Consumer Learning A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.
Intentional : learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information
Incidental : learning acquired by accident or without much effort
Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as Stimulus Response Theory .
Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.
Behavioral Learning Theories
Modeling or Observational Learning
Classical Conditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Meat paste Conditioned Stimulus Bell Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
Analogous Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma Conditioned Stimulus 6 o’clock news Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus 6 o’clock news Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
Cognitive Associative Learning
Classical conditioning is viewed as the learning of associations among events that allows the organism to anticipate and represent its environment.
From this viewpoint, classical conditioning is not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new knowledge
Forward Conditioning (CS Precedes US)
Repeated Pairings of CS and US
A CS and US that Logically Belong to Each Other
A CS that is Novel and Unfamiliar
A US that is Biologically or Symbolically Salient
Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning
Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wear out.
Stimulus Generalization The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization and Marketing
Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
Stimulus Discrimination The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences. Positioning Differentiation
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Stimulus Situation (Need good-looking jeans) Try Brand D Try Brand C Try Brand B Try Brand A Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Reward Perfect fit Repeat Behavior
Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors.
A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.
Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing
Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)
Positive Reinforcement : Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response
Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo
Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior
Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream
Other Concepts in Reinforcement
Choose reinforcement rather than punishment
Combat with consumer satisfaction
Combat with repetition
Observational Learning A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning .
Cognitive Learning Theory Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
Models of Cognitive Learning Attention Cognitive Action Conative Purchase Post purchase Evaluation Trial Adoption Decision Confirmation Affective Evaluation Interest Evaluation Persuasion Knowledge Awareness Awareness Knowledge Interest Desire Sequential Stages of Processing Innovation Adoption Model Decision-Making Model Tricompetent Model Innovation Decision Process Promotional Model
Involvement Theory A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.
Split Brain Theory
Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in certain functions
Issues in Involvement Theory
Involvement Theory and Media Strategy
Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance
Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion
Measures of Involvement
Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion A theory that proposes that highly involved consumers are best reached through ads that focus on the specific attributes of the product (the central route) while uninvolved consumers can be attracted through peripheral advertising cues such as the model or the setting (the peripheral route).
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.
The Elaboration Likelihood Model Involvement Central Route Peripheral Route Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes Message Arguments Influence Attitudes HIGH LOW
Measures of Consumer Learning
Recognition and Recall Measures
Aided and Unaided Recall
Cognitive Responses to Advertising
Copy testing Measures
Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty
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