0
k|sf]k      b}jL = cs:dft, crfgs      k|sf]k = w]/} bMv!_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g @)#( -bf];|f] ;+;f]wg, @)$( ;lxt_cg;f/–æb}j...
k|sf]ksf k|sf/x?sf/0fsf cfwf/df(I) k|fs[lts k|sf]k            (II)   dfgj lgld{t   k|sf]kljz]iftfsf cfwf/df k|sf]k(I) ;:t/...
k|sf]ksf          sf/0fx?                  @= dfgjLo sf/0f !=   k|fs[lts sf/0f M                  M                  – clz...
Koshi Flood
Seismic Hazard Map of Nepal                   Source:Munich re, 2001
klx/f]_
klx/f]
klx/f]
hf]lvd         Total Events: 3383                     Magnitudes         M   =   5         M   =   6         M   =   7    ...
cfunflusf] k|sf]k / o;sf]            ;Defjgf                    t/fO{sf hf]l8PsfDofËnªdf cfunflu
cfunflu       tfkq        md      cfunf       luO{G           clS;hwg              g
Death by Natural Disasters (1971-2003) Total death: 24,523
uO/xg] sf/0f      ef}ule{s       l:ylt      e" w/ftn      hgrf;f]sf]       cefj      ag ljgf;
k|sf]kaf6 xg] c;/x? hg wgsf] Iflt cTofjZos ;]jfx?df cj/f]w k"jf{wf/x?sf] Iflt ;/sf/L ;+/rgf k|0ffnLdf  cj/f]w /fli6«o...
Intensity/Impact of Disaster in NepalYear   Dead   Injured   Missing   Affected   Houses    Est. loss                     ...
Direct Losses due to Earthquakes (1970-2003 )Item                       Number Value of direct losses (NR)Total number of ...
Disaster Losses in Nepal                                                     during 1971 – 2006 (37 Years)                ...
The most Ten Hazards in Nepal                                       Ten Most Lethal Hazards in Nepal (1971 - 2005)        ...
Hazard -vt/f_vt/f To:tf] crfgs tyf clt afXo -r/d ;Ldf k|fKt_ dfgjhGo tyfk|s[lthGo 36gf xf] h;sf] lj:tf/tyf km}nfjn] dfghLj...
Vulnerability -;+s6fledv_;+s6fledv       eGgfn]      ;fdflhs;+/rgf,        ef}lts         ljsf;sfk"jf{wf/x?, ;]jf ;ljwfsf ...
Risk -hf]lvd_crfgs jf cfslids ?kdf k|fs[ltsjf dfgjhGo sf/0faf6 sg} 36gf36bf hg Iflt ;dfhdf xG5To;nfO{ hf]lvd elgG5 . af9Ln...
Resources ->f]tx?_;dbfodf /x]sf k|fs[lts jfdfgjlgld{t hltklg ;fj{hlgsk|of]usf j:t, ;]jf, ;fdu|L, ;DkQL5g ltgLx?nfO{ >f]t e...
Capacity -Ifdtf_ ;dbfodf         /x]sf]         cfly{s ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, ;f+:s[lts, k|fljlw s x}l;ot g} Ifdtf xf] . olb o...
k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg rqm                k"j{ ;"rgf   k"j{ tof/L                                k|sf]kGo"lgs/0f                 ...
g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k          Joj:yfkgsf] cj:yf      -;+/rgf, gLlt, ljlw Pj+               dfkb08_! b}jL k|sf]k p4f...
g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k   @= b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;DaGwL        Joj:yfkgsf=====  ;/sf/L ;+/rgf      -b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g ...
g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k             Joj:yfkgsf=====     s]lGb|o b}jL k|sf]k;lrj /fli6«o of]hgf!= u[x dGqL          !@=...
s]lGb|o b}jL k|sf]k p4f/      ;ldltsf sfo{x?M–-s_ ;+s6u|:t If]q 3f]if0ff ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,-v_ ;/sf/ / cGo lgsfoaf6 k|fKt ...
If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k!=If]qLo k|zf;s,p4f/ ;ldlt sfof{no                If]qLo k|zf;g     cWoIf@= g]kfnL ;]gfsf aflxgL klt    ...
lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/               ;ldltM!= ;DalGwt lhNnfsf] k|dv lhNnf clwsf/L           cWoIf@=/fhg}lts bnsf lhNnf :t/...
k|dv sfo{x? tyf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf gLltut Joj:yf  :yfgLo ;ldlt jLr ;dGjo sfod u/fpg],– k|sf]k p4f/ ;DalGw sfo{ ug]{, of]hgf...
p4f/ tyf /fxt ljt/0f–                    dfkb08 M    k|sf]kdf k/L d[To" xg]nfO{ k|lt d[ts ?=@%,))).–-    klRr; xhf/ _–   k...
xof]uf] sfo{of]hgf– - ;g @))%–                          @)!% _ ;+:yfut ;b[9Ls/0fsf!= /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf cg;f/   cf...
%=;a} txdf k|sf]ksf] k|efjsf/L k|ltsf/sf nflu z;Qmk"j{tof/L ug]{ . – k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu If]qLo, /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :t/...
k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L sg} ;Defljt 36gfaf6 ;dbfodf xg ;Sg] IfltnfO{ sd u/fpg jf hf]ufpg, cfkt ljkt kl/ cfPsf] v08df 36gfdf k/]s...
The National Strategy for Disaster Risk     Management in Nepal (NSDRMN)Priority Action 1: Ensure that disaster riskreduct...
k|sf]k k"j{               tof/L=====k"j{tof/L slxn] ug]{ <   k|sf]ksf] k"j{tof/L  t?Gt÷tTsfn              of]hgf  ;dbfosf]...
Go"lgs/0f   k|sf]k jf To;sf] c;/ sd ug]{ tl/sf jf   sfo{ljlwnfO{ Go"lgs/0f elgG5 . IftL   Go"lgs/0f dfgljo k|of;af6 ;+/rgf...
Go"lgs/0fsf         pbfx/0fx?r]s 8ofdsf] lgdf{0f tyf a[Iff/f]k0fk|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds ejg lgdf{0faflngfnLsf] a}slNks Joj:yf ...
k|sf]k            Go"lgs/0fsf k|sf]k jf/] hgr]tgf clea[l4 . jftfj/0fLo pkfox?                k|efj cWoog  u/L k|efj  Go"...
kg:yf{kgf÷kglgdf{0                   fdfgljo k|of; xFbfxFb} klg k|sf]ksf] 36gf lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsb}+g . t;y{7"nf k|sf]ksf 3...
kg:yf{kgf÷kglgdf{0f    o; sfo{df s]–s]  lsg ul/G5 <             ul/G5 <                          ;+s6fledv If]qaf6 ljBdfg ...
p4f/ tyf /fxtk|sf]kdf k/]sf JolQm, kl/jf/ tyf ;dbfonfO{k|sf]ksf] rk]6faf6 ;/lIft tj/n] lgsfNg], tTsfnpkrf/ tyf cGo cfjZos ...
p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{ lsg <  d[To" jf rf]6k6s tyf ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL sd  ug{  k|sf]ksf] c;/ sd kfg{  k|sf]k km}ng glbg  kg:yf{...
:km]o/ kl/of]hgf (Sphere                Project)c+u]|hL zAb Sphere sf] cy{ Globe cyf{t k[YjL xf].:km]o/ Pp6f xft] kl:tsf x...
:km]o/ xft]kl:tsf lsg cfjZos 5               <w]/} nfdf] ;do;Dd u}=;=;= x?n] cfktsflng;xfotf ;DalGw sfo{x?sf] u0f:tl/otf t...
:k]mo/ kl/of]hgfsf nIox? M– ;femf ;xsfo{tfsf] efiff lgdf{0fug{– dfgjtfjfbL bvnnfO{ cem} r:tagfpg– hjfkmb]lxtf tyf kf/blz{t...
a[xQ/ k/fdz{ / xfQ] kl:tsfsf]           lgdf{0fk|f/lDes     xft]kl:tsf    xft]kl:tsfsfk/fdz{ ;g   ;fj{hlgs ;g        ] kgM...
:km]o/ ljsf;sf                    r/0fx?kl:tsfsf] ;+/rgf                  ;du|df xft]                     :km]o/sf]– ljZjJ...
dfgjtfjfbL 3f]if0ffkqsf tLg            k|dv l;4fGtx? ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/– dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff kq– ...
k|sf]ksf] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf]         e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/L– k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt          :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf] k|of]u  JolQmx?sf ...
k|of]ux?–sfo{qmd                rqm   hf]lvd       n]vfhf]v                    fGo"lgs/0f                           ;d:of ...
vfg]kfgL cfk"lQ{ tyf      ;/;kmfO{k|lt AolQm k|ltlbg !% ln6/@%)kfgL ;Ddsf] nflu Ps kfgL:jR5 hgf:f|f]t -k|To]ssjf, Ogf/ ...
;/;kmfO{Ps zf}rfnodf a9Ldf @)hgf;Ddn] k|of]u  ug{ ;Sg],zf}rfnosf] k|of]u k|lt3/ jflnË cg;f/zf}rfno 3/x?af6 %) ld6/  ug]...
;/;kmfO{kmf]xf]/      kmfNg]     7fpF    af;:yfgaf6 !)) ld6/ 6f9f tyf kmf]xf]/ykfg]{ 7fpF af; :yfgaf6 !% ld6/!) kl/jf/sf...
vfBfGg ;fdu|Lsf]   Go"gtd dfkb08@!)) lsnf] Sofnf]/L k|ltAolQm k|lt lbg .!)÷!@ k|ltzt lsnf] Sofnf]/Lk|f]l6gaf6 .!& k|ltz...
;/lIft cfjf;sf] nflu 7fpF 5gf}6sf]          Go"gtd dfkb08 Ps AolQmsf] nflu #=% ju{ ld6/ Go"gtd If]qkmn xgk5{ . 5gf}6 ul/...
3/fo;L ;fdfgsf]         nfluPp6f lasf]{ ePsf] ksfpg] efF8f]8]SrL –!rSs –!8f8 kGo –@kfgL yfKg] ef8f –@kfgL ;~ro ug]{ ...
u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf nflu cfrf/              ;DalGw l;4fGtx?!_ dfgjLo cfjZostf ;j{k|yd cfpF5 .@_     ;xof]u kfpg]x?sf] hft...
k|sf]k, jftfj/0f, ljsf; / logLx?          ljrsf] ;DaGw ljsf;n] k|sf]k Nofpg ;S5 . k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] df}sf lbg ;S5 . ljsf;n...
k|sf]k / ljsf;jLrsf] ;DaGw    ljsf;n]      ljsf;n]    k|sf]knfO{   hf]lvd 36fpg    lgDTofp5 .   d4t u5{ .    k|sf]kn]     ...
k|sf]k Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLdf         j}slNks ;f]rljWodfg l:ylt         a}slNks ;f]rcnu b}jL 36gf         k|fs[lts k|lqmof;flj...
;fdflhs tyf >f]t gS;f cfd e~Hofª    uflj; j8f g+ & 8d|]sgf
vt/f :t/Ls/0f (Hazard                Rankimg)k|sf] af9 klx s6fg 8jf cfun dxfdk     L   /f]       g    fuL f/Laf9L x    af9...
df};dL kfqf] (Seasonal Calendar)               cfde~Hofª uflj;q vt/f      a} h] c >f= Ef c= sf= d+ kf df= k r}m           ...
df};dL kfqf] ( afnL tyf rf8kj{ _q   cGgafnL             cfde~Hofª c= sf= d+ kf df k            a h] cf >f Ef              ...
cfd e~Hofª uflj; sf] ;do /]vf             ljZn]if0fq vt/f ldlt - 36gf ljj/0fm      lj=;+=_=! af9 @)!!     Iflt ljj/0f yfxf...
cfd e~Hofª uflj; sf] ;do /]vf            ljZn]if0f^ af9 @)^)     gf} j6f 3/ aufPsf], %)  L            d/LeGbf a9L wfg / cG...
ultlzntf gS;f (Mobility                                                   Mapping)                                        ...
lgs6tfsf cfwf/df ;xof]uL ;+:yfx?] -             e]g /]vf lrq_                                                     /f8f]   ...
;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{            tof/L CBDP (Community Based Disaster Preparedness);dbfodf cfpg ;Sg] ;Defljt k|sf]kn...
;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k                 k"j{ tof/L lsg ,<!= ;/lIft a:tL tyf jftfj/0f tof/ kfg{@=dfgj hLjg, ;DklQ tyf 3fOt]x...
;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L         s;/L ;+rfng ug]{ < -!_ l:yltsf] cWoog / ljZn]if0f -@_ :yfgLo :t/sf] gS;fÍg -#_ ;...
k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L sfo{qmddf s] s]        sfo{x? ;+rfng ug]{ < -s_ vt/f cK7]/f] jf ;+s6df k/]sf   7fpFx?sf] vf]hL -v_ of]hg...
Coordination -;dGjo_Pp6} If]q / p2]Zodf sfd ug]{;+3;+:yfx?  /    To;;+u   ;DalGwt;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] aLrdf lgoldt?kdf ;Dks{ x...
;dGjo lsg cfjZos 5 < ;"rgf ;+sng tyf cBfjlws  ug{ ;+s6fledv If]q klxrfg ug{ ;dGjosf] tx ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLlt af/]      M ...
Gender Analysis -n}lËs          ljZn]if0f_dlxnf k?if ;dfhsf Ps /ysf bO{ kfªu|f xg .lnËsf cfwf/df ul/g] e]befj ;dfhdf JofKt...
Gender……….dlxnf tyf k?ifx?df km/s vfnsf ;+s6fledvtftyf Ifdtfx? xG5g ;f] af/] hfgsf/L xfl;n ug{h?/L xG5 .dlxnfx?sf jLrdf kl...
Coping strategy: v/c analysis      ;fdgf /0fgLlt M;+s6fledvtf÷Ifdtf ljZn]if0f;fdgf /0fgLlt eg]sf] :yfgLo :t/sf];dbfon] k|s...
;fdgf /0fgLlt=======gsf/fTds ;fdgf /0fgLltn] ulDe/ k|sf/sf];+s6fledvtfnfO{ bzf{p5 . gsf/fTds ;fdgfug]{ /0fgLltn] ;dbfosf] ...
/fli6«o ;Dkbf/fli6«o ;Dkbf leq "%h" jf6 gfdfs/0f xg] >f]tx?xG5g h;nfO ;Gtlnt Joj:yfkg tyf ;+/If0f ug{;s]df dfq jftfj/0fsf]...
lxdfndf ux|f lgdf{0f  u/L ul/Psf] v]tL
;u/dfyf
lxdfnL If]q
g]kfndf kfO{g]uf}/LufO{sf] ;f+9]
k"j{ tof/L  ………
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
Prakop niyantran
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Prakop niyantran

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This is my first download in PowerPoint.This was a class materiel which I got by the teacher who taught us in Jhumka Sunsari.It is very useful for anybody who reads it. Thanks.....

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Transcript of "Prakop niyantran"

  1. 1. k|sf]k b}jL = cs:dft, crfgs k|sf]k = w]/} bMv!_ b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g @)#( -bf];|f] ;+;f]wg, @)$( ;lxt_cg;f/–æb}jL k|sf]k eGgfn]e"sDk, cfunfuL, cf+lwj]/L, af9L, klx/f], cltj[li6, clgsfn, dxfdf/L tyf o:t} cGo k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ ;Demgkb{5 / ;f]zAbn] cf}Bf]uLs b3{6gf, ljikmf]6s jf ljiffQm kbfy{åf/fxg] b3{6gf tyf o:t} sg} klg k|sf/sf] k|sf]knfO{ ;d]thgfpg]5 .Æ@_ cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; tyf /]8 lqm;]06 ;f];fO6Lsf cg;f/–æb}jL k|sf]k eg]sf] o:tf] ljklQk"0f{ kl/l:ytL xf], hgkl/l:ytLdf w]/}h;f] hghLjg cs:dft c:t–Jo:t xg kU5 . o:tf]kl/l:ytLdf dflg;x?n] w]/} bMv kfp+5g / o;sf] kl/0ffd:j?k ;/Iff, vfgf, nufkmf6f], cfjf;, cf}ifwL pkrf/ tyf;fdflhs ;]jf h:tf dfG5]nfO{ hLjgdf geO{ gxg] cGocfjZostfx?sf] k"lt{ ug{ cfjZos xG5 .Æ o; kl/efiffsf cg;f/ M– s_ b}jL k|sf]k eg]sf] ljklQk"0f{ kl/l:ytL xf] . v_ b}jL k|sf]ksf] ;dodf hg–hLjg cs:dft c:t Jo:t xg kU5 . u_ b}jL k|sf]ksf] sf/0faf6 dflg;x?n] bMv kfp+5g .
  2. 2. k|sf]ksf k|sf/x?sf/0fsf cfwf/df(I) k|fs[lts k|sf]k (II) dfgj lgld{t k|sf]kljz]iftfsf cfwf/df k|sf]k(I) ;:t/L pTyfg xg] k|sf]k (II) tLa| pTyfg xg] k|sf]k M–-s_ ef}uf]lns k|sf]k – eO{rfnf], HjfnfdvL-v_ hn pTkGg k|sf]k – af9L÷klx/f], s6fg÷8jfg, lxdkft, c;Lgf, lxdtfn ljikmf]6==-u_ hnjfohGo k|sf]k – x/Latf;, ;db|L cfFwL, r6ofË, lztnx/ tftf] xfjf -n_-3_ h}ljs k|sf]k – aGohGt cfqmd0f, dxfdf/L, ls/fsf] cfqmd0f
  3. 3. k|sf]ksf sf/0fx? @= dfgjLo sf/0f != k|fs[lts sf/0f M M – clzIff – ul/jLs_ ef}uf]lns – hg;+Vof a[l4sf/0f – ca}1flgs e"–v_ ef}ule{s pkof]usf/0f – jg ljgfz tyfu_ dg;gL vf]l/of v]tL –sf/0f clgof]lht lgdf{0f3_ – cf}Bf]lus ljsf;jfod08nLo – s[lqd afFw
  4. 4. Koshi Flood
  5. 5. Seismic Hazard Map of Nepal Source:Munich re, 2001
  6. 6. klx/f]_
  7. 7. klx/f]
  8. 8. klx/f]
  9. 9. hf]lvd Total Events: 3383 Magnitudes M = 5 M = 6 M = 7 M = 8
  10. 10. cfunflusf] k|sf]k / o;sf] ;Defjgf t/fO{sf hf]l8PsfDofËnªdf cfunflu
  11. 11. cfunflu tfkq md cfunf luO{G clS;hwg g
  12. 12. Death by Natural Disasters (1971-2003) Total death: 24,523
  13. 13. uO/xg] sf/0f ef}ule{s l:ylt e" w/ftn hgrf;f]sf] cefj ag ljgf;
  14. 14. k|sf]kaf6 xg] c;/x? hg wgsf] Iflt cTofjZos ;]jfx?df cj/f]w k"jf{wf/x?sf] Iflt ;/sf/L ;+/rgf k|0ffnLdf cj/f]w /fli6«o cly{s Iflt ;fdflhs c;/ dgf]j}1flgs c;/
  15. 15. Intensity/Impact of Disaster in NepalYear Dead Injured Missing Affected Houses Est. loss families destroyed (in million US$)2005 204 30 31 2088 1102 3.82004 192 11 220 16997 4818 4.62003 310 58 160 11730 6819 13.42002 461 21 287 40486 19836 7.12001 418 45 134 16054 6260 7.3Tot 1585 165 832 87355 38835 36.2al >f]t u[x
  16. 16. Direct Losses due to Earthquakes (1970-2003 )Item Number Value of direct losses (NR)Total number of events 22Death 876Injury 6,840Affected 4,539Buildings Damaged 33,706 8,200,838,000Buildings Destroyed 55,234 1,309,606,450Livestock death 2,215 11,075,000Total loss at present value (NR) 9,566,605,507Average loss per year due to earthquake 289,897,136
  17. 17. Disaster Losses in Nepal during 1971 – 2006 (37 Years) Reported DirectS. Peoples Buildings Buildings Land Loss Livestock Events Death Injury Loss (MillionNo. Affected destroyed damaged (Ha) Death NRs) 1 DROUGHT 1 - 1,512 - - 329,332 - 10 2 EARTHQUAKE 873 6,842 4,539 33,710 63 - 2,257 22.8337+50 3 EPIDEMIC 15,529 37,773 323,896 - - 1 78 0 4 FIRE 1,081 735 218,128 62,634 2,762 352 113,922 6,244 5 FLOOD 2,864 349 3,315,781 70,115 1,041 196,955 31,117 3,713 6 FOREST FIRE 24 13 10,178 1,698 18 3,173 82 1,031 7 LANDSLIDE 3,899 1,188 480,069 16,779 1,209 21,797 9,046 8358 OTHER 2,385 2,670 360,725 3,917 388 290,323 79,935 2,030 TOTAL 26,656 49,570 4,715,828 188,875 5,482 841,954 236,459 13,885
  18. 18. The most Ten Hazards in Nepal Ten Most Lethal Hazards in Nepal (1971 - 2005) 16000 Number of Deaths 14000 12000Number of Deaths 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 STRUCT.COLLAPSE THUNDERSTORM BOAT CAPSIZE EARTHQUAKE AVALANCHE COLD WAVE LANDSLIDE EPIDEMIC FLOOD FIRE Events
  19. 19. Hazard -vt/f_vt/f To:tf] crfgs tyf clt afXo -r/d ;Ldf k|fKt_ dfgjhGo tyfk|s[lthGo 36gf xf] h;sf] lj:tf/tyf km}nfjn] dfghLjg, ;DklQ tyfb}lgs hgjLjgdf k|ltsn c;/ kf/Lk|sf]k sf/s tTj aGb5 .vt/f eGgfn] eljiodf cfpg ;Sg];fx|f] ufx|f] / k|sf]ksf] 36gf36g eGbf cufl8sf] cj:yf xf] .o:tf 36gfx?sf] km}nfj6n]eljiodf ;fgf] jf 7"nf] k|sf]k xg
  20. 20. Vulnerability -;+s6fledv_;+s6fledv eGgfn] ;fdflhs;+/rgf, ef}lts ljsf;sfk"jf{wf/x?, ;]jf ;ljwfsf ;fwgx? jfef}uf]lns If]qdf sg} cfslids 36gfsfsf/0f xg ;Sg] cgdflgt IftL jfljgf;sf] dfqfnfO{ alemG5 . hglglZrt vt/fsf] c;/, j:tsf] lgdf{0fk|s[lt vt/foQm If]q / k|sf]k u|:tIf]qsf] lgs6tfn] lgwf{/0f ub{5 .;+s6fledv eGgfn] sg} klg vt/fk"0f{
  21. 21. Risk -hf]lvd_crfgs jf cfslids ?kdf k|fs[ltsjf dfgjhGo sf/0faf6 sg} 36gf36bf hg Iflt ;dfhdf xG5To;nfO{ hf]lvd elgG5 . af9Ln]dflg; aufpg 3/ hUuf hdLg kzIflt xg hf]lvd xf] . hf]lvdnfO{vt/f / ;+s6fledvtfn] lgwf{/0fub{5 . hlt a9L bO{ zlQmsf] d]nxG5 Toltg} dfqf hf]lvd a95 .
  22. 22. Resources ->f]tx?_;dbfodf /x]sf k|fs[lts jfdfgjlgld{t hltklg ;fj{hlgsk|of]usf j:t, ;]jf, ;fdu|L, ;DkQL5g ltgLx?nfO{ >f]t elgG5 . h:t},ljBfno, rp/, wf/f, kf6L, kf}jf,;fj{hlgs ejg, xf6ahf/ :yn, h+unlahnL 6]nLkmf]g cfbL . log}>f]tx?sf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg ug{;lsof] eg] k|sf]k ;+u ;fdgf ug{
  23. 23. Capacity -Ifdtf_ ;dbfodf /x]sf] cfly{s ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, ;f+:s[lts, k|fljlw s x}l;ot g} Ifdtf xf] . olb of] pRr 5 eg] k|sf]k ;+u ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf xG5 5}g eg] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu ljleGg ;/sf/L, :yfgLo lgsfo u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? ;+u ;dGJo u/L Ifdtf clea[l4 ug{ h?/L xG5 . ;dbfodf ePsf dfgljo -bIf / k|fljlws_ cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[tLs - k/Dk/fut_ Ifdtfx?sf] ljZn]if0f ug{kb{5 .cGTodf hf]lvdnfO{ o;/L b]vfpg ;lsG5
  24. 24. k|sf]k Aoj:yfkg rqm k"j{ ;"rgf k"j{ tof/L k|sf]kGo"lgs/0f p2f/ /f]syfd /fxt kg:yf{kg kglg{df{0f
  25. 25. g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] cj:yf -;+/rgf, gLlt, ljlw Pj+ dfkb08_! b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;DaGwL sfddf ;+nUg lgsfox?M u[x dGqfno, b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ljefu If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{no lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no g]kfn k|x/L g]kfnL ;]gf /]8qm; :sfp6
  26. 26. g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k @= b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;DaGwL Joj:yfkgsf===== ;/sf/L ;+/rgf -b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ P]g @)#( cg;f/_
  27. 27. g]kfnsf] ljBdfg b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf===== s]lGb|o b}jL k|sf]k;lrj /fli6«o of]hgf!= u[x dGqL !@= p4f/ ;ldlt cWoIf cfof]u ;b:o@= cfjf; tyf ef}lts of]hgf !#= pk/yL g]kfnL ;]gf dGqfno ;b:o Æ#= :jf:Yo dGqL !$=k|x/L dxflg/LIfs Æ Æ$= ;lrj, cy{ dGqfno !%= k|ltlglw ;dfh Æ sNof0f kl/ifb Æ%= ;lrj /Iff dGqfno !^= k|ltlglw g]kfn Æ /]8qm; ;f];fO{6L Æ^= ;lrj k//fi6« dGqfno !&= k|ltlglw g]kfn Æ :sfp6 Æ&=;lrj u[x dGqfno !*=dxflgb]{zs vfgL tyf Æ eue{ ljefu Æ*= ;lrj hn>f]t dGqfno !(= dxflgb]{zs df};d Æ tyf
  28. 28. s]lGb|o b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltsf sfo{x?M–-s_ ;+s6u|:t If]q 3f]if0ff ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,-v_ ;/sf/ / cGo lgsfoaf6 k|fKt /fxt Pj+ p4f/ ;fdfu|L ;+sng tyf ;+s6 u|:t If]qdf k7fpg] .-u_ k|sf]k ;DaGwdf ljleGg ;+:yfx?nfO{ kl/rflnt Pj+ ;dGjo
  29. 29. If]qLo b}jL k|sf]k!=If]qLo k|zf;s,p4f/ ;ldlt sfof{no If]qLo k|zf;g cWoIf@= g]kfnL ;]gfsf aflxgL klt ;b:o#= If]qLo k|x/L sfof{nosf] k|dv Æ$=z;:q k|x/L If]qLo sfof{nosf] k|dv Æ%= If]qLo :jf:Yo lgb]{zgfnosf] k|dv Æ^= If]qLo ;8s lgb]{zgfnosf] k|dv Æ&= If]qLo l;+rfO{ lgb]{zgfnosf] k|dv Æ
  30. 30. lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldltM!= ;DalGwt lhNnfsf] k|dv lhNnf clwsf/L cWoIf@=/fhg}lts bnsf lhNnf :t/Lo k|ltlglwx? ;b:o#= g]kfnL ;]gf :yfgLo OsfOsf k|dv Æ$= lhNnf k|x/L sfof{nosf k|dv Æ%=lhNnf :jf:Yo sfof{no k|dv Æ^= OlGhlgo/, lhNnf k|fljlws sfof{no Æ&= OlGhlgo/, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO l8eLhg Æ*= k|ltlglw, g]kfn /]8qm; ;f];fO6L, lhNnf zfvf Æ(= k|dv, l;rfO{ sfof{no
  31. 31. k|dv sfo{x? tyf k|sf]k–Joj:yfkgdf gLltut Joj:yf :yfgLo ;ldlt jLr ;dGjo sfod u/fpg],– k|sf]k p4f/ ;DalGw sfo{ ug]{, of]hgf agfpg],– :yfgLo ;ldltx?af6 ePsf sfd sf/jfxLsf] /]vb]v ug]{ . b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf gLltut Joj:yf M–– xfd|f] b]z ljZjdf e"sDksf] lx;fan] !! cf}+ / af9L klx/f]sf] lx;fan] #) cf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 .– ;/sf/L Pj+ u}/;/sf/L lgsfo jLr ;dGjo u/L sfo{ ;+rfng ug]{ gLlt lnOPsf] 5 .– /0fgLltx?M– -sfo{of]hgf_ -s_ k|sf]k k|efljt If]qdf p4f/ ;xfotf ug{, -v_ hgwgsf] ;+/If0f u/L Iflt Go"g ug{, -u_ kLl8tsf] kgjf{;sf] Joj:yf ug{, -3_ k|sf]k lgoGq0f ug{, ;xfotf h6fpg / ;DalGwt If]qdf ljt/0f ug{, -ª_ hg r]tgf clea[l4 u/fpg, -r_ kg:yf{kgf / kglgdf{0f ;|f]t h6fpg, -5_ tNnf] tx;Dd k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf], tflndsf] Joj:yf ug{, -h_ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg Ifdtf a[l4 ug{, -em_ ;d"x lgdf{0f u/L /fxtsf] sfo{df ;xof]u ug{, -`_ ;Da4 lgsfo ;+u ;dGjo ug{, -6_ Ifltsf] cf+sng, ;+sng u/ ljZn]if0f u/L ;"rgf k|jfx ug{,
  32. 32. p4f/ tyf /fxt ljt/0f– dfkb08 M k|sf]kdf k/L d[To" xg]nfO{ k|lt d[ts ?=@%,))).–- klRr; xhf/ _– k|sf]kaf6 3/ gi6 ePsf, vfBfGg jfnL tyf hUuf hdLg ;d]t gf]S;fg eO{ tTsfn uhf/fsf nflu vfBfGg ;d]t gePsf] jf bj} cj:yfsf kLl8t kl/jf/nfO{ tTsfn cfjZos Joj:yfsf nflu ?=%))).– ;Dd k|lt kl/jf/nfO{ /fxt pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] .– k|sf]kaf6 3/ k"0f{ gi6 ePsf jf k"0f{ gi6 gePklg ;+efljt vt/faf6 hf]ulg cGoq ;g{kg]{ cj:yfdf ?=!)))).– ;Dd k|lt kl/jf/nfO{ pknAw u/fpg] .– ljz]if kl/l:ytL k/]df lhNnfsf] cg/f]wdf s]Gb|af6 ?=!%))).– ;Dd k|lt kl/jf/nfO{ pknAw u/fOg] .– k|sf]kdf k/L 3fOg] ePsfx?nfO{ lhNnf b}jL k|sf]k p4f/ ;ldlt dfkm{t ;/sf/L c:ktfndf pkrf/ u/fpFbf nfu]sf] vr{ eQmfgL ul/lbg] / 3/ hfg cfly{s ;xof]u :j?k JolQm ?= !))).– lbg] .– k|sf]k kLl8tx?nfO{ kg:yf{kgf tyf kglgdf{0f sf] nflu krlnt gLlt adf]lhd jg dGqfno cGtu{t tf]lsPsf] lgosfn] ;xlnot b/df sf7 pknAw u/fpg] .
  33. 33. xof]uf] sfo{of]hgf– - ;g @))%– @)!% _ ;+:yfut ;b[9Ls/0fsf!= /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf cg;f/ cfwf/df k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ;~rfng ePsf] ;lglZrt ug]{ . – ;+:yfut ;b[9Ls/0fsf nflu /fli6«o 9fFrf, ;+:yfut 9fFrf tyf sfg"gL vfsf, ;|f]tsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg / ;fdbflos ;xeflutfnfO{ z;Qm agfpg] .@= k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd klxrfg, dNofs+g / cgudg ug]{ tyf k"j{r]tfjgL k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] . – :yfgLo, If]qLo / /fli6«o txsf] hf]lvd klxrfg, d"Nofs+g / cgudg ug]{, k"j{r]tfjgL k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ / ;Defljt hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ .#= 1fg, vf]h / lzIffsf] pkof]u u/]/ ;a} txdf ;/IffTds ;+:s[tL / k|sf]k ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{ . – :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ;"rgf Joj:yfkg tyf cfbfg– k|bfg, lzIff tyf tflnd / cg;Gwfg;lxt hgr]tgf clea[l4 u/]/ ;a} txdf ;/IffTds ;+:s[tLsf] ljsf; tyf k|sf]k–;fdgf
  34. 34. %=;a} txdf k|sf]ksf] k|efjsf/L k|ltsf/sf nflu z;Qmk"j{tof/L ug]{ . – k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu If]qLo, /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo :t/df;DalGwt k|ljlw, tflnd Pjd dfgj tyf ef}lts ;+;f]wg ljsf;u/L gLltut, k|fljlws tyf ;+:yfut Ifdtf z;Qm agfpg] . – k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f k|of; k|efjsf/L agfpg]p2]Zon] k"j{r]tfjgL, hf]lvd Go"gs/0f, k|sf]k–;fdgf /ljsf;sf If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ;j} txsf ;+:yf / lgsfoaLrsf]5nkmn, ;"rgf cfbg–k|bfg / ;dGjodf ;xof]u k¥ofpg] Pjdclea[l4 ug]{ .– /fi6«sf] k|sf]k–;fdgf ug]{ IfdtfnfO{ k|sf]kn] pl5Gg]cj:yfdf klg To;sf] k|efjsf/L ;Daf]wg ePsf] ;lglZrt ug]{tof/Lsf nflu If]qLo:t/df ;dGjofTds kxnsf] ljsf; Pjd;b[9Ls/0f, If]qLo gLltlgdf{0f jf ;wf/ u/]/sfo{;+oGq, of]hgf tyf ;"rgfk|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{ .– k|sf]ksf] clthf]lvdsf If]q / ;d"xnfO{ b[i6Lut u/L ;a} txdfkj{tof/L jf k"g/fjnf]sg / ;do;fk]If kl/dfh{g u/L pkoQmof]hgf tyf gLlt agfpg] . k|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf tLj| / k|efjsf/L;Daf]wg ePsf] tyf :yfgLo cfjZostf cg?k plrt 9+un] vfB tyf
  35. 35. k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L sg} ;Defljt 36gfaf6 ;dbfodf xg ;Sg] IfltnfO{ sd u/fpg jf hf]ufpg, cfkt ljkt kl/ cfPsf] v08df 36gfdf k/]sfx?nfO[ p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{ ;/n / ;j}sf] kxFr xg] agfpg, ;dbfosf] >f]t ;+/If0f, bIftf clej[l4 / k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L tof/Lsf ;fy /xg g} k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L xf] .k"j{tof/L lsg cfjZos 5 < tTsfn k|efjsf/L p4f/ /fxt sfo{ kl/rfng u/fpg . k|sf]ksf] nuQ} >f]t ;fwgsf] ;kl/rfng .
  36. 36. The National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal (NSDRMN)Priority Action 1: Ensure that disaster riskreduction is a national and local priority with a stronginstitutional basis for implementationPriority Action 2: Identify, assess and monitordisaster risks and enhance early warningPriority Action 3: Better knowledge managementfor building a culture of safetyPriority Action 4: Reducing the underlying riskfactorsPriority Action 5: Enhance preparedness foreffective response
  37. 37. k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L=====k"j{tof/L slxn] ug]{ < k|sf]ksf] k"j{tof/L t?Gt÷tTsfn of]hgf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfdf r]tfjgL k|0ffnL÷k"j{ cfhaf6 . ;rgf k|0ffnL ;+efljt k|sf]k xg :yfgfGt/0f of]hgf cufj} . p4f/ tyf /fxtk"j{tof/Lsf] k|lqmof Joj:yfkg of]hgf cj:yfsf] cWoog / ;dofjlws cEof; ljZn]if0f >f]t Joj:yfkg of]hgf tYofÍ tyf ;rgf ;;+of]hg k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ljleGg txdf ;+:yfut vt/f hf]lvd ljsf; ;+s6fledvtf klxrfg r]tgf tyf tT;DaGwL vt/f hf]lvd jsfnt
  38. 38. Go"lgs/0f k|sf]k jf To;sf] c;/ sd ug]{ tl/sf jf sfo{ljlwnfO{ Go"lgs/0f elgG5 . IftL Go"lgs/0f dfgljo k|of;af6 ;+/rgfTds sfo{ åf/f tyf ;/sf/L gLlt kl/jt{g u/]/ ug{ ;lsG5 . IftL Go"lgs/0f bO{ k|sf/af6 ug{ ;lsG5 .-s_ ;+/rgfTds sfo{ jf ;fdbflos k|of;åf/f-v_ ;/sf/L gLlt kl/jt{g u/]/, gofF gLlt nfu u/]/ / ePsf gLltlgod nfu u/]/Go"lgs/0fsf] k|lqmof vt/f, hf]lvd ;+s6fledv klxrfg n]vfhf]vf / gS;fÍg /f]syfd tyf Go"gLs/0fsf pkfox?sf] canDag k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds lgdf{0f k|lalwsf] ;bkof]u ;r]tgf tyf tT;DalGw jsfnt
  39. 39. Go"lgs/0fsf pbfx/0fx?r]s 8ofdsf] lgdf{0f tyf a[Iff/f]k0fk|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds ejg lgdf{0faflngfnLsf] a}slNks Joj:yf ug{;/sf/L P]g lgod÷ljlgod nfu ug{e"–pkof]u of]hgflgdf{0f cfrf/ ;+lxtf÷lgb]{lzsf
  40. 40. k|sf]k Go"lgs/0fsf k|sf]k jf/] hgr]tgf clea[l4 . jftfj/0fLo pkfox? k|efj cWoog u/L k|efj Go"lgs/0f pkfo ;lxt k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f . e" tyf hnfwf/ ;+/If0f sfo{qmd ;~rfng . ag tyf h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0f . vf]l/of km8fgL tyf le/fnf] hldgdf v]lt ug]{ k|0ffnLsf] lgoGq0f . r/] lzjflns If]qsf] ;+/If0f cfjlws of]hgf lgdf{0f u/L sfof{Gjogdf n}hfg] . lhNnf b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Ddsf] k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L ;~hfn lgdf{0f tyf ;~rfng .
  41. 41. kg:yf{kgf÷kglgdf{0 fdfgljo k|of; xFbfxFb} klg k|sf]ksf] 36gf lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsb}+g . t;y{7"nf k|sf]ksf 36gfsf sf/0f dfgj ;dbfo lj:yflkt xg ;Sb5 o;/L lj:yflkt ePsf kl/jf/sf] plrt :yfg x]/L tTsfn c:yfoL a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ldnfpgnfO{ kg:yf{kgf elgG5 .cfktsflng l:ylt ;fdfGo gxFbf ;Ddsf] ;+qmd0fsflng cj:yfdf k|sf]ksf] sf/0f lj:yflktx?nfO{ c:yfoL a;f]af; u/fpg] sfo{ kg:yf{kgf xf] .kgM klxn]s} cj:yfdf lj:yflktx?nfO{ Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{nfO{ kglgdf{0f
  42. 42. kg:yf{kgf÷kglgdf{0f o; sfo{df s]–s] lsg ul/G5 < ul/G5 < ;+s6fledv If]qaf6 ljBdfg ;+s6af6 aRg ;/lIft :yfgdf wg hgsf] ;/Iff ug{ . :yfgfGt/0f cGo k|sf]ksf] k"jf{wf/ ;]jf ;ljwf / /f]syfd ug{ . ;/lIft a;f]af;sf] ljsf; kg:yf{kg l;lj/df kLl8tx?nfO{ Go"gtd ePsfx?sf] gfdfjnL tyf cfjZos k"jf{wf/ cGo ;"rgf ;+sng ;]jf k|bfg ug{ . cfjZos ;fdu|Lsf] nfut kLl8t If]q leqsf rn lgwf{/0f crn ;DklQ psf:g . cfjZos ;fdu|L pknAw a;f]af;, lhljsf]kfh{ xg ;Sg] lgs6:y >f]t klxrfg g tyf k|sf]kaf6
  43. 43. p4f/ tyf /fxtk|sf]kdf k/]sf JolQm, kl/jf/ tyf ;dbfonfO{k|sf]ksf] rk]6faf6 ;/lIft tj/n] lgsfNg], tTsfnpkrf/ tyf cGo cfjZos ;xof]u ug]{ sfo{nfO{p4f/ tyf /fxt elgG5 .p4f/ sfo{ k|sf]k kl/x]sf] a]nfdf, s]xL ;dok5f8L k|sf]kdf k/]sfnfO{ arfpg / cfjZostfcg;f/ cf}ifwL pkrf/ tyf a]kQf ePsfsf] vf]hLug]{ sfo{ kb{5 eg] /fxt k|sf]ksf sf/0fhgwgsf] IftL eO{ ;Dk"0f{ nufkmf6f vfg] cGgtyf cGo ;DklQ udfPsfx?nfO{ tTsfnvfgf, nufkmf6f], kfgL, cfjf;sf] Joj:yf ldnfpgul/g] ;xof]usf] sfo{qmd xf] .cfslids ;xof]u sfo{ ug{sf] nflu ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf]
  44. 44. p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{ lsg < d[To" jf rf]6k6s tyf ;DklQsf] gf]S;fgL sd ug{ k|sf]ksf] c;/ sd kfg{ k|sf]k km}ng glbg kg:yf{kg÷kglgdf{0fsf nflu cfjZos tYofÍp4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{df s]–s] ul/G5 < ;Ísng ug{ . k|sf]ksf] 36gfdf k/]sfnfO{ tTsfn p4f/ . k|fylds pkrf/ tyf 3fO{t]x?sf] jlu{s/0f . kLl8tx?nfO{ :jf:Yo rf}sL÷c:ktfn rnfg . hg wgsf] ;/Iff . ue{jtL÷afnaflnsf÷a[4 tyf czQmx?sf] ljz]if ;/Iff . ljIff]e ;dg . /fxt ;fdu|L cfklt{ tyf ljt/0f . kg:yf{kgf lzjL/ :yfkgf tyf ;+rfng======p4f/÷/fxtdf c;/ kfg]{ tTjx?
  45. 45. :km]o/ kl/of]hgf (Sphere Project)c+u]|hL zAb Sphere sf] cy{ Globe cyf{t k[YjL xf].:km]o/ Pp6f xft] kl:tsf xf] h;n] k|sf]k jfåGåsf sf/0f k|efljt ePsf ;dbfosf lglDt;xof]u ug]{ cG/f{li6«o dfkb08 tof/ u/]sf] 5 .of] Pp6f dfgjtfjfbL 3f]if0ffkq xf] ;fy} o;n];xfotf ug{ kg]{ kf+rj6f k|dv If]q lgwf{/0fu/L ;xfotf k|bfg ubf{ ckgfOg kg]{ Go"gtd:t/sf] klxrfg ;d]t u/]sf] 5 .:km]o/ bO{ k|dv ljZjf;df cfwfl/t 5 M -s_ k|sf]k tyf åGåaf6 pTkGg dfgjLokL8fnfO{ lgjf/0f ug{ x/;Dej kfOnfx?rflngk5{ . -v_ k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t JolQmx?nfO{ ;;Ddfgaf+Rg] clwsf/ ePsf]n] ;f] ;DalGw ;xof]u k|fKt
  46. 46. :km]o/ xft]kl:tsf lsg cfjZos 5 <w]/} nfdf] ;do;Dd u}=;=;= x?n] cfktsflng;xfotf ;DalGw sfo{x?sf] u0f:tl/otf tyfhjfkmb]lxtf af/]df rf;f] lnO{/x]sflyP .u}=;=;= x?n] P]ltxfl;s k|of]ux? dfqkof{Kt 5}g eGg] dx;; u/] . – k|sf]ksf] hl6ntfdf a[l4 – k|sf]ksf] 36gfx?sf] ;+Vofdf a[l4 – dfgjtfjfbL ;dbfosf] k|s[ltdf kl/jt{g – ;kmntfsf leGg dfkb08x? ePsf;/f]sf/jfnf ;d"xx?sf] a[l4?jfG8fsf] ;g !(($ sf] ;+s6
  47. 47. :k]mo/ kl/of]hgfsf nIox? M– ;femf ;xsfo{tfsf] efiff lgdf{0fug{– dfgjtfjfbL bvnnfO{ cem} r:tagfpg– hjfkmb]lxtf tyf kf/blz{tfdf;wf/ Nofpg– sfo{qmdsf] u0f:t/df ;wf/Nofpg
  48. 48. a[xQ/ k/fdz{ / xfQ] kl:tsfsf] lgdf{0fk|f/lDes xft]kl:tsf xft]kl:tsfsfk/fdz{ ;g ;fj{hlgs ;g ] kgM !((& @))) ;+:s/0f ;g @))$$,)))+ ;+;f/ el/sfdflg;x? *) eGbf $)) w]/} b]zx? ;+:yfx?
  49. 49. :km]o/ ljsf;sf r/0fx?kl:tsfsf] ;+/rgf ;du|df xft] :km]o/sf]– ljZjJofkL kl/ro dfgjtfjfbL ;xfotf 3f]if0ffkq ;j} If]qsf nflu ;femf k|To]s ;DalGw ax; dfkb08x? cWofo;+u ug]{ kfgL cfk"lt{, ;/;kmfO tyf ;dfj]z ePsf /– d"n l;4fGt :jf:Yo k|a4{g ;+u} vfB ;/Iff, kf]if0f tyf tyf s[ofsnfk aemgkg]{ vfB ;xof]u ;DalGw cf>o a;f]af; tyf cvfB s/fx? ;Demf}tf ;fdu|Lx? Go"gtd ug{ :jf:Yo ;]jfx? dfkb08– of] ;femf cfrf/ k|dv k|fljlws ;+lxtf cg;"rLx? ;rsf+sx? dfkb08 tyf lgb]{zs ;"rsx?df cgqmdl0f a+bfx?
  50. 50. dfgjtfjfbL 3f]if0ffkqsf tLg k|dv l;4fGtx? ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/– dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff kq– gful/s, /fhg}lts, cfly{s tyf ;dflhs ;Demf}tfx?– h]gef dxf;lGw– oftgf lj?4sf] dxf;lGw– afn clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;lGw  n8fs tyf u}/n8fs lar leGgtf – h]gef dxf;lGw – afn clwsf/ ;DalGw dxf;lGw  kgM :jb]z gkmsf{pg] l;4fGt – z/0ffyL{x?sf] l:ylt ;DalGw dxf;lGw – oftgf lj?4sf] dxf;lGw
  51. 51. k|sf]ksf] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/L– k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt :km]o/ kl/of]hgfsf] k|of]u JolQmx?sf cfwf/e"t hgjsfntnfO{ dhjt kfg{ cfjZostfx? ltgsf sfo{bIftfsf] dfkg ug{ cfkmg} k|of;af6 k"/f plrt ?kdf >f]tx?sf] ug{ sf]lz; ug{k5{ . k|of]u ug{– hgtfsf] Ifdtfn] ;d:of ;dGjonfO{ b/f] agfpg ;dfwfg ug{ ;Sb}g eg] @) eGbf al9 efiffx?df ltgnfO{ ;xof]u k¥ofpg k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 . /fHon] k|dv e"ldsf v]Nb} lhDd]jf/L tflnd kf7oqmdsf] lngkb{5 . af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpg– k|efljt JolQmx? ;xeflutfnfO{ a9fjf lbg a}wflgs ?kdf ;+/If0f / sfg"g tyf gLltlgodx?sf] ;xof]u kfpg of]Uo 5g . d"NofÍsg ug{ /fHo tyf o4/t kIfx? of]
  52. 52. k|of]ux?–sfo{qmd rqm hf]lvd n]vfhf]v fGo"lgs/0f ;d:of d"NofÍ ljZn]if0f g sfo{qmdsk|efj f] of]hgfcgudg sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjo
  53. 53. vfg]kfgL cfk"lQ{ tyf ;/;kmfO{k|lt AolQm k|ltlbg !% ln6/@%)kfgL ;Ddsf] nflu Ps kfgL:jR5 hgf:f|f]t -k|To]ssjf, Ogf/ cflb_ :f|f]t wf/f, 3/af6 kfgLsf] .ePsf] 7fpF %)) ld6/ eGbf 6f9f xgxb}g, jfk|To]s kfgL eg]{ wf/fkfgLsf] ;|f]tdf slDtdf klg)=!@% ln6/ k|lt;]s]08 kfgLsf]k|jfx xgkb{5 .
  54. 54. ;/;kmfO{Ps zf}rfnodf a9Ldf @)hgf;Ddn] k|of]u ug{ ;Sg],zf}rfnosf] k|of]u k|lt3/ jflnË cg;f/zf}rfno 3/x?af6 %) ld6/ ug]{,6f9f jf lxF8]/ hfFbf ! ldg]6sf] b/Ldf ahf/ tyf ;fj{hlgs :yfgx?dfxgkg]{ . k?if tyf dlxnf zf}rfnosf] Joj:yf xgkg]{ .
  55. 55. ;/;kmfO{kmf]xf]/ kmfNg] 7fpF af;:yfgaf6 !)) ld6/ 6f9f tyf kmf]xf]/ykfg]{ 7fpF af; :yfgaf6 !% ld6/!) kl/jf/sf]. nflu !)) ln6/ Ifdtf6f9f xgkg]{ePsf] sG6]g/sf] Joj:yf xgkg]{ .9n lgsf;sf] nflu yf]/} le/fnf]7fpF xgkg]{ .a:tL kmf]xf]/ kfgL hDg]k|sf/sf] xg gxg] .vfg]kfgLsf] >f]t af9L k:g]vfnsf] xg gxg] .
  56. 56. vfBfGg ;fdu|Lsf] Go"gtd dfkb08@!)) lsnf] Sofnf]/L k|ltAolQm k|lt lbg .!)÷!@ k|ltzt lsnf] Sofnf]/Lk|f]l6gaf6 .!& k|ltzt lsnf] Sofnf]/Lˆof6af6 . afFsL tfhf vfBfGgaf6 .
  57. 57. ;/lIft cfjf;sf] nflu 7fpF 5gf}6sf] Go"gtd dfkb08 Ps AolQmsf] nflu #=% ju{ ld6/ Go"gtd If]qkmn xgk5{ . 5gf}6 ul/Psf] 7fpFdf :jR5 xfjf tyf xfjf jf/kf/ ug{ ;Sg]udL{ 7fpF tyf. hf8f] 7fpFsf] nflu Joj:yf xgk5{:jf:Yodf k|ltsn c;/ gkg]{ u/L ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u u/Lcfjfzsf] Joj:yf a:tL a;fpg] 7fpF ;8s eGbf % xgk5{ . lsnf]ld6/ 6f9f xgxb}g / k|;:t vfnL 7fpF ePsf] xgk5{ .
  58. 58. 3/fo;L ;fdfgsf] nfluPp6f lasf]{ ePsf] ksfpg] efF8f]8]SrL –!rSs –!8f8 kGo –@kfgL yfKg] ef8f –@kfgL ;~ro ug]{ ef8f–!Ps AolQmsf] nflu Pp6f durDrL –!k|lt dlxgf @%) u|fd ;fag
  59. 59. u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf nflu cfrf/ ;DalGw l;4fGtx?!_ dfgjLo cfjZostf ;j{k|yd cfpF5 .@_ ;xof]u kfpg]x?sf] hftL, wd{ jf /fli6«otf ;DalGw sg} e]befj gu/L / cGo sg} lje]b gu/L ;xof]u k|bfg ul/g]5 . ;xof]u ;DalGw k|fyldstf cfjZostfsf] cfwf/df dfq lgwf{/0f ul/G5 .#_ ;xof]usf] k|of]u sg} vf; /fhgLlts jf wfld{s ljZjf;nfO{ ;Da4{g ug{ elg ul/g] 5}g .$_ xfdL ;/sf/sf] j}b]lzs gLltsf] gLltsf] ;fwgsf] ?kdf sfd gug]{ k|of; ug]{5f}+ .%_ xfdL ;+:s[tL tyf ;+:sf/sf] ;Ddfg ug]{5f}+ .^_xfdL :yfgLo Ifdtfsf cfwf/df ;+s6 ;DalGw sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug]{ k|of; ug]{5f}+ .&_ /fxt ;xof]usf] Joj:yfkgdf sfo{qmdaf6 nfe p7fpg]x?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] pkfox? vf]hL ul/g]5 .*_ /fxt ;xof]un] k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg xg] efjL vt/fnfO{ sd ug{sf ;fy} cfwf/e"t cfjZostfx? k/f ug]{ k|of; ug{k5{ .
  60. 60. k|sf]k, jftfj/0f, ljsf; / logLx? ljrsf] ;DaGw ljsf;n] k|sf]k Nofpg ;S5 . k|sf]kn] ljsf;sf] df}sf lbg ;S5 . ljsf;n] ;+s6fledvdf a[l4 u5{ . ljsf;n] ;+s6fledvdf sdL klg NofpF5 . jftfj/0f cg[snsf] ljsf; lbuf] xG5 . ljWodfg vt/f, hf]lvd tyf ;+s6fledvtf n]vf hf]vf u/L k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds k|ljlw ;d]6LPsf] ljsf;g} lbuf] xG5 .
  61. 61. k|sf]k / ljsf;jLrsf] ;DaGw ljsf;n] ljsf;n] k|sf]knfO{ hf]lvd 36fpg lgDTofp5 . d4t u5{ . k|sf]kn] k|sf]kn] ljsf;nfO{ ljsf;sf nflu k5f8L cj;/ k|bfg ws]N5 ub{5 .
  62. 62. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLdf j}slNks ;f]rljWodfg l:ylt a}slNks ;f]rcnu b}jL 36gf k|fs[lts k|lqmof;fljssf] l:ytL ;fljssf] l:ytLdfjxfnLsf nflu k|sf]k Rff}tkmL{ ;wf/sf]lk8Ltsf] p2f/ ;+efjgf jf df}sfljWodfg vt/f, ljWodfg vt/f,hf]lvd, hf]lvdfx?sf];+s6fledvtfx?sf] n]vfhf]vfa]jf:tf
  63. 63. ;fdflhs tyf >f]t gS;f cfd e~Hofª uflj; j8f g+ & 8d|]sgf
  64. 64. vt/f :t/Ls/0f (Hazard Rankimg)k|sf] af9 klx s6fg 8jf cfun dxfdk L /f] g fuL f/Laf9L x af9L af9L af9L af9L af9Lklx/f x x s6fg klx cfun klx/] /f] fuL f]s6fg x x x s6fg s6fg s6fg8jfg x x x x 8jfg dxfd f/Lcfunf x x x x x dxfd
  65. 65. df};dL kfqf] (Seasonal Calendar) cfde~Hofª uflj;q vt/f a} h] c >f= Ef c= sf= d+ kf df= k r}m = = f= = = }= m ==;+ f=! af9L@ klx/f]# e"sDk$ cl;gf% x/Latf ;^ t;f/f]& emf8fk vfnf
  66. 66. df};dL kfqf] ( afnL tyf rf8kj{ _q cGgafnL cfde~Hofª c= sf= d+ kf df k a h] cf >f Ef uflj; rm tyf }= = = = = = }= = m }== rf8kj{ f=! wfg@ ds}# ux+$ tf]/L% cfn^ a]df};dL t/sf/L v]tL& rf8kj{
  67. 67. cfd e~Hofª uflj; sf] ;do /]vf ljZn]if0fq vt/f ldlt - 36gf ljj/0fm lj=;+=_=! af9 @)!! Iflt ljj/0f yfxf gePsf] L@ v8] @)@* 7nf] clgsfn / ef]sd/L cfPsf] /L# v8] @)#@ – 7nf] v8]/L clgsfn / ef]sd/L /L #$ cfPsf]$ af9 @)#^ afnLgfnL gf]S;fgL, vf]nf ufp+lt/ L k;]sf], cGoqaf6 a;fO;/fO{ u/]/ cfpg] kl/jf/ ;+Vof a[l4 eO{ a:tL
  68. 68. cfd e~Hofª uflj; sf] ;do /]vf ljZn]if0f^ af9 @)^) gf} j6f 3/ aufPsf], %) L d/LeGbf a9L wfg / cGo cGg gf]S;fgL, uf]7df /x]sf ufO{, e}+;L, uf]?, afv|fx? aufPsf] .& af9 @)^! –^$ lj:yflkt gf}+ 3/ cem} L kms]{/ To; 7fp+df hfg g;s]sf, ;fy} ;fd/L vf]nfn] @)^! b]vL k|To]s ;fn Ps hgf aufP/ d[To" ePsf] .* e"If lg/Gt/ ;w} cfpg] af9L÷klx/f]n] o; o If]qsf] s/La !)) laufx eGbf
  69. 69. ultlzntf gS;f (Mobility Mapping) ef/tsf] sfzL tyf af}4uof vf8Ldns dn]l;of, k;klt, :joDe stf/ tyf cGo rl/ofdfO{sf7df08f}+ sf7df08f} x]6f}+8fsf] e6gb]aL +k|f=lzIff e/tk/, jL/u+h dlGb/ e/tk/, aL/u+h u8Lsf] dgsfdgf pRr lzIff x]6f}+8f x]6f}+8 ufp+s} dlGb/ uDjf f +@ j8f g+ wflbª l5d]sL ufp+ lty{a|t df=lj= ufp+d} /f]huf/÷>d lzIff cfde~Hofª a}jflxs uflj; :jf:Yo wfdLemfqm ;DaGw L u8L uflj;sf] lsgd]n 5/l5d]s :jf:Yo rf}sL ufp+s} k;n l5d]sL uflj;–u8L, :jf:Yo rf}sL ;sf}/f, a9Lrf}/ j8f g+ # wflbª cfde~Hofª x]6f}+8f x]6f}8f tyf lhNnfsf x]6f}+8f c:ktfn cGo ufp+ aL/u+h e/tk/ sf7df08f} lghu9 tyf sf7df08f} rGb|lgufxk/ ef/t
  70. 70. lgs6tfsf cfwf/df ;xof]uL ;+:yfx?] - e]g /]vf lrq_ /f8f] lhNnf g]kfn s[lif ljsfz ;Neg] lh=l kfn j=;= l;d]06 jfn Sna dlxnf ;xsf/L pBf]ux? uf=lj=;= cfde~Hofª bUw :yflgo ;xsf/L tyf lhNnf /]8qm; lhNnf hn pTkGg b}jL k|sf]k k|sf]k l8lehg cGo lhNnf:tl/o p4f/ ;lklt PS;g P8 ;+3;+:yf tyfo"Pg g]kfnl8kL{ lgsfox?{{{
  71. 71. ;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L CBDP (Community Based Disaster Preparedness);dbfodf cfpg ;Sg] ;Defljt k|sf]knfO{Wofgdf /fvL ;dbfon] cfkmgf] ;/Iff,p4f/ tyf /fxt Joj:yf / k|sf]k hf]lvdcj:yfnfO{ Go"lgs/0f ub}{ nfg] p2]Zon]ul/g] lqmofsnfkx? hg Jojl:yt 9+uaf6;dbfoåf/f g} ;+rfng ul/G5, Tof] g};dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L xf] . afXo ;xof]usf] dv tfSgsf] ;§f ;fgfltgfk|sf]k cfO{kbf{ ;dbfosf dflg; g} dVostf{eO{ cfkm;+u ePsf] 1fg, Ifdtf / :yfgLo;fdu|Lsf] a9L eGbf a9L k|of]u u/L ;dod}cfkmgf] arfj6 / d2t ug{ ;Sg] tyf ;dbfon]eljiodf kg{ ;Sg] ;fx|f] ufx|f] cj:yfsf nflu
  72. 72. ;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L lsg ,<!= ;/lIft a:tL tyf jftfj/0f tof/ kfg{@=dfgj hLjg, ;DklQ tyf 3fOt]x?sf] ;+Vof sd kfg{,#= ;dbfosf] cfTdlge{/tf tyf k|ofKtdf a[l4 ug{,$= ;dbfosf dflg;x?nfO{ k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg xg] ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{%=;fgf ;fgf k|sf]kaf6 tTsfn /fxt ;]jf k¥ofpg,^= ;dbfodf k|sf]ksf b[li6sf]0fn] hf]lvdk"0f{ :yfgx?sf] klxrfg u/L ;dod} ;fjwfgL ckgfpg,&= :yfgLo :t/sf] ;+u7g lgdf{0f u/L :yfgLo ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{,*= Jojl:yt ;+rf/ Joj:yf / k|efjsf/L ;dGjo ug{,(= k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu bIf JolQm tof/ ug{,!)=k|sf]kaf6 xg] IftL÷c;/ sd ug{,!!= ljsf;nfO{ lbuf] agfpg ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{ ubf{ k|sf]kaf6 xg ;Sg] c;/af/] 5nkmn u/L sd ug]{ pkfo cjnDag ug{,
  73. 73. ;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L s;/L ;+rfng ug]{ < -!_ l:yltsf] cWoog / ljZn]if0f -@_ :yfgLo :t/sf] gS;fÍg -#_ ;xeflusf] 5gf}6 / tflnd sfo{qmd -$_ ;fdbflos ;+u7g / sfo{of]hgf -%_ sf]if ;+sng tyf kl/rfng -^_ cgudg tyf ;kl/j]If0f -&_ cEof;
  74. 74. k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L sfo{qmddf s] s] sfo{x? ;+rfng ug]{ < -s_ vt/f cK7]/f] jf ;+s6df k/]sf 7fpFx?sf] vf]hL -v_ of]hgf / sfof{Gjog, -u_ ;+u7gfTds :j?k / ;dGjo, -3_ ;"rgf k|0ffnL Jojl:yt ug]{, -ª_ ;|f]tsf] aGbf]j:t ug]{, -r_ r]tfjgL k|0ffnL :yfkgf, -5_ p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{, -h_ hglzIff / tflnd ;+rfng ug]{, -em_ cEof;
  75. 75. Coordination -;dGjo_Pp6} If]q / p2]Zodf sfd ug]{;+3;+:yfx? / To;;+u ;DalGwt;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] aLrdf lgoldt?kdf ;Dks{ xg h?/L 5 ;fy} cfkm"s] ul//fv]sf] 5f}+, c? sxf+ s]ul//fv]sf 5g eGg] ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg xg h?/L 5, h;n] ubf{ Pscsf{sf] sfddf bf]xf]/f]kgfgcfpg], >f]tx?sf] afF8kmfF8 xg],sfdn] ult lng] ;fy} k|sf]k rqmsf
  76. 76. ;dGjo lsg cfjZos 5 < ;"rgf ;+sng tyf cBfjlws ug{ ;+s6fledv If]q klxrfg ug{ ;dGjosf] tx ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLlt af/] M 5nkmn ug{  ;dbfo :t/ s;nfO{ s] yfxf 5 cfbfg  lhNnf :t/ k|bfg ug{  If]qLo :t/ sxf+,sf],s] ub}{ 5 < bf]xf]/f]kgf cfpg glbg  /fli6«o :t/ cfly{s tyf dfgljo >f]tsf]  cGt/f{li6«o k|aGw tyf cfbfg k|bfg :t/lg/Gt/ ?kdf ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx? ;+u ;Dks{ / cfkmgf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg
  77. 77. Gender Analysis -n}lËs ljZn]if0f_dlxnf k?if ;dfhsf Ps /ysf bO{ kfªu|f xg .lnËsf cfwf/df ul/g] e]befj ;dfhdf JofKt 5 .of] lje]b x6fpgsf nflu Sex / Gender jLrsf]leGgtf aemg h?/L 5Sex -lnË _ eg]sf] h}ljlso lgld{t (Biologicalconstructed) :j?k xf] h;nfO{ kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsb}g /of] hGdhft u0f xf] .Gender -n}lËs_ eg]sf] dlxnf / k?ifsf lgldQ;dfhn] lgwf{/0f ul/lbPsf] e"ldsf tyflhDd]jf/L xf] . o;nfO{ ;do, :yfg / cfjZostfcg;f/ kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsG5 .;fdfGo cj:yfdf xfd|f] ;dfhdf k?ifx?sf]tngfdf dlxnfx?n] a9L sfd u5{g ;fy} ;doklg
  78. 78. Gender……….dlxnf tyf k?ifx?df km/s vfnsf ;+s6fledvtftyf Ifdtfx? xG5g ;f] af/] hfgsf/L xfl;n ug{h?/L xG5 .dlxnfx?sf jLrdf klg ljleGg ;d"x, pk–;d"xxG5g ;f]xL cg;f/ ;+s6dfledvtfsf] tx klgkm/s km/s xG5g .dlxnfx?sf] ;+s6fledvtf sd ug{ 3/fo;L sfo{dfk?ifsf] ;+nUgttf a[l4 u/fO{ dlxnfx?nfO{ cfocfh{g ;DalGw sfo{df ;+nUg xg] jftfj/0fagfpg] .JolQmut÷kfl/jfl/s÷;fj{hlgs ;DklQ, hdLg,>d, k+hL, ;fdu|Lx? tyf C0f dfly dlxnfx?sf]kxFr / lgoGq0f a9fpg] .
  79. 79. Coping strategy: v/c analysis ;fdgf /0fgLlt M;+s6fledvtf÷Ifdtf ljZn]if0f;fdgf /0fgLlt eg]sf] :yfgLo :t/sf];dbfon] k|sf]ksf] ;dodf u/]sf]k|ltlqmof xf], af+Rg] t/Lsf] xf] jf;d:ofsf] tTsflng ;dfwfg xf] .k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf /0fgLltx? @ k|sf/sfxG5g .!_ ;sf/fTds ;fdgf /0fgLlt@_gsf/fTds ;fdgf /0fgLlt– ;sf/fTds ;fdgf /0fgLltn] ;dbfosf]Ifdtf, bIftf bzf{p5 hg ;dbfosf] >f]tx?xg . h:t}}M !_ art C0f sfo{qmdsf] ;b:o xg
  80. 80. ;fdgf /0fgLlt=======gsf/fTds ;fdgf /0fgLltn] ulDe/ k|sf/sf];+s6fledvtfnfO{ bzf{p5 . gsf/fTds ;fdgfug]{ /0fgLltn] ;dbfosf] ;+s6fledvtfa[l4 ub{5 . h:t}M u/uxgf tyf nuf l;pg]d]lzg a]Rg . xn uf]?, n}gf] e};L a]Rggsf/fTds /0fgLlt xg h:n] ;dbfosf]hLljsf]kfh{g cj:yfdf emg cK7]/f] cj:yfl;h{gf u5{k|sf]k k"j{ tof/L sfo{df ;dbfosf];s/fTds tyf gsf/fTds ;fdgf ug]{/0fgLltx?sf] klxrfg ug{ ;+s6fledvtftyf Ifdtf ljZn]if0fsf] Ps dxTjk"0f{
  81. 81. /fli6«o ;Dkbf/fli6«o ;Dkbf leq "%h" jf6 gfdfs/0f xg] >f]tx?xG5g h;nfO ;Gtlnt Joj:yfkg tyf ;+/If0f ug{;s]df dfq jftfj/0fsf] ;Gtng tyf hg wgsf];+/If0f xg] xG5 . hgtf hn hgfj/ hnfwf/ If]q h+un hldg
  82. 82. lxdfndf ux|f lgdf{0f u/L ul/Psf] v]tL
  83. 83. ;u/dfyf
  84. 84. lxdfnL If]q
  85. 85. g]kfndf kfO{g]uf}/LufO{sf] ;f+9]
  86. 86. k"j{ tof/L ………
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