Traffic congestion
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Traffic congestion Traffic congestion Document Transcript

  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 1 2011 NAME: BIPINVPARAB CLASS: S.Y.BCOM DIV: C ROLL NO: 1370
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 2 2011 INDEX  Contents Page No. Introduction 3. Mathematical theories5. Economic theories 7. Classification 9. Causes 10. In my opinion 11. The Effects of Traffic- Congestion 13. Negative impacts16. Traffic control18. Countermeasures21. References23.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 3 2011 Introduction Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, congestion is incurred. As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 4 2011 Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for space greater than the available road capacity, this is point is commonly termed saturation. There are a number of specific circumstances which cause or aggravate congestion; most of them reduce the capacity of a road at a given point or over a certain length, or increase the number of vehicles required for a given volume of people or goods. About half of U.S. traffic congestion is recurring, and is attributed to sheer weight of traffic; most of the rest is attributed to traffic incidents, road works and weather events. Traffic research still cannot fully predict under which conditions a "traffic jam" (as opposed to heavy, but smoothly flowing traffic) may suddenly occur. It has been found that individual incidents (such as accidents or even a single car braking heavily in a previously smooth flow) may cause ripple effects (a cascading failure) which then spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when, otherwise, normal flow might have continued for some time longer.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 5 2011 Mathematical theories Some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations and real-time observations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events ("butterfly effects"), such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of super cooled fluid.[4] However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is often affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic. Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerner's three phase traffic theory. Because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models. Their working traffic models typically use a combination of macro-, micro- and mesoscopic features, and may add matrix entropy effects, by "platooning" groups of vehicles and by randomising the flow patterns within individual segments of the network. These models are then typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network, and the baseline flows are adjusted accordingly.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 6 2011 It is now claimed that equations can predict these in detail: Phantom jams can form when there is a heavy volume of cars on the road. In that high density of traffic, small disturbances (a driver hitting the brake too hard, or getting too close to another car) can quickly become amplified into a full-blown, self-sustaining traffic jam... A team of MIT mathematicians has developed a model that describes how and under what conditions such jams form, which could help road designers minimize the odds of their formation. The researchers reported their findings May 26 in the online edition of Physical Review E. Key to the new study is the realization that the mathematics of such jams, which the researchers call 'jamitons,' are strikingly similar to the equations that describe detonation waves produced by explosions, says Aslan Kasimov, lecturer in MIT's Department of Mathematics. That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 7 2011 Economic theories India's economic surge has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles on its roads, overwhelming the transport infrastructure. Shown here is a traffic jam in Delhi As in India, China's economic surge has resulted in a massive increase in the number of private vehicles on its roads overwhelming the transport infrastructure. Shown here is a traffic jam in Beijing.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 8 2011 Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons. Because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-use them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, when demand becomes limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can also happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or road works, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels. Economist Anthony Downs, in his books Stuck in Traffic (1992) and Still Stuck in Traffic (2004), argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of the benefits of having a relatively standard work day. In a capitalist economy, goods can be allocated either by pricing (ability to pay) or by queueing (first-come first-serve); congestion is an example of the latter. Instead of the traditional solution of making the "pipe" large enough to accommodate the total demand for peak-hour vehicle travel (a supply-side solution), either by widening roadways or increasing "flow pressure" via automated highway systems, Downs advocates greater use of road pricing to reduce congestion (a demand-side solution, effectively rationing demand), in turn plowing the revenues generated there from into public transportation projects. Road pricing itself is controversial; more information is available in the dedicated article.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 9 2011 Classification Qualitative classification of traffic is often done in the form of a six letter A-F level of service (LOS) scale defined in the Highway Capacity Manual, a US document used (or used as a basis for national guidelines) worldwide. These levels are used by transportation engineers as ashorthand and to describe traffic levels to the lay public. While this system generally uses delay as the basis for its measurements, the particular measurements and statistical methods vary depending on the facility being described. For instance, while the percent time spent following a slower-moving vehicle figures into the LOS for a rural two-lane road, the LOS at an urban intersection incorporates such measurements as the number of drivers forced to wait through more than one signal cycle.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 10 2011 Causes: Sample 1 One of the main causes of congestion is the high number of cars. Because of the emirate’s rapid economic growth, most residents can afford private vehicles. Causes: Sample 2 Another contributing factor is the lack of a public transport infrastructure. The absence of buses, trains, or an underground forces residents to rely on cars or taxis. Causes: Sample 3 The road system is another cause of congestion. Although the roads are highly developed, planners have not been able to keep up with the rapid expansion of the population. Frequent road works also lead to delays.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 11 2011 In my opinion 3 main issues are causing traffic problems in Mumbai, 1. Drivers not following rules and not sufficient action taken against them. 1st e.g. at a signal one lane has a red and drivers slowly moving ahead of the line anticipating a green soon....well i believe cops need to fine them..... 2nd e.g. drivers breaking signals and making a run for it from traffic cops itself......well I think every driver in Mumbai knows doing such a thing is no problem.....is the cop doesn’t have a bike, then even if he takes down our car no. No action is ever taken....well cops need to start sending them fines at home.....like the next day the driver gets a fine at home through mail.....that will probably stop drivers from doing that.... So well Implementation of basic rules like ZEBRA crossing will make a small and noticeable change for Mumbai roads..... (Were u ever fined for not giving way to pedestrians on a Zebra Crossing? Not me)
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 12 2011 2. At a 4 lane intersection every car wants to go first....and this leads to everyone trying to sneak in and ultimately everyone gets stuck... Right Of Way Rule....is the solution I believe this is something i came across in New Zealand.....i guess many other countries implement it....This Implementation will take time but its very effective in the long run Well how this works is simple......if u see a Car on your right....then u have to let him go.....similarly another car will have u its right....and he will have to let u go..... Signs like ''GIVE WAY'' will reduce confusion too.....
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 13 2011 3. Bumps on roads- Many Cars and Rickaws slow down over these Bumps......causing slow movement of Traffic....and ultimately Drivers getting impatient...... Solution would be to provide each Area with a BMC no. to make such complaints.....and Mind You, A working TELEPHONE NO. which actually works......i have wanted to report such complaints several times....but I didn’t have a TELEPHONE NO. and neither did I have time to go looking for the no. So BMC should put up such no's on hoardings instead of putting up politicians promotion hoardings.....
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 14 2011 The Effects of Traffic Congestion For many commuters, daily gridlock is a fact of life.Millions of people deal with traffic congestion on a daily basis. The roadways leading into and out of most major cities can become gridlocked due to an accident, road construction or simply a high number of cars on the road. Traffic congestion can have a number of effects on drivers, the environment, health and the economy. Fortunately, not all of the effects are negative. Pollution One of the most harmful effects of traffic congestion is its impact on the environment. Despite the growing number of hybrid vehicles on the road, cars stopped in traffic still produce a large volume of harmful carbon emissions. Besides contributing to global warming, these emissions can cause more short-term and localized problems, such as smog and increased respiratory problems in a community due to poor air quality. Economic Impact Drivers who encounter unexpected traffic may be late for work or other appointments, causing a loss in productivity for businesses and in the drivers' personal lives. Traffic delays may also slow down the shipping of cargo if delivery trucks can't remain on schedule due to a congested route. Drivers who know that traffic congestion is likely may decide to forgo an activity altogether, leading to less consumer spending and lower event attendance.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 15 2011 Road Rage Drivers who become impatient may be more likely to drive aggressively or dangerously. This contributes to poor health for those affected by the stress and puts other drivers in danger. Road rage also increases the danger posed to emergency workers or construction crew members who are working on the congested road close to dangerous drivers. Encouraging Mass Transit One beneficial effect of traffic congestion is its ability to encourage drivers to consider other transportation options. In cities with frequent traffic congestion, individuals often choose a subway, light rail or bus service. These options reduce traffic on the roads, have less of an environmental impact and reduce the stress associated with driving in heavy traffic.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 16 2011 Negative impacts Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects: Wasting time of motorists and passengers ("opportunity cost"). As a non-productive activity for most people, congestion reduces regional economic health. Delays, which may result in late arrival for employment, meetings, and education, resulting in lost business, disciplinary action or other personal losses. Inability to forecast travel time accurately, leading to drivers allocating more time to travel "just in case", and less time on productive activities.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 17 2011 Wasted fuel increasing air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions owing to increased idling, acceleration and braking. Increased fuel use may also in theory cause a rise in fuel costs. Wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements. Stressed and frustrated motorists, encouraging road rage and reduced health of motorists Emergencies: blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to their destinations where they are urgently needed. Spillover effect from congested main arteries to secondary roads and side streets as alternative routes are attempted ('rat running'), which may affect neighborhood amenity and real estate prices.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 18 2011 Traffic control Road traffic control Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public. Traffic control also includes the use of CCTV and other means of monitoring traffic by local or State roadways authorities to manage traffic flows and providing advice concerning traffic congestion. This is not dealt with in this article. Traffic controllers (TC's) are often known as "lollipop men" (usually this name only applies to TC's working near schools to aid pupils in road crossing) from the appearance of their Stop/Slow signs, known as "Stop bats". [
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 19 2011 Air traffic control (ATC) Is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other support for pilots when able.[1] In some countries, ATC may also play a security or defense role, or be run entirely by the military .Preventing collisions is referred to as separation, which is a term used to prevent aircraft from coming too close to each other by use of lateral, vertical and longitudinal separation minima; many aircraft now have collision avoidance systems installed to act as a backup to ATC observation and instructions. In addition to its primary function, the ATC can provide additional services such as providing information to pilots, weather and navigation information. In many countries, ATC services are provided throughout the majority of airspace, and its services are available to all users (private, military, and commercial). When controllers are responsible for separating some or all aircraft, such airspace is called "controlled airspace" in contrast to "uncontrolled airspace" where aircraft may fly without the use of the air traffic control system. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to follow, or merely flight information (in some countries known as advisories) to assist pilots operating in the airspace. In all cases, however, the pilot in command has final responsibility for the safety of the flight, and may deviate from ATC instructions in an emergency.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 20 2011 Sea traffic control A sea lane or shipping lane is a regularly used route for ocean- going and Great Lakesvessels. In the time of sailing ships they were not only determined by the distribution of land masses but also the prevailing winds, whose discovery was crucial for the success of long voyages. Sea lanes are very important for trade by sea.
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 21 2011 Countermeasures It has been suggested by some commentators[who?] that the level of congestion that society tolerates is a rational (though not necessarily conscious)[citation needed] choice between the costs of improving the transportation system (in infrastructure or management) and the benefits of quicker travel. Others [who?] link it largely to subjective lifestyle choices, differentiating between car-owning and car-free households. Road infrastructure Junction improvements. Grade separation, using bridges (or, less often, tunnels) freeing movements from having to stop for other crossing movements Ramp signaling, 'drip-feeding' merging traffic via traffic signals onto a congested motorway-type roadway Reducing junctions Local-express lanes, providing through lanes that bypass junction on-ramp and off-ramp zones Limited-access road, roads that limit the type and amounts of driveways along their lengths
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 22 2011 Reversible lanes, where certain sections of highway operate in the opposite direction on different times of the day/ days of the week, to match asymmetric demand. This may be controlled by Variable-message signs or by movable physical separation Separate lanes for specific user groups (usually with the goal of higher people throughput with fewer vehicles) Bus lanes as part of a busway system HOV lanes, for vehicles with at least three (sometimes at least two) riders, intended to encourage carpooling Slugging, impromptu carpooling at HOV access points, on a hitchhiking or payment basis Market-based carpooling with pre-negotiated financial incentives for the driver
  • FOUNDATION COURSE II 23 2011 References  www.Google.com  www.Wikipedia.com  www.IBM.com  www.wikipedia.org_traffic_control 2 ------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------