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    Creative  brief Creative brief Presentation Transcript

    • Course plan
      • Session 5
      • Workshop: strategy/creative briefs
      • Session 6
      • Workshop: continued
      • Session 7
      • Aspects of international marketing communication and strategy
      • Textbook: chapters 13, 14, 15
      • From the text collection:
      • Percy, Rossiter & Elliott: The Strategic Planning Process
      • Jon Steel: Serendipity – “got milk?”
      • Session 8
      • a) Aspects of international marketing communication and strategy
      • b) Course evaluation
      • See lecture 7
      • From the text collection:
      • H. David Hennessey: Marketing Communications Trends in the……
      • O’Connor, Galvin and Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing…..
      SIS6 F06
    • The creative brief 1
      • Communication objective: ”Jolly skulle gøres til et tidssvarende mærke, som er det foretrukne alternativ”.
      • Brand ambition (core of the brand): ”DERES klæ’r dig på”.
      • Target group and consumer insight (consumers’ need for the
      • brand, both emotional and consumption wise):
      • Target group: parents
      • Consumer insight: ”´Sjovt, at ungerne nu vil ha’ Jolly, for det drak jeg jo selv som barn” eller ”Jeg vil være en succes” (DERES).
      • Target group’s relations to product category and competitors:
      • Brand’s current position and image: (A)
      • Brand’s desired position and image: (B)
      SIS6 F06
    • The creative brief 2
      • Proposition/promise: (C)
      • ” fakta er det hurtigste sted at handle dagligvarer”.
      • ” Show your best side” (DERES)
      • Why should the consumers believe your promise?:
      • Tone, style, guidelines….
      SIS6 F06 B C A
    • A brief
      • Brand Idea What is this job doing for the xx brand and the xx values?
      • Requirements A clear and crisp overview of the job. A detailed list of the elements is required at “What is needed?”
      • Market context A clear and crisp overview of the market factors relevant for this job.
      • Brand opportunity What is xx’s objective – our chance and opportunity for this job?
      • Communication objectives What are the measurable objectives for this job?
      SIS6 F06
    • A brief
      • Target audience
      • Proposition What is the unique and simple-minded proposition for this job? What’s the
      • message?
      • Critical support Why this message?
      • Tone-of-voice Are there any guidelines for style and tone-of-voice that must be met in the execution?
      • Musts What is mandatory?
      SIS6 F06
    • A brief
      • What is needed? List of elements required
      • Other Additional relevant information
      • Practicalities
      SIS6 F06
    • Last week: The creative brief – just an example
      • Objectives
      • Which brand values should be maintained/acquired/refocused?
      • Target audience/insights
      • Who are we talking to? What are their attitudes and beliefs? What insights are there about the target group?
      • Proposition
      • What is the core message being conveyed?
      SIS6 F06
    • ” got milk”
      • Some of milk’s problems: people concerned about fat content
      • regarded as kids’ drink
      • milk is boring
      • = image problem
      • The ”Board” had tried image campaigns, which were successful in changing attitudes but not sales.
      • So the brief was wide open – start from scratch:
      • ” So I’m not interested in image. If all we do is
      • affect image, we will all lose our jobs. We need
      • affect behavior. People have to buy more, and they
      • have to consume more. That’s the objective. And I
      • don’t give a damn how we get there.”
      • Also, farmers/board had decided to give themselves two years to make a difference!
      SIS6 F06
    • ” got milk”
      • NOTE: All the research that was carried out ”along the way”.
      • 1. ”As we talked about this in the agency, we quickly arrived at the conclusion that if our task was to influence hehavior quickly, then trying to amplify existing behavior, by persuading people to use more milk, or use it more often, gave us a much greater chance of success. Those who were not using milk, or using less of it, were often doing so for reasons that were quite deeply ingrained, and it seemed to us that advertising was not likely to make a difference, at least in the short term.”
      • 2. ”If we were right to talk to the user group, then the immediate question we had to answer was ”how do they use milk?” Dave from the board offered an insight:
      • ” If you think about it, you hardly ever use milk on its own….brownies, or cereal, coffee…those things taste to good with milk, and you can’t imagine eating them without it.””
      SIS6 F06
    • ” got milk”
      • NOTE: All the research that was carried out ”along the way”.
      • 3. Research confirmed that very little milk is consumed in isolation
      • 4. People were attracted by the food and immedieately imagined a glass of milk alongside it. People want food first and milk second.
      • 5. ”…maybe there was something in these emotional reactions to not having milk that we could exploit.”
      • 6. ”We wanted Californians to think about milk in a way that they did not normally do……Somehow, advertising had to affect their minds in the same way, but more than affecting their minds, it also had to affect their behavior. From what we had observed in our initial research, where simply talking about food items like brownies [..] made people want to eat them and wash them down with milk, we thought that it might be possble to create more milk occasions, so that people would use more milk. Usage patterns had to be to purchase patterns, so that people would not only use more, but also buy more.”
      SIS6 F06
    • Recent Developments in Below-the-line Marketing Communications
      • ” Originally mass communications, predominantly advertising, represented the only realistic way of reaching large audiences in a cost-effective manner. Advances in information systems and technology (IST) have enabled new channels and communication tools to be developed, which in turn has stimulated the design of alternative, more targeted, and personalized communication opportunities. Two main forms of communication can be identified: (a) advertising (which uses paid-for media) and (b) all other tools (which do not use paid-for media).”
      • ” The primary goal of this chapter is to consider the current and future impact of IST on this second group of marketing communication tools, which have become known as ’below-the-line’ communications.”
      • (Chris Fill, in Kimmel: Marketing Communication, Oxford University Press 2005)
      SIS6 F06
    • Recent Developments in Below-the-line Marketing Communications
      • ” Atlthough below-the-line marketing communications comprise an increasingly wide range of approaches, the core tools are sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing. In fact, a variety of other communication methods are derived from these primary tools…”
      • Some of the methods : sponsorhip, events, field marketing, in-store, merchandizing activities, product placement, lobbying, customer magazines, conferences, facility visits, websites, exhibitions.
      • In-store activities include window displays, posters, signs, information cards, counter and check-out displays
      SIS6 F06
    • Recent Developments in Below-the-line Marketing Communications
      • About below-the-line:
      • … and overriding strength is their capacity to stimulate action and to bring about behavioral responses in target audiences.
      • Of all the tools, public relations has the widest sphere of activity as is seeks to influence the thoughts and actions of a range of stakeholders, not just customers.
      • However, brand development in many consumer markets is often undertaken through the sole use of below-the-line tools, simply because there are insufficient financial resources to use advertising.
      SIS6 F06
    • Recent Developments in Below-the-line Marketing Communications
      • From transactional to relationship marketing - the transition has yet to be completed, but the move appears to be irreversible and an inevitable development.
      • Three main distinguishing characteristics of relationship marketing:
      • The recognition that all actions should seek to maximize the lifetime value of a customer.
      • The recognition that marketing actions need to be addressed to multiple markets, not just customer markets.
      • The recognition that marketing is a cross-functional activity and not merely the preserve and responsibility of a marketing department.
      SIS6 F06
    • Recent Developments in Below-the-line Marketing Communications
      • ” Thus, if relationship marketing focuses on customer retention, then a key task is to manage customer behavior. The role of marketing communications in this context is to encourage and reinforce behavior, to convey trust, and build commitment in order to encourage increased purchase frequency, cross buying, and product experimentation. In other words, there is a strong complementary aspect with the tasks of below-the-line communication tools.”
      SIS6 F06
    • Elliott, Percy & Rossiter: In the marketing plan
      • ” All marketing communication must be consistent with, and in support of, the overall marketing plan. Before a manager even begins to think about specific communication issues, it is important to review the marketing plan”
      • = setting the scene, creating a general understanding
      • = marketing communication does not exist in a vacuum
      • And remember:
      • Marketing and marketing communication are two very different, but closely connected, worlds.
      SIS6 F06
    • In the marketing plan
      • The five key areas where the manager could look for inspiration before beginning the strategic planning process for marketing communication:
      • Product description – What are you marketing? Do you and the target audience understand what it is?
      • Market assessment – What is your overall assessment of the market?
      • Source of business – Where do you expect business to come from? E.g. from new or existing users?
      • Competitive evaluation – What is your competition and it position itself? Get to know the competition’s communication approach and tactics.
      • Marketing objectives – What are the marketing objectives for the brand?
      However, in truly consumer-driven companies the persons in charge of marketing communication already know what’s in the marketing plan. SIS6 F06
    • After or based on the marketing plan
      • 1: Select the target audience based upon the overall marketing strategy.
      • 2: Determine the best positioning for the brand within its marketing communication.
      • 3: Establish communication objectives that are related to steps one and two.
      • 4: Develop a communication strategy based upon the communication objectives selected.
      • 5: Choose the best available communication options (media) to deliver the message and satisfy the communication objectives.
      SIS6 F06
    • Comments on…
      • 1: Select the target audience based upon the overall marketing strategy.
      • 2: Determine the best positioning for the brand within its marketing communication.
      • 3: Establish communication objectives that are related to steps one and two.
      • 4: Develop a communication strategy based upon the communication objectives selected.
      • 5: Choose the best available communication options (media) to deliver the message and satisfy the communication objectives.
      SIS6 F06
    • Loyalty Model Groupings
      • Elliott, Percy & Rossiter – Loyalty Model Groupings:
      • Loyal: highly satisfied with their brand and unlikely to switch.
      • Vulnerable: satisfied with their brand, but little perceived risk in switching.
      • Frustrated : not satisfied with their brand, but feel the risk is greater than the potential gain in switching.
      • Switchable: neither satisfied with their brand nor inhibited from switching.
      ” Lists” like these make it look too simple! But why are they still useful? Loyalty reflects the target market’s attitude toward the category and its brands. SIS6 F06
    • Decision participants
      • … initiator who suggests the purchase
      • … influencer who recommends or discourages purchase
      • … decider who makes the actual choice
      • … purchaser who does the actual purchasing
      • … user who consumes or uses the product or service
      Marketing communication is aimed not just at individuals, but at individuals in a role. SIS6 F06
    • Decision participants
      • ”… no matter how many participants may be involved in a decision process, we want to be sure that initiators are aware of our product and positively inclined to suggest considering it (either to themselves or to others), and that influencers have reasons to recommend it (again either to themselves or to others):”
      • ”… it will require more commitment from a consumer in the role of decider when the product choice decision is high-involvement than where it is low-involvement. This will have clear implications for strategic message development.”
      • ” For most low-involvement purchase decisions, the decider, will be a single person. With high-involvement purchase decisions, the decider may be a single person; or for large household purchases, a couple;…”
      • ”… messages need to accomplish different things depending upon where you are and what role you are playing in the decision process.” OF COURSE!
      SIS6 F06
    • D ecision P articipant G rid - Holiday
        • The DPG enables managers to stimulate and organize their thinking
        • By taking time to think through a DPG the manager is forced to focus upon the roles in the decision process and what implications there may be for marketing communication, even in the simplest case where one person plays all five roles.
      SIS6 F06 Self, mate, family User Travel agent Self, mate Purchaser Self, mate Decider Travel agent, resorts, other destinations Self, friends, family Influencer Self, friends, family Initiator Target audience Provider Target audience Consumer Role in decision
    • Decision stages – a generic model Decision stages SIS6 F06 How stage is likely to happen Timing of stage Where stage is likely to occur Decision roles Usage Purchase Brand consideration Need arousal
    • Decision stages Decision stages ” Once we have identified what the likely decision stages are for consumers making choices in a category, we must identify everyone who might play a part in the decision process, and the role or roles thay play at each decision stage. SIS6 F06 How stage is likely to happen Timing of stage Where stage is likely to occur Decision roles Usage Purchase Brand consideration Need arousal
    • Decision stages Decision stages ” An important key to effective marketing communication is to identify where in the decision process a message of some kind might make a positive contribution. The better we understand where those opportunities, lie, the better our media planning. We need to know where members of our target audience (which at this point is potentially everyone involved in the decision process) are likely to be making decision.” SIS6 F06 How stage is likely to happen Timing of stage Where stage is likely to occur Decision roles Usage Purchase Brand consideration Need arousal
    • Decision stages Decision stages ” Understanding the timing of the decision is also very important for media planning, especially for when to schedule media.” SIS6 F06 How stage is likely to happen Timing of stage Where stage is likely to occur Decision roles Usage Purchase Brand consideration Need arousal
    • Decision stages Decision stages ” The ’how’ is your best description of what is happening at each stage of the decision process. What happens to stimulate a perceived need for the product? How is the target market going to behave? Where are consumers likely to find information about brands (if they need it)? What goes on when actually making a purchase. How is the product actually used?” SIS6 F06 How stage is likely to happen Timing of stage Where stage is likely to occur Decision roles Usage Purchase Brand consideration Need arousal
    • Comments on…
      • 1: Select the target audience based upon the overall marketing strategy.
      • 2: Determine the best positioning for the brand within its marketing communication.
      • 3: Establish communication objectives that are related to steps one and two.
      • 4: Develop a communication strategy based upon the communication objectives selected.
      • 5: Choose the best available communication options (media) to deliver the message and satisfy the communication objectives.
      SIS6 F06
    • Setting communication objectives
      • ” Depending upon where a product or brand stands within the market, as defined by the consumer, we will have various options open to us that will guide the selection of the desired communication effect. Once this is done, we will be
      • in a position to choose the appropriate effect for a communication objective.”
      SIS6 F06
    • Potential communication objectives
      • Category need When it is necessary to remind the target of their need for the category or when you must sell the target audience the need. Not very often required as a objective, because most brands are marketed in categories where the perceived need is well established.
      • Brand awareness Always an objective in order to enable the target
      • audience to identify the brand in enough detail to
      • purchase or use the brand.
      • Brand attitude Also always an objective because there must be some other reason to select one brand over the other.
      • Brand purchase intention Not often a specific objective except when brand attitude is positive and a ’reason to buy’ now is required. ’I think I’ll try that brand.’
      SIS6 F06
    • Importance of involvement and motivation
      • ” In terms of involvement, we need to know whether or not the target audience sees any risk in the decision to buy or use a product or service.”
      • ” The reason this idea of involvement is so important is that in processing a message, when involvement is low and there is little if any risk involved, you do not really need to believe the message is true. On the other hand, when the decision is high-involvement and fiscal or psycological risk is involved, you must accept the message as true before you will consider the brand.”
      • Elaborative Likelihood Model looks at involvement.
      SIS6 F06
    • Elaboration Likelihood Model ” The central route is used for high-involvement products. Consumers are influenced by strong, product related arguments.” ” For low-involvement products, the peripheral route is used.” ”… associates positive or negative cues with the brand as a result of the execution or message without engaging in any extensive benefit-related thinking.” (Elliot, Percy & Rossiter) The two routes to persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, March 2003: 25-33 SIS6 F06
    • Importance of involvement and motivation
      • ”… motivation, if we do not know why someone wants to purchase a product
      • or use a service, we will not be able to identify effectively the appropriate
      • brand attitude and associated benefits.”
      • ” Fundamentally, motivation can be divided into negative vs. positive motives….Negative motives generally concern solving or avoiding problems. Positive motives generally involve seeking more personal satisfaction.”
      SIS6 F06
    • The Emotional Journey Seen before? Developing communication – how do we get started? A rather ”primitive” tool for discussion! Comments, please! ” It’s not that simple!” SIS6 F06
    • The Emotional Journey + target group + strategy + communication objective + etc. SIS6 F06
    • The Emotional Journey Remember: No point of contact with the consumer should be ”accidental”! SIS6 F06
    • A journey towards effective communication! Girl, 8. Message Emotional Media Execution Take-away Pre-purchase Now new dolls Woaaw ? Let the experts New features Gotta have it During purchase Extra add ons Woaaw ? Let the experts New features Woaw there are so many Post-purchase Fun, fun More fun ? Let the experts You can get more than I thought Post-post Great play Fantastisc ? Let the experts purchase universe universe SIS6 F06 Flow i forbrugerens møde med produkt/brand
    • Hennessy: Marketing Communications Trends in the Emerging Global Marketplace
      • The text is basically an ”easy-reader” providing input, inspiration and an overview
      • Some interesting points 1:
        • ” However, the volume of communications directed simultaneously toward targets in multiple countries is actually small. The majority of advertising activity still tends to be directed toward one country at a time.”
        • ” Thus, Kimberly-Clark has moved from a local approach to a global approach, while Coca-Cola has gone from a global approach to a more local campaign.” = Good example on p. 87.
      SIS6 F06
    • Hennessy: Marketing Communications Trends in the Emerging Global Marketplace
      • Some interesting points 2:
        • ” When global marketers fail because of misinterpretation of the local culture, they usually do so because they advocated an action inconsistent with the local culture or because they chose an appeal inconsistent with the motivational pattern of the target culture.”
        • ” Advocating the purchase of a product whose use is inconsistent with the local culture will result in failure, even if the appeal itself does not violate that culture per se.”
        • ” Similarly, companies can also fail if the appeal or message employed is inconsistent with the local culture, even if the action promoted is not.”
        • Consequently, a foreign company entering a new market has to be aware of both cultural aspects: the product’s use and the message employed.”
      SIS6 F06
    • Hennessy: Marketing Communications Trends in the Emerging Global Marketplace
      • Some interesting points 3:
        • ” This campaign [Whirlpool, p. 93] was successful in many markets because the purchasing criteria and the purchase motivation of women were sufficiently similar.”
        • ” Many Sprite ads are run worldwide unchanged, while others are tailored locally. All share the same basic theme of self-reliance and trusting one’s instincts. The company found that despite cultural differences in different markets around the world, there was strong global similarity among teenagers no matter which country was involved.”
        • ” Sales promotion has a largely local focus. Although some forms of promotions, such as coupons, gifts, and various types of reduced-price labels are in use in most countries, strict government regulations and different retailing practices tend to limit the options for global firms.”
      SIS6 F06
    • O’Connor, Galvin & Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing Communications: The Role of Technology
      • Electronic marketing is having a dramatic impact on marketing communications.
      • Five messages that the authors believe today’s marketers need to understand if they are to deliver marketing communications effectively in the future.
      SIS6 F06
    • O’Connor, Galvin & Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing Communications…
      • Message 1: Electronic marketing and marketing communications require a modified marketing model.
      • Highlights:
      • The electronic age is putting more power in the hands of the buyer than the seller.
      • Marketing communication activities are also becoming more targeted as a result of more, and better information.
      • Companies forced to adapt
      • Traditional marketing is giving way to electronic marketing
      • Electronic marketing involves the effective use of technology in all its forms.
      SIS6 F06
    • O’Connor, Galvin & Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing Communications… SIS6 F06 Buyer-driven Constrained Product Network Company Customer ownership Direct Intermediaries Distribution channels Shared data Data with sales dept. Sales management Tailored Mass Promotions Interactive Broadcast Advertising Biographic Demographic Segmentation Buyer-driven Seller-driven Pricing Electronic marketing Traditional marketing Marketing area
    • O’Connor, Galvin & Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing Communications…
      • Message 2: The marketing database is still at the center of marketing communications.
      • Highlights:
      • Electronic marketing is not just Internet marketing.
      • Good customer segmentation requires individualized data on customers and prospects.
      • In addition to psychographics and transactional data, a third micro-segmentation approach that has emerged in recent years is biographics …..the ability to match names, addresses, purchasing behavior, and lifestyles all together onto a single database allows companies to build a model of someone’s life.
      SIS6 F06
    • O’Connor, Galvin & Evans: Electronic Marketing and Marketing Communications…
      • Message 3: New technologies can improve communication with customers.
      • Message 4: Electronic marketing requires new skills and ways of transferring knowledge within an organization.
      • Message 5: Companies need to address the increasingly complex issues of data privacy and data protection.
      • From the conclusion p. 151:
      • ” Although the technology is different, receiving an inappropriately targeted SMS message is no doubt just as annoying for a customer as receiving a piece of junk mail.
      • ” If, however, data can lead to a deeper understanding of customers, then the resulting knowledge can be used to inform more effective interactions.”
      SIS6 F06