiness sheets’ are common way of eliciting trainee response programs.
Tests or examinations are common on formal courses which provide a certificate, e.g. diploma in word processing skills although end-of-course tests can be provided after short courses to check the progress of trainees.
Projects initially seen as learning methods but they can also be provide valuable information to instructors.
Structured exercises and case studies are opportunities to apply learned skills and techniques under the observation of tutors and evaluators.
Tutor reports . It is important to have the opinions of those who deliver the training. This gives a valuable assessment from a different perspective.
It is best to consider how training is to be evaluated before it begins. As shown in the figure in last slide, evaluating training becomes successively more difficult as evaluation moves from reaction to learning to behaviou r , and then to results measures.
REACTIONS : Oganisations evaluate the reaction levels of trainees by conducting interviews or by administrating questionnaires to the trainees.
LEARNING: Learning levels can be evaluated by measuring how well trainees have learned facts, ideas, concepts, theories and attitudes. Tests on the training material are commonly used for evaluating learning. Of course, learning enough to pass a test does not guarantee trainee will remember the training content months latter or will change job behavior.
BEHAVIOUR: Evaluating training at the behavioural level means:
Measuring the effect of training on job performance through interview of trainee and their co-workers.
Observing job performance.
However, behaviours are more difficult to measure than reaction and learning. Even if behaviurs do change, the resultsthat management desires may not be obtained.
RESULTS: Employees evaluate results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of organisational objectives. Because results such as productivity, turnover, quality, time, sales, and cost are relatively concrete, this type of evaluation can be done by comparing records before and after training.
The difficulty with measuring results is pin-pointing whether changes were actually the results of training or other factors of major impact.
It is the process used to identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve and reward employee performance.
It is defined as a performance appraisal system that does not force managers to give false or misleading measurement and instead facilitates open, job-related discussion between the supervisor and the employee.
It is the integration of performance appraisal system with broader human resource systems as a means of aligning employees’ work behaviours with organisation’s goals.
Performance Management is used to develop employees as resources. It can lead to higher employees motivation and satisfaction. But in an era of continuous improvement, and ineffective PMS poses a huge liability. To be effective a PMS should be:
Consistent with strategic mission of the organisation.
PMS can be improved by training supervisors in doing performance appraisals. Training should center around minimising rater errors and providing a common frame of reference on how raters observe and recall information. Skills of employees also affects performance rating because employees use “upward influence”.
Training evaluators and giving them feedbacks are ways to improve raters’ ability to make accurate assessment. Training programs are classified into:
Rater-error Training : It means to reduce rating errors, such as leniency, severity, central errors and halo-errors.
Frame-of-Reference Training : It is a common frame of reference in evaluating performance of employees into good or poor depending upon actual behaviour of employee in the organisation.
Information-Processing Approach : It is an approach where raters are trained to be accurate in observing and rememberig the behaviour and performance of employees. It comprises of Observation Training and Decision-making Training.
4. Monitor goal progress, undertake development 3. Coaching by supervisor throughout the year 2. Monitor goal progress, undertake development 1. Set clear, measurable performance goals and make developmental plans. 5. Annual appraisal against goals. Adjust goals and plan for the next year.
Compensation : employee compensation refers to all forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. It is an important factor affecting how and why people chose to work at one organization over others. It helps in attracting and retaining employees in a competitive manner.