Marvels  of  Migration Judy Walker, President Mecklenburg Audubon May 2007
Imagine <ul><li>12 million birds over Cape Cod </li></ul><ul><li>Running 4-minute miles for 80 hrs.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wal...
What is Migration? <ul><li>The regular movement of a species for a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Birds most visible <...
<ul><li>Observations date back 3,000 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible (Quail in the wilderness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ari...
Typical Migration Cycle <ul><li>3-5 months on the breeding </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 months in migration </li></ul><ul><li>6-7...
Perils of Migration <ul><li>50% of small landbirds don’t make it </li></ul><ul><li>40% of waterfowl don’t return </li></ul...
Advantages <ul><li>Exploitation of temporary opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Less competition for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fo...
Triggers <ul><li>Complicated series of events </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Weat...
Preparation <ul><li>Double their weight  </li></ul><ul><li>Internal adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Sex organs  </li></ul><u...
Types of Migration? <ul><li>Long distance </li></ul><ul><li>Short distance </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>No...
When do Birds Migrate? <ul><li>Day time  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, soaring birds use thermals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
When do Birds Migrate? <ul><li>Night - Smaller birds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air l...
Flight Altitudes
Migration Rates <ul><li>Slower than maximum speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Waterbirds faster than songbirds </li></ul><ul><li>Di...
Migration Rates <ul><li>Songbirds - 20-40 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks, shorebirds, falcons - 40-6 mph </li></ul><ul><li>To...
How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Swallows to San Juan Capistrano </li></ul><ul><li>Hummingbirds to feeders </li></ul><ul><li>...
How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>White-crowned Sparrow </li></ul>
How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Manx Shearwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved from Scotland to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape...
How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Combination of Genetics & Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual...
Influence of Weather <ul><li>Fronts </li></ul>
Influence of Weather <ul><li>Global Patterns </li></ul>
Influence of Topography
Influence of Topography North American Flyways
Obstacles to Migration <ul><li>Storms </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Human cha...
Studying Migration <ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Aural </li></ul><ul><li>Banding/Marking </li></ul><ul><li>...
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Black-throated Blue
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Blackpoll Black & White
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Black-throated Green Blackburian
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Blue-winged Nashville Golden-winged
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Hooded Kentucky
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Canada Magnolia
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Chat Prairie Yellowthroat
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Redstart Northern Parula
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Ovenbird N.   Waterthrush
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Yellow Prothonatary
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Swainson’s Worm-eating
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Cape May Chestnut-sided
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Vireos </li></ul>White-eyed Red-eyed
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Tanagers </li></ul>Scarlet
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Tanagers </li></ul>Summer
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Ruby-throated
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Grosbeaks and Buntings </li></ul>Blue Indigo Rose-breasted
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Orioles </li></ul>Baltimore Orchard
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Flycatchers </li></ul>E. Kingbird Great-creasted
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Thrushes </li></ul>Wood
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Thrushes </li></ul>Veery Swainson’s
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Swallows </li></ul>Barn Cliff
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Swallows </li></ul>Tree
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Chimney Swifts </li></ul>
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Purple Martins </li></ul>
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Nightjars </li></ul>Whip-poor-will Chuck-wills-widow Common Nighthawk
Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Raptors </li></ul>Broad-winged Osprey
Shorebirds <ul><li>Red Knots </li></ul>
Shorebirds Short-billed Dowitcher Spotted Sandpiper
Shorebirds Dunlin Purple Sandpiper Sanderling
Waders <ul><li>Yellow-crowned Night-heron </li></ul>
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Rufous
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Calliope
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Anna’s
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Yellow-rumped
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Palm
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Sparrows </li></ul>Junco White-throated Fox
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Sapsuckers </li></ul>Yellow-bellied
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>Common Loon Coot
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>N. Shoveler Ruddy Duck
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>Green-winged Teal Blue-winged Teal American Wigeon
Winter Migrants <ul><li>Gulls </li></ul>Ring-billed Bonaparte’s
Birds are Always on the Move
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Marvels of Migration

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Transcript of "Marvels of Migration"

  1. 1. Marvels of Migration Judy Walker, President Mecklenburg Audubon May 2007
  2. 2. Imagine <ul><li>12 million birds over Cape Cod </li></ul><ul><li>Running 4-minute miles for 80 hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Walking 2,000 miles in 6 days </li></ul><ul><li>Finding Hawaii without a map </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling your body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Getting 720,000 mpg of gas </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Migration? <ul><li>The regular movement of a species for a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Birds most visible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of the approximately 645 species of North American breeding birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be observed anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As many variations as species </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Observations date back 3,000 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible (Quail in the wilderness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallows hibernate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmutation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fly to the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Hitchhike </li></ul>Early Ideas American Goldfinch Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Ruby-crowned Kinglet Bank Swallow
  5. 5. Typical Migration Cycle <ul><li>3-5 months on the breeding </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 months in migration </li></ul><ul><li>6-7 months on the wintering </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen anytime of the year </li></ul>
  6. 6. Perils of Migration <ul><li>50% of small landbirds don’t make it </li></ul><ul><li>40% of waterfowl don’t return </li></ul><ul><li>High energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to elements </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages <ul><li>Exploitation of temporary opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Less competition for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nest sites </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Triggers <ul><li>Complicated series of events </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Length of day </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preparation <ul><li>Double their weight </li></ul><ul><li>Internal adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Sex organs </li></ul><ul><li>New plumages </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Migration? <ul><li>Long distance </li></ul><ul><li>Short distance </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Nomads </li></ul>
  11. 11. When do Birds Migrate? <ul><li>Day time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, soaring birds use thermals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed on the wing </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. When do Birds Migrate? <ul><li>Night - Smaller birds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air less turbulent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuel during day </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Flight Altitudes
  14. 14. Migration Rates <ul><li>Slower than maximum speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Waterbirds faster than songbirds </li></ul><ul><li>Distance makes a difference </li></ul><ul><li>Direction makes a difference </li></ul><ul><li>Speed increases as they get closer </li></ul><ul><li>Speed increases with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a constant ground speed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Migration Rates <ul><li>Songbirds - 20-40 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks, shorebirds, falcons - 40-6 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Top shorebird speeds over 100 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Songbirds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 30 mile/day at beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200+ miles/day as they approach destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peregrine - 1,350 in 24 hrs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Swallows to San Juan Capistrano </li></ul><ul><li>Hummingbirds to feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Return to same nest </li></ul><ul><li>Homing Pigeons </li></ul>
  17. 17. How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>White-crowned Sparrow </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Manx Shearwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved from Scotland to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Cod </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How Do They Navigate? <ul><li>Combination of Genetics & Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual landmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Compass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stellar Compass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geomagnetism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of Smell </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Influence of Weather <ul><li>Fronts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Influence of Weather <ul><li>Global Patterns </li></ul>
  22. 22. Influence of Topography
  23. 23. Influence of Topography North American Flyways
  24. 24. Obstacles to Migration <ul><li>Storms </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Human changes </li></ul>
  25. 25. Studying Migration <ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Aural </li></ul><ul><li>Banding/Marking </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Tracking </li></ul>
  26. 26. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Black-throated Blue
  27. 27. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Blackpoll Black & White
  28. 28. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Black-throated Green Blackburian
  29. 29. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Blue-winged Nashville Golden-winged
  30. 30. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Hooded Kentucky
  31. 31. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Canada Magnolia
  32. 32. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Chat Prairie Yellowthroat
  33. 33. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Redstart Northern Parula
  34. 34. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Ovenbird N. Waterthrush
  35. 35. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Yellow Prothonatary
  36. 36. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Swainson’s Worm-eating
  37. 37. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Cape May Chestnut-sided
  38. 38. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Vireos </li></ul>White-eyed Red-eyed
  39. 39. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Tanagers </li></ul>Scarlet
  40. 40. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Tanagers </li></ul>Summer
  41. 41. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Ruby-throated
  42. 42. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Grosbeaks and Buntings </li></ul>Blue Indigo Rose-breasted
  43. 43. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Orioles </li></ul>Baltimore Orchard
  44. 44. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Flycatchers </li></ul>E. Kingbird Great-creasted
  45. 45. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Thrushes </li></ul>Wood
  46. 46. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Thrushes </li></ul>Veery Swainson’s
  47. 47. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Swallows </li></ul>Barn Cliff
  48. 48. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Swallows </li></ul>Tree
  49. 49. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Chimney Swifts </li></ul>
  50. 50. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Purple Martins </li></ul>
  51. 51. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Nightjars </li></ul>Whip-poor-will Chuck-wills-widow Common Nighthawk
  52. 52. Neotropic Migrants <ul><li>Raptors </li></ul>Broad-winged Osprey
  53. 53. Shorebirds <ul><li>Red Knots </li></ul>
  54. 54. Shorebirds Short-billed Dowitcher Spotted Sandpiper
  55. 55. Shorebirds Dunlin Purple Sandpiper Sanderling
  56. 56. Waders <ul><li>Yellow-crowned Night-heron </li></ul>
  57. 57. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Rufous
  58. 58. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Calliope
  59. 59. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Hummingbirds </li></ul>Anna’s
  60. 60. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Yellow-rumped
  61. 61. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Warblers </li></ul>Palm
  62. 62. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Sparrows </li></ul>Junco White-throated Fox
  63. 63. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Sapsuckers </li></ul>Yellow-bellied
  64. 64. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>Common Loon Coot
  65. 65. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>N. Shoveler Ruddy Duck
  66. 66. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Waterfowl </li></ul>Green-winged Teal Blue-winged Teal American Wigeon
  67. 67. Winter Migrants <ul><li>Gulls </li></ul>Ring-billed Bonaparte’s
  68. 68. Birds are Always on the Move

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