• Also known as Arabic July revolution began
on 23 July 1952 with a military overthrow by
the Free Officers Movement, a group of army
officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal
• After the revolution, in
1953, Gen. Mohammed
Naguib was appointed
to rule Egypt, however
his reign was soon
outlived and the British
of 1922 was abolished.
Aims of revolution
• The revolution was
initially aimed at
• However, the movement had more political
ambitions, and soon moved to abolish
the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of
Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end
the British occupation of the country, and
secure the independence of Sudan.
The effect in other countries
• The early successes of the revolution
encouraged numerous other nationalist
movements in other Arab, and African
countries, such as Algeria, and Kenya, which
were engaged in anti-colonial struggles
against European empires. It also inspired the
toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies
and governments in the region and the
After the Revolution
• With the declaration of the Republic Naguib had
become simultaneously the president, the prime
minister and chairman of the RCC and forming a
government mostly composed of army officers.
• But his succesor Nasser and other members of the
party had other ideas, so in 1953 Naguib was
dismissed and Nasser took the power.
• In that years Nasser reforced his government
and he was known internationally.
• He also nazionalized the “Suez Channel”.
Suez Channel Crisis
• Is a diplomatic and military confrontation in late
1956 between Egypt on one side,
and Britain, France and Israel on the other, with
the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United
Nations playing major roles in forcing Britain, France
and Israel to withdraw.
• After the nationalization of the Suez Channel Nasser
became the referent of Arab Nationalism.
• The High Dam was constructed between 1960
and 1970, and has had a significant impact on
the economy and culture of Egypt. At first
USA was ready to pay part of the Dam’s costs,
but finally the Soviets paid the Dam.