CHAPTER 15 ILO, INDIA, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS. • Established in 1919, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) is one of the important organs of the United Nations System. • Indian is founder member of the ILO and has contributed to the codification of the standards. • ILO provides for tripartite-employers, unions and governments – representation. • In 2004, the ILO has had 175 member countries and it has got three organs namely: 1. The International Labour Conference- the General Assembly of ILO, which meets once a year in the month of June. 2. The Governing Body- the Executive Council of ILO, which meets three times in a year in the month of March, June and November. 3. The International Labour Office- a permanent Secretariat with H.Q. in Geneva and field offices in various continents/regions/countries. • The Conference, assisted by the Governing Body adopts international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations and provides a forum for discussing social, economic and labour related issues.
• The Governing Body of ILO is the executive wing of the organisation. It is also tripartite in character.• The International Labour Office, Geneva provides the Secretariat with all work of ILO and the implemented decisions taken by the Conference, Governing Body etc.• The principal means of action of the ILO are the international labour standards set up in the form of Conventions and Recommendations.• Conventions are international treaties and instruments, which create legally binding obligations on the countries, which ratify them.• The conventions adopted by the ILO constitute the international labour standards.• Their purpose is to maintain certain basic minimum standards, worldwide.• Normally there is no doubt with regard to enforceability of the international labour standard but the controversy is, however, is about the means of their enforcement.• Fundamental differences persist on the subject within and between developed and developing countries.• Governments, employers and trade unions in most countries, however, continue to mistrust the real motives behind such linkage.
ILO DECLARATION ON FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLE AD ITS FOLLOW UP (1998)On 18 June 1998, at its 86th session, the InternationalLabour Conference adopted the Declaration onFundamental Principles: - • Freedom of Association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. • The elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour. In 1999 adopted Immediate Action for the Abolition of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. • The effective abolition of child labour • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.Indian is founder member of ILO. The ILO hasinfluenced India and Indian has influenced ILO.As in most other countries, the legal framework onwages, working conditions, welfare, social security,protection of the vulnerable sections of society, humanresources development, equality, non-discrimination,etc, in India have been significantly influenced by theILO Conventions and Recommendation.Status of Ratification of Core Conventions of ILO inIndia
RATIFIED • Forced Labour (No.29) • Abolition of Forced Labour (NO.105) • Equal remuneration (No.100) • Discrimination (Employment/occupation) ( 111)Not ratified • Freedom Association and Right to organize. (87) • Right to collective bargaining (98) • Minimum Age Convention (138) • Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (182)Employers at international level are opposed to linkingtrade with labour standards while government and tradeunions in developed countries favour the linkage.Governments, unions, employers in several developingcountries including India, have opposed the linkage.Indian has ratified four of the eight core labourstandards and given its reasons for non-ratification ofthe other four.At international level the workers organisations havetaken the stand to oppose any linkage between tradeand labour standards but continue to fight domesticallyfor the improvement of labour standard in the country.