Communication in advertising
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Communication in advertising

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  • Chapter Five The Communications Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.139 and Figure 5-1 of the text. Summary Overview This slide provides an overview of the basic elements of the communications process which includes: Source/Sender – the person or organization that has information to share Receiver – person(s) with whom the sender is sharing thoughts Message – the information the source hopes to convey Channel – method by which the communication travels from source to receiver Encoding – putting thoughts, ideas, or information into symbolic form Decoding – transforming the senders message back into thought Response – receiver’s reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message Feedback – part of the receiver’s response that is communicated back to the sender Noise – unplanned distortion or interference Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the communication process and discuss the basic elements in a communication system. It is important for students to understand each of these elements and the role they play in the communication process.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.141-143 of the text. Summary Overview The encoding process leads to the development of a message that contains information or meaning the source hopes to convey. To better understand the symbolic meaning that might be conveyed in a communication, marketing researchers have been focusing on semotics which studies the nature of meaning and asks how our reality – words, gestures, signs, products, symbols – acquire meaning. From a semiotic perspective every marketing message has three components: Object – product or brand that is the focus of the message (e.g., Marlboro) Sign or symbol – sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object (Cowboy) Interpretant – intended meaning (masculine, rugged, individualistic) Use of slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the use of semiotics as a technique to develop a meaningful communications message. It can be helpful in analyzing how various aspects of the marketing program – such as advertising messages, packaging, brand names, and even the non verbal communications of sales people – are interpreted by the receivers.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.143-145 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the types of communications that can be used in advertising and promotional messages. Communications fall into two basic categories, verbal and nonverbal . Verbal communications consist of items such as vocabulary, grammar, and inflection. Non-verbal communications include gestures, facial expressions, and body language. Nonverbal forms of communication can be very important in advertising as well as personal selling situations Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the two basic types of communication, verbal and nonverbal. Marketers must consider how these forms of communication will be interpreted by consumers who receive them.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.143 of the text. Summary Overview Communication channels can be broken into two types, personal and nonpersonal . Personal channels are direct, interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with individuals or groups. Sales people serve as personal channels when they deliver their sales messages. Social channels such as friends, family, and co-workers can be a powerful personal source of information through what is commonly referred to as word-of-mouth communications. Nonpersonal channels are those than carry a message without a personal contact between sender and receiver. Nonpersonal channels are generally referred to as mass media and include various forms of print and broadcast media. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the communication channels of the communication process and the difference between personal and nonpersonal channels. Both can be used very effectively in advertising and promotion programs.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 146-147 and Figure 5-2 of the text. Summary Overview The marketing communications process begins with identifying the audience that will be the focus of the firm’s advertising and promotional efforts. The target audience may consist of individuals, groups, niche markets, market segments, or a mass audience. This slide shows the various levels of the audience aggregation which include: Individuals – those with specific needs for whom a message must be specifically tailored Small groups – multiple people in the audience who are involved in the purchase decision such as families or people who members of a buying center Niche markets – smaller, well-defined markets consisting of customers who have similar needs Market segments – broader classes of people who have similar needs and can be reached with similar messages Mass markets – markets consisting of large numbers of potential customers Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the various types of markets and customers that can be identified as targeted audiences. Marketers usually approach each of these audiences differently from a communications perspective.
  • Relation to text This slide relate to material on pp.147-150 and Figure 5-2 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows various examples of hierarchical response models that have been developed through the years to depict the stages consumers/customers go through as they learn about a company’s product or service and move to a stage of purchase readiness or actual behavior. These four models include: AIDA model – developed to depict the stages in the personal selling process Hierarchy of effects model – shows the process by which advertising works Innovation adoption model – shows the stages a consumers passes through in the process of adopting a new product Information processing model – a model of the process through which a consumer must pass to be influenced by advertising Use of this slide This slide can be used to provide an overview of the various hierarchical response models that have been developed through the years. It should be noted that each of these models views the consumer as passing through a cognitive, affective and behavioral stage.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.149-150 and Exhibit 5-5 of the text. Summary Overview The hierarchy models of communication response are useful to promotional planners. Potential buyers may be at different stages in the hierarchy, so the advertiser will face different sets of communication problems. This ad for Zenith’s new plasma HDTV is an example of a communication message that is focused on making the target audience aware of the product and some of its features. This type of advertising is designed to make consumers aware of the new product and to encourage then to seek more information about it when they enter a retail store where it is sold. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of an advertising message that is designed to take help move consumers through the various stages of the innovation adoption model. This type of communication is common in products that are in the early stages of their product life cycle.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.149 and Figure 5-4 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows that there are various stages of the persuasion process that marketers want to attain. Each stage can be measured, providing the advertiser with feedback regarding the effectiveness of various strategies designed to move the consumer closer to purchase. The types of effectiveness tests that can be used to measure each step of the persuasion process are included on this slide. Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the various methods of obtaining feedback given each stage of the persuasion process. There are a variety of measures that are appropriate to use depending on where the customer is in the persuasion process and the type of communications being used.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp. 157-58 of the text and Figure 5-8. Summary Overview This slide provides a definition of the cognitive response approach to examining consumers processing of advertising messages. This approach examines the type of thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message by having consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message. Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the cognitive response approach to understanding the nature of consumers’ reactions to persuasive messages. It is widely used in research by both academicians and advertising practitioners to determine the types of responses evoked by an advertising message and how these thoughts relate to attitudes toward the ad, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 157-158 of the text and Figure 5-8. Summary Overview This slide shows a model of the cognitive process and how these thoughts relate to traditional outcome measures such as brand attitude, attitude toward the ad, and purchase intentions. Cognitive responses are the thoughts that occur while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication. The assumption is that these thoughts reflect the recipient’s reactions and help shape ultimate acceptance or rejection. of a message. The categories of cognitive responses include: Product/message thoughts Source-oriented thoughts Ad execution thoughts Use of slide This model can be used to show how cognitive responses to an advertisement mediate outcome reactions such as brand attitudes and attitude toward the advertisement which in turn impact purchase intentions.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.161-162 and Figure 5-10. Summary Overview This slide presents a framework for studying how advertising works that was developed by Vakratsas and Ambler following an extensive review of more than 250 articles and studies of the advertising response process. This framework is as follows: Advertising input – message content, media scheduling, repetition Filters – the message is mediated by factors such as motivation and ability Consumer – intermediate effects between advertising and purchase Cognition – the thinking dimension of a person’s response Affect – the feeling dimension of a person’s response Experience – the feedback dimension based on outcomes of the product purchasing and usage Consumer behavior – consumption, choice, loyalty, habit Use of this slide This chapter has presented the process consumers go through in responding to marketing communications from a number of different perspectives. This slide can be used to explain the framework for studying how advertising works and to summarize the different models. The various communication models provide insight into how consumers may process and respond to persuasive messages and help marketers make better decisions in planning and implementing their IMC programs.

Transcript

  • 1. The Communications Process
  • 2. The Communications Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • 3. The Semiotic Perspective Object Brand such as Marlboro Object Brand such as Marlboro Sign or symbol representing intended meaning (Cowboy) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Three Components to every marketing message Sign or symbol representing intended meaning (Cowboy) Interpretant/ intended meaning (masculine,rugged individualistic)
  • 4. Forms of Personal Communication Vocabulary Grammar Inflection Gesture Facial Expression © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Grammar Vocabulary Inflection Facial Expression Gesture Body Language Verbal Nonverbal
  • 5. Communications Channels Personal Channels Personal Channels © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Nonpersonal Channels Personal Selling Word of Mouth Print Media Broadcast Media
  • 6. Levels of Audience Aggregation Market Segments Market Segments © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Mass Markets Niche Markets Small Groups Individuals Niche Markets Mass Markets Small Groups
  • 7. Models of the Response Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • 8. DAGMAR Defining Advertising goals for measured advertising results. A model for Marketing Communications developed by Colley in 1961. 1) Unawareness of the Product 2) Awareness as a result of Advertising- Customer knows about the brand 3) Comprehension - recognition and understanding of the product 4) Conviction - Firm attitude towards the brand- the development of preference for the brand 5) Action - move towards purchase
  • 9. DAGMAR
    • The effectiveness of the advertising campaign is evaluated by its movement along the spectrum
    • DAGMAR allows for the cumulative impact of the advert.
    • It is rare for a single advert to have the power to move the consumer from Unawareness to Action.
    Unawareness Awareness Comprehension Conviction Action Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Purchase Attention Interest Evaluation Desire Action DAGMAR Lavidge and Steiner AIEDA
  • 10. Cognitive Response A method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of advertising messages by looking at their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or reading communications. Examines types of thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message. Consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message.
  • 11. A Model of Cognitive Response
  • 12. How Advertising Works Advertising Input Message content, media scheduling, repetition Advertising Input Message content, media scheduling, repetition Filters Motivation, ability, (involvement) Consumer Cognition, Affect, Experience Filters Motivation, ability, (involvement) Consumer Cognition, Affect, Experience Consumer Behavior Choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc.