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"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay
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"The Web Is Broken" by Bipin Upadhyay

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Can be used as a introductory presentation to web security basics. Contains intro on Attacks to Preventions Tips, organized neatly. …

Can be used as a introductory presentation to web security basics. Contains intro on Attacks to Preventions Tips, organized neatly.
http://codeinmybug.wordpress.com/2007/10/12/the-web-is-broken/

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  • 1. The Web Is Broken Why every feature is, in fact, a loophole!
  • 2. The first matrix I designed was quite naturally, perfect. It was a work of art. Flawless. Sublime. A triumph only equaled by its monumental failure. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 3. RoadMap • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 4. RoadMap… • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 5. Who Am I? • I am SpiderMan • Apart from that, I: – am a part of ADMS – work on WebAppSec – am co-author of a yet to be released book • I can be pinged @: – http://blog.projectbee.org – Om-[AT]-PROJectBee-[DOT]-org Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 6. Web 1.0 versus Web 2.0 Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 7. Technologies Involved Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 8. Fundamentals ntals, ndame Fu he same re, still t ss or mo le Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 9. Fundamentals… User User Firewall / IDS Web server (Server side scripts like PHP, ASP, JSP etc.) Database Database Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 10. Network Sec. versus Web Sec. Ports 0 80 443 Attacker Web Server 65535 Firewall/IDS/IPS Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 11. Network Sec. versus Web Sec… Ports 0 Victim Malicious OR Compromised 65535 Web Server Firewall/NATed IP Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 12. How serious is the matter! • 90% of web applications have serious vulnerabilities –Gartner Group • 78% of attacks are at the web application level –Symantec • XSS and SQLI replacing buffer overflows as the favourite hacker initiative –Mitre • Every 8-9/10 sites vulnerable to XSS –WASC Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 13. How serious is the matter!... Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 14. How serious is the matter!... Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 15. What’s @ Stake • Money • Data • Reputation • Faith/Trust • and… Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 16. What’s @ Stake… •… Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 17. It’s a Mythical World out there… • Myths often prevail rationality. • Myths often are the cause of devastation. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 18. Myth Buster • Myth: – My developers have implemented security • Reality: – Security ain’t no feature dude! It’s a metrics. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 19. Myth Buster… • Myth: – Security is a non-functional requirement • Reality: – By definition, Yes! Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 20. Myth Buster… • Myth: – We use blah-blah framework. We’re safe • Reality: – Frameworks are encouraged. Human brain isn’t. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 21. Myth Buster… • Myth: – Java is secure by design • Reality: – May be! But web isn’t… nor is human brain. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 22. Myth Buster… • Myth: – SSL is secure from sniffing • Reality: – Far from it. It’s difficult for sure, though Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 23. Myth Buster… • Myth: – Procedures means no SQL Injection • Reality: – Not always. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 24. Myth Buster… • Myth: – I use firewall. I am safe. • Reality: – So what? Your browser ports are open. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 25. Myth Buster… • Myth: – I use latest antivirus and my system is patched. • Reality: – Big Deal!!! Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 26. Myth Buster… • Myth: – I browse net from inside a LAN. • Reality: – Urghhh! Browser dude, browser! Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 27. Myth Buster… • Myth: – Human stupidity is infinite • Reality: – There you go! ☺ Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 28. RoadMap… • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 29. Injection Attacks • A form of attack where the user input manipulates the underlying platform in an undesired way. • Several variants:- – SQL Injection – Command Injection – LDAP Injection – XPATH Injection – XML Injection – JSON Injection Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 30. SQL Injections Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 31. XSS • OWASP Top - 10 2007 #1 • Any type of user input that is reflected back to the user without being purified. • Input can be HTML, CSS, or Javascript • Two kinds --Persistent & Non-Persistent XSS Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 32. XSS… • XSS attacks include, but not limited to: – Cookie Theft & Session Hijacking – Site Defacement & Phishing – Key logging – History Theft – Port Scanning – CSRF & Web Worms – DoS-ing – … limited only by imagination Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 33. CSRF • Also called Unauthorized Requests. • The server is punished/exploited for trusting the user. • CSRF is, arguably, more dangerous than XSS. • Doesn’t necessarily require javascript. • OWASP Top - 10 2007 #5, (also called the Sleeping Giant) Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 34. Cookie Poisoning • Cookies sometimes store confidential data • This information can be manipulated for fun and profit. e.g., price of a product on an ecommerce site Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 35. HTTP Response Splitting • Attacker splits Http Response into two. • Watch out for redirection scripts using user input in response headers • CR-LF (0x0d & 0x0a) is the key to response splitting • Web/browser cache poisoning, XSS etc. attacks possible Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 36. Google Hacking • Search engines index all permissible documents inside the web tree • These data can be recovered using special queries: – site:<sitename> – inurl:<string> – intitle:<string> – filetype:<string> Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 37. Scary Cracks • Credit Cards & Google • Google.com UTF-7 XSS Vulnerability • Yamanner • “Samy is my Hero” OR Samy Worm • Bank Of India Hack • GMail CSRF Vulnerability Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 38. RoadMap… • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 39. The Arsenal • A Web browser • Textbox/Textarea • Iframe • TamperData/TamperIE • WebScarab • Fuzzer (Crowbar) • Google Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 40. RoadMap… • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 41. Google Hacking • Search engines index anything and everything • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 42. Exploiting Mistakes • Client side validation isn’t enough • Demo • “Clues in Codes/Comments” • Demo • Insecure implementation of “Forgot Password” feature • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 43. Exploiting Mistakes… • Too verbose error messages • Demo • Cookie Isn’t for sensitive data • Demo • Brute forcing Session id • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 44. Exploiting Zero Days • URI Vulnerabilities • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 45. Injection Attacks • SQL Injections • Demo • Command Injection • Demo • XPATH Injection • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 46. XSS Family • XSS (Cross Site Scripting) • Demo • XSS and encoding mistakes • Demo • CSRF, the sleeping Giant • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 47. Http Response Splitting • Why user is evil? • Demo Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 48. RoadMap… • Introduction • Attacks • The Arsenal • Breaking the Web • Preventing the Breakage Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 49. SDLC • Integrate security into SDLC Design Coding Testing Deployment Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 50. Design Phase • Stick to standards • Encourage usage of well-proven frameworks • Prefer Whitelisting over Blacklisting • Prefer Onion Model over Garlic Model Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 51. Coding Phase • Do NOT trust the user. • Do NOT rely on Client side validation. • Prefer HttpOnly Cookie to avoid cookie theft • Use nonces to prevent CSRF • Don’t just hash passwords, salt them too • Avoid too verbose/meaningful error messages Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 52. Coding Phase… • Proper encoding can avoid most problems • Input Encoding – prefer UTF-8 and ISO-8859-1 – refer http://ha.ckers.org/charsets.html • Output Encoding – avoid rich html input from user – decimal encode input before displaying – refer OWASP_Encoding_Project Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 53. Coding Phase… • Sanitize anything that comes from the user. Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 54. Coding Phase… • Filter Metacharacters: • < %3c > %3e • | %7c ‘ %60 • & %26 ( %28 • %od %0a .. • / %2f %5c • RegEx are your friend • Use Stored Procedures • Prefer usage of bind variables in SQL statement Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 55. Testing Phase • Code Auditing: – OWASP – LAPSE plugin (Java) – SPI Dynamics’ DevInspect (Java & .NET), etc. • Web Application Scanners – w3af – Watchfire AppScan – SPI Dynamics’ WebInspect, etc. • No substitute for an experienced human eye Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 56. Deployment Phase • Keep out of the Web Tree; use robots.txt • Set minimal permissions • Keep the system patched & patched • Use Web Application Firewall – urlScan – ModSecurity – SecureIIS, etc. …but, most importantly Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 57. Education pers. d e v el o r ate you Educ Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 58. Final Words • www was designed for information exchange • Today, too much is at stake • Ignorance, no longer a bliss • Take responsibility and… Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 59. Final Words… …be prepared. “Do you know what HTML 5.0 and XHTML2.0 has in store for us? You don't even want to know…” –Ronald van den Heetkamp Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 60. …and Finally, String.fromCharCode(84,104,97,110,107,32,89,1 11,117,33) i.e., Thank You! ☺ Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 61. Acknowledgements • Lalit Patel (http://lalit.org) & Lucky (http://reboot.in) • http://flickr.com • http://flickr.com/photos/jeanetteb1/1400824517 • http://flickr.com/photos/jbhalper/334521840 • http://flickr.com/photos/hondawang/566041603 • http://flickr.com/photos/14018070@N08/1438910620 • http://flickr.com/photos/44368636@N00/76684587 • http://www.cyberpunkreview.com/images/matrixreloaded63.jpg • www.flickr.com/photos/johnengler/211482969 • http://www.flickr.com/photos/lamkevin/458083458 • http://www.flickr.com/photos/beavis/459281241 • http://flickr.com/photos/briansolis/326278887 • http://www.flickr.com/photos/focus2capture/297232107 • http://flickr.com/photos/complexify/97303317 • http://flickr.com/photos/amyking/142161588 • http://xkcd.com/327/ Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 62. References • http://search.yahoo.com (To be safer) • http://0x000000.com • http://ha.ckers.org • http://sla.ckers.org • http://gnucitizen.com • XSS Attacks (Syngress Publications) • PenTesting for Web Applications (Wrox) • Hacking Exposed (Tata McGraw Hill) • 19 Deadly Sins of Sotware Security (Tata McGraw Hill) • OWASP & WASC • David Kierznowski, Amit Klien, Jeremiah Grossman, Gareth Hayes, Andres Riancho, Ronald, RSnake, pdp, Billy Rios, Nate, Thor,…. ……………………………. a lot many Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org
  • 63. Got Questions??? Shoot them Bipin Upadhyay http://projectbee.org

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