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Pickett Electronic Model Slide Rule 1960’s Computers Here’s the cursor!!
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) and his arithmetic engine
punched cards Joseph Marie Jacquard punch card operated loom a sample woven cloth
Charles Babbage (1791-1871) His Analytical Engine
Lady Ada Augusta Byron Countess of Lovelace (1815-1852) The World’s First Programmer
Herman Hollerith His Tabulating Machine An 80-column “Hollerith” card
British Mathematician who did fundamental work on the theory of modern computer science.
Defined a simple but elegant mathematical model of a general purpose computer, now called the Turing Machine, and used it to prove what was possible or impossible for computers to do. Couldn’t get the money to build one.
Today, the ACM’s Turing Award is considered to be like the Nobel Prize of computing.
Alan Turing (1912- 1954)
Alan Turing Invented the Turing test Laid the foundation for modern computers Helped crack German codes during WWII A German Enigma message encoder
The first computers were results of world war 2 developments, aimed at military uses
1944 Aiken at Harvard Mark 1: first electromechanical digital computer (electromagnetic relays -- magnets open and closes metal switches).
Howard Aiken and Mark I
Admiral Grace Hopper Invented the compiler helped develop COBOL role-model for women in computing
THE “FIRST GENERATION:” VACUMN TUBES
1946: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
First electronic digital computer, constructed with 19,000 vacuum tubes. Eight feet tall and 80 feet long.
External (wired) program.
ENIAC could do 333 multiplications per second and cost the equivalent of $5- $10 million
Some of the 19,000 vacuum tubes Women were the programmers who plugged-in the programs ENIAC
John Von Neumann & ENIAC Computers Should: 1. Use Binary 2. Have Stored Programs 3. Be Function-oriented
UNIVAC-1 the 1st Commercially available computer "I think there is a world market for about five computers.” --Thomas J. Watson IBM Chairman of the Board
Used semiconductor transistor chips developed at Bell Labs
1955 : IBM computer with 2000 transistors. By 1959, deliveries made the vacuum tube computers outmoded. Included very large mainframes, such as the IBM 7090, and smaller machines, such as the IBM 1401.
The distinction among subsequent generations is not as clear as that between the first and second generation computers.
Third generation is characterized by the ability to support multi-programming. Computers that use integrated circuit technologies are part of the third generation (LSI, or large scale integration).
As part of the third generation, we also saw the emergence of “mini-computers”-
1968 DEC-- first mini
1972 IBM 370 semi-conductor memory chips
60’s and 70’s punch card & batch processing still dominant.
John Backus develops FORTRAN John Kemeny develops BASIC Nicklaus Wirth develops PASCAL
Applications and Impacts
Through the first three generations of computers (40’s 50’s and 60’s) they were used almost entirely for business (payroll and inventory), government, and scientific computing.
Punch cards and batch processing.
Trends of the 70’s and 80’s 1. Cost is Down, Power is Up 2. Usability is Better 3. Networks, Networks, Networks
In the 1970’s-
Integrated circuits began to to make computers smaller and cheaper.
1974- first “personal computers” sold as kits
1977 Wozniak and Jobs released the Apple II (first mass marketed PC)
No generally accepted definition of fourth generation. Some say it is the VSLI (very large scale integration) super-computers.
Some say it is the emergence of the microcomputer in the form of personal computers and work stations.
1983 JAPANESE “5TH GENERATION” PROJECT
COMPUTERS THAT WILL TAKE SPEECH INPUT AND OUTPUT, IN “NATURAL LANGUAGE”
“Easy to use” computers require tremendous speed. By the end of the 20th century, speeds are measured in MIPS- millions of instructions per second. Many computers now do 1000 MIPS ( a billion instructions/sec)
SOME HISTORICAL EVENTS OF NOTE
1971 : INTEL’S microprocessor chip (COST $210 EACH IN 1977; 1984 $50 EACH; Today?? (is it 50c?)
1975- Bill Gates & Paul Allen found Microsoft
1977 PET- first fully assembled PC
1982 IBM PC
Communicating with a computer has evolved from writing assembly code or typing arcane commands, to pointing and clicking with a mouse.
1990’s: Spread of the Internet and adoption of the “World Wide Web” conventions turn computing into a mass medium
Smaller, cheaper, faster, easier to use, and interconnected through networks--
By the end of the 20th century, computers have become “pervasive”- they are integrated into all aspects of post industrial or “information” based societies
No invention has ever had as great an impact on human societies in such a short period of time as have computers.
There is no end in sight to the revolutionary changes to be brought about by this.
As the holders of the keys to technology it is your job to think about the impacts of the tools you will build and work to make them benefit the world.