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Brm notes 4

Brm notes 4






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    Brm notes 4 Brm notes 4 Presentation Transcript

    • What is Research Design?
      • A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.
      • Research Design Constitutes Decisions like:
      • What, Where, When, How, How much
    • Need for Research Design:
      • It facilitates the smooth flow of various research processes.
      • It would result in more accurate results with minimum usage of time, effort and money
    • Concepts:
      • Dependent variable:
      • variable is dependent on the result of other variable.
      • Independent Variable:
      • variable that is not dependent on any other variable.
      • Extraneous Variable:
      • are independent variable that are not directly linked, but affect the dependent variable.
    • Concepts: contd…
      • Control:
      • devised to minimize the effects of Extraneous Variables.
      • Confounded Relationship:
      • relationship between dependent and independent variables when affected by extraneous variable.
      • Research Hypothesis:
      • Predicted statement that relates an independent and dependent variable.
    • Concepts: contd…
      • Experimental Hypothesis testing research:
      • Research in which independent variable is manipulated.
      • Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research:
      • Research in which independent variable is not manipulated.
      • Experimental Group:
      • when the group is exposed to some novel or special conditions.
    • Concepts: contd…
      • Control Groups:
      • when the research group is exposed to the usual conditions.
      • Treatments:
      • different conditions under which experimental and control groups are put.
      • Experiment:
      • process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis , relating to some research problem.
    • Different Research Designs:
      • Exploratory
      • Descriptive
      • Diagnostic
      • Experimental
    • Exploratory Design:
      • Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem.
      • Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information.
    • Exploratory Design: Contd…
      • Exploratory research is used in a number of situations:
        • To gain background information
        • To define terms
        • To clarify problems and hypotheses
        • To establish research priorities
    • Exploratory Design: Contd…
      • A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research:
          • Secondary Data Analysis
          • Experience Surveys
          • Case Analysis
          • Focus Groups
    • Descriptive Design:
      • Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why.
      • Two basic classifications:
          • Cross-sectional studies
          • Longitudinal studies
    • Descriptive Design: Contd…
      • Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time.
      • Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population.
      • On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
    • Descriptive Design: Contd
      • Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time.
      • One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame.
      • A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically.
      • On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.
      • Diagnostic research determines the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.
      • Example: studies concerned with specific prediction, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individuals or group or situation.
      • Prof. R.A. Fisher – agricultural research
      • Also called Hypothesis testing Research.
      • These are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables.
    • Basic Principles
      • Principle of Replication:
      • Experiment should be repeated.
      • Each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one.
      • Advantage: Increases accuracy and reliability
      • Disadvantage: difficult to compute.
      • 2. Principle of Randomization:
      • Research should be designed so that the variations caused by extraneous factor can all be combined under the general heading of “Chance”
      • 3. Principle of Local Control:
      • The extraneous variable, the source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over a wide range.
      • Reason: the variability it causes can be measured & eliminated from the experimental error.
    • Important Experimental Designs
    • Informal Experimental Design
      • Before-and-after without control design: = level of phenomenon after the treatment-level of phenomenon before the treatment.
      • After-only with control design: value of dependent variable in the test area-value of dependent variable in the controlled area.
      • Before-and-after with control design: change in dependent variable in the test area-change in dependent variable in the controlled area.
    • Formal Experimental Designs
      • Completely randomized design
      • Randomized block design
      • Latin square design
      • Factorial design
    • Assignment Questions
      • Q.1 Explain the meaning & significance of a research design?
      • Q.2 Short notes on the concepts?
      • Q.3 “Research design in exploratory studies, but in descriptive studies, it must minimize bias and maximize reliability. ” Discuss?