AGE WISE SUVEY SAMPLINGThe total survey, 518 farmers were covered in the 26-40 years age group, the next placeis 341, >40 years age group. The remaining farmers 153, covered in 10-25 years agegroup.
MALE AND FEMALE SURVEYEDMale 78% (790) & female 22% (222) of the total farmers (1012) were surveyedin the second phase of the project.
CASTE WISE SURVEYCaste Composition:Majority (689) of farmers surveyed inhabiting in Project Area are classified asBackward Castes (BC). Scheduled Castes (SC) constitute the next biggest chunk ofnumber with 217. Other Castes (OCs) is slightly lesser (104) than SCs ScheduledTribes (ST) contribute only 2 of the total surveyed farmers in the Project Area
PERCENTAGE OF LITERACYMost (62%) of farmers are illiterate, 18% of the farmers studied up toprimary, 15% of the farmers studied 6th to 10th of the total surveyed.Remaining 3% is studied Intermediate, 2% studied Degree and less than1% of the total surveyed farmers are studied technical education in theProject Area
LAND PREPARATIONThe 1012 farmers surveyed in second phase of the Project Area having an area of4818 acres, 809 are marginal having an area of 2489 acres, 155 are smallfarmers having an area of 1363 acres and the remaining 48 is big farmers havingan area of 966 acres.
CROP WISE ACREAGE
TENNURE STATUS4818 acres of land was cultivated by 1012 farmers, of the total 4313 acres of theland cultivated by 990 farmers under own and the remaining 505 acres is leaseby 20 farmers of the total surveyed and 139 farmers are cultivating own andlease lands.
FARMING HISTORYFarming History :Among 1011 farmers surveyed, 446 farmers having 10 years experience in farming,315 farmers having 11-20 years experience, 157 farmers having 21-30 yearsexperience, 60 having 31-40 years and 34 farmer having >40 years farming historyrespectively.
ANNUAL INCOME OF FARMERSAnnual Income :The total surveyed, 608 farmers are placed in 5000-15000 annual income group,196 were placed in 15000-30000 group, 71 are in the 30000-45000 group,remaining 66 are in the 45000-60000 group and remaining 71 are place in the>60000 high annual income group.
MEMBERSHIP OF FARMERSMembership in any organization:Only 186 (18%) of the total surveyed have membership in any organization(rythumitra, Panchayat, SHG, caste group etc.,), remaining 826 (82%) farmersno membership in any organization
TRAININGS IN AGRONOMYTrainings in Agronomy :Most of the trainings were given by dealers andpesticide companies in local level, very few training are conducted to thefarmers by agriculture department. These all are need based and organized atvillage level
MEDIA INFORMATIONNow a day’s media is most important tool to access agriculture information,Present access to agriculture information is only through radio, TV, wall paintingsand posters, which hardly influence the decisions of farmers, who are in a hurryto buy new pesticide, fertilizers or sell the farm produce as early as possible,once it is harvested, in absence of storage facilities. The following figures shows,how media influence the farmers decision.
SOURCE OF SEEDSSource of seedThe surveyed farmers are cultivating mainly Ground nut, Cotton, Sunflower, Paddy,Bengal gram, Jowar, Chili, Castor, Azwine and Onion. Majority (479) of the farmersused bought and certified seeds, followed by bought, certified and recycled, for seedpurpose farmers themselves collect good seeds from their fields.
SOURCE OF IRRIGATIONSource of IrrigationRain fed irrigation is entirely depends on Rains. The major crops include Red gram,Sorghum, Groundnut, Cotton and Caster. Under wet land irrigation Paddy, Chillies, Cotton,Ground nut, Sunflower, vegetables and pulses are grown in the area, main source of wetlands is groundwater (bore well and open well) and canal are the secondary source ofirrigation and are seasonal. The below figure shows the number of surveyed farmers havingirrigation facilities
USAGE OF PESTICIDESA number of 30 chemical pesticides produced & marketed by different companies areused to control pest attack in 22 numbers of crops grown by surveyed farmers. Themajority numbers of farmers used are as follows, namely ecolux, endosulphan, astaf,Nuvacron, confider, monochrotopas, Karate, frame, cypermithrin, Rogar, tracer etc.
WHEN AND WHEN DONOT SPRAYFarmers do not spray in the following cases if pest is controlled, against winddirection,afternoon,rainyday,nursery and harvesting stage. It shows they haveknowledge on when not spray
WHILE MIXING AND LOADING OF PESTICIDESAlmost 687 of the farmers are not wearing any cloths and not take any safetymethods while mixing/loading and spraying. 168 farmers are not aware of wearingany cloths while mixing/loading and spraying. 157 farmers are aware and wearmask, glouse, and stick, separate dress while mixing/loading and spraying.
EQUIPMENT MAINTAINANCEWhile spraying, 85% farmers are check for leaks by pouring water,if small leakagethey continue the spraying . 80% of the farmers check the nozzles by draging andblow with mouth. 76% of them were replace rubber seals for both handoperatedand motorised knapsack. For major repaires they went to mechanic shop.
EQUIPMENT WASHED/CLEANED87% of the farmers washed/cleaned the sprayer after every spray, 5% ofthe farmers occasionally washed and remaining 8% of the farmers neverwash the sprayer.
STORAGE OF EQUIPMENTS After washed/ cleaned farmers were followed different storage mechanism, i.e., in house, Elsewhere, separately, locked in store/cup board elsewhere, separately in house, separately locked in store/cupboard in house. Below figure presents the different kind of storages by the farmers.
CONSULTATION OF PESTICIDESThe total surveyed 96% of farmers are depend on dealer for consultation on pesticideusage, a few (2% & 1%) are followed suggestions of shop owners and farmersrespectively. Very less 1% is depend on Agriculture officer. Most of the consultation washappen in pest attack, followed by weekly once, once in month, once in 10 days, once in15 days and when ever needed.
CONSULTATION ON PESTICIDES USES HOW OFTEN100% of the farmers went for consultation with dealer, neighborfarmers and A.O for every pest and disease attack.
AWARENESS ON ADVANTAGESAny type of activity have a positive and negative responses, like that there is advantages anddisadvantages for usage of pesticides. Of the total surveyed 62% of the farmers reported pestcontrol, high growth and more yields are the advantages and 38% of the survey represents thepest control and more yields are the advantages.
AWARENESS ON DISADVANTAGES55% of the farmers reported no disadvantages by using pesticides, 34%reported more expensive and 11% are reported it causes health problems.
STORAGE OF PESTICIDESStorage of pesticides mostly happen in house (87%), locked in store/cupboard (5%),Elsewhere (4%) and In store/box no lock (4%) respectively reported by the farmers.Sometimes place the pesticides openly corner in the house, some time kept in cupboard without lock.
AWARENESS OF PESTICIDES RESIDUESMost of the cases after spray non target organism like Bees, Birds, Cattle, Frogs, Spiders,Fishes, Animals, Snakes and Rats also effect with pesticide poisoning directly or indirectlydue to pesticide residues in crops.
AWARENESS OF RE-ENTRY TIMES AFTER SPRAYING Farmers are aware of re-entry time after spray, 80% of the farmers re-entered to the field next day onwards,15% of re-entered same day, 5% of re-entered after 2,3 days and very few are re-entered after one week. Only few are re-entered after 4 to 5 days after spray.
EMPTY PESTICIDE CONTAINERS15% of the farmers reuse empty containers for household purpose,23% of the farmers are sold the empty containers,55% of the farmers are thrown in to the field,3% of the farmers are buried and 3% of farmers are burned after using the pesticides.
AWARENESS OF POISONING AND TREATMENT96% of the total surveyed is reported awareness on pesticide poison; remaining 4%are reported no aware on pesticide poison. If poisoning happen, farmers treat withfirst aid like giving buttermilk, soapy water and Tamarind soup after that they tookthe victim to the hospital.
AWARENESS OF PESTICIDE LABELSOnly 206(20%) farmers are aware on pesticide labels, remaining are notaware of pesticides labels. These people simply go to shop/dealer andtake what they give, they could not well aware of labels.
POISONING CONSUMED BY PESTICIDES95% of the farmers reported they don’t witness/ affected by poisoning in thefamily/friends, 5% reported while spraying effected by poisoning in thefamily/friends. Pesticide are causes allergy, cold and cough, throat pain, stomachpain, itching, short sight, battling, giddiness, body pains
SOURCE OF INFORMATION975 of the total surveyed are depend on dealer for information of use & handling ofpesticides, only 7 were followed suggestions of agriculture officer and 22 are not depend onany other respectively. Farmers remember type of pest/ disease and suitable pesticides forprevention, preferable dosage of pesticides and Usage of pesticides. At the time ofconsultation.