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Water Pollution
 
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    Water Pollution Water Pollution Presentation Transcript

    • Presented by Dr. B. Victor Water Pollution
    • About the presenter
      • Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.
      • He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of examinations.
      • He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience
      • He has taught a diversity of courses ranging from pre- university to post graduate classes.
      • Send your comments to : bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com
    • Water is essential to life on earth.
    • Importance of water
      • Organisms are composed of much water––70%-95%
      • Supportive external environment for aquatic organisms
      • Cellular medium within which biochemical reactions can occur
      • Transport medium for food, oxygen, and other things needed by cells
      • Means of support- Turgid plant cells /Hydrostatic animal support systems
    • Three forms of Water.
      • Solids: When water becomes very cold and freezes it will change from a liquid to a solid. It has a definite form and shape.
      • Liquids: When water takes the shape of its container it is in a liquid form.
      • Gases: When water is seen in a vapor form and has no definite size or shape it is in a gas form.
    • Distribution of global water
    • The earth's water supply
      • 97.2% of the Earth's water supply is salt water.
      • Only 2.8% is fresh water!
    • Salt and freshwater relationship
    • World Water Supply 97.200% salt water in the oceans 02.014% ice caps and glaciers 00.600% groundwater 00.009% surface water 00.005% soil moisture 00.001% atmospheric moisture
    • Earth as water planet
      • Earth is often referred to as `the water planet'.
      • Earth is unique amongst planets of our solar system because of its abundant water - in oceans, in the atmosphere, in glaciers and as fresh water on land.
      • Without water, life could not exist.
    • The earth's freshwater supply
      • Only about 3% of Earth's water is fresh.
      • Two percent of the Earth's water (about 66% of all fresh water) is in solid form, found in ice caps and glaciers.
      • One percent of all the Earth's water in a form useable to humans and land animals.
      • This fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and in the ground. (A small amount of water is found as vapor in the atmosphere.) 
    • Distribution of water
      • Ocean Water : The vast majority of water on the planet is the salt water in the oceans and seas.
      • Fresh Surface Water : This is the fresh water in rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and similar bodies of water.
      • Groundwater : The majority of the planet's liquid freshwater is stored in underground aquifers. Water that enters an aquifer remains there for an average of 1,400 years!
    • Water : A precious Natural Resource
      • We use water for drinking, irrigation, industrial purposes and energy production. Water use
      • agriculture and energy production - 80%
      • industry and public use - 20%
    • Water is used in many ways
      • as a nourisher of plant and animal life,
      • a bearer of food,
      • a prime element of industrial processes, and
      • a medium for transportation
    • Significance of water
      • Water is an integral part of life on this planet.
      • It is an odorless, tasteless, substance that covers more than three-fourths of the Earth's surface.
      • Most of the water on Earth, 97% to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans.
      • We can not drink salt water or use it for crops because of the salt content.
      • We can remove salt from ocean water, but the process is very expensive.
    • Hydrologic cycle - water cycle  
      • Two main processes: precipitation and evaporation
      • Powered by energy from the sun 
      • Hydrologic cycle purifies water
    • Global hydrologic cycle
    • Water Cycle
      • Saltwater evaporates from sun's energy producing fresh water in clouds; leaves salts in ocean.
      • Water vapor cools and condenses to precipitation over oceans and land.
      • Runoff forms fresh water lakes, streams, ponds, groundwater, and is held in plants and transpired.
    • Water consumption/ countries
    • Human activity disrupts local water cycles
      • Irrigation
      • Clear cutting of forests
      • Watershed disturbance
      • Loss of minerals through runoff
      • Desertification
    • Water consumption/use
    • Daily use of water
    • Pollution of water
    • Water Pollution
    • Where do Water pollutants come from?
      • Point Sources – A single definable source of the pollution, e.g. a factory, a sewage plant, etc. Point-source pollution is usually monitored and regulated .
      • Non-point sources – No one single source, but a wide range of sources, e.g. runoff from urban areas, or farmland. Non-point sources are much more difficult to monitor and control.
    • Pollution of Water
      • 1. Industrial pollution
      • 2. Surface pollution
      • 3. Groundwater contamination
      • 4. Sewage pollution
      • 5.Oil pollution
      • 6.Thermal pollution
    • Sources of Water pollution
    • Water pollutants
      • Industrial Effluents This waste water may contain acids, alkalis, salts, poisons, oils and in some cases harmful bacteria.
      • Mining and Agricultural Wastes Mines, especially gold and coal mines, are responsible for large quantities of acid water.
      • Agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides may wash into rivers and stagnant water bodies.
      • Sewage Disposal and Domestic Wastes Sewage as well as domestic and farm wastes were often allowed to pollute rivers and dams.
    • Water pollution
    • Non-persistent (degradable ) Water pollutants
      • Domestic sewage
      • Fertilizers
      • Some industrial wastes
    • Non-persistent (degradable) water pollutants
      • These compounds can be broken down by chemical reactions or by natural bacteria into simple, non-polluting substances such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
      • if the pollution load is high, this process can lead to low oxygen levels and eutrophication.
      • This damage is reversible.
    • Persistent Water pollutants
      • some pesticides (e.g., DDT, dieldrin)
      • some leachate components from landfill sites (municipal, industrial)
      • petroleum and petroleum products
      • PCBs, dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
      • radioactive materials such as strontium-90, cesium-137, radium-226, and uranium
      • metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium
    • Persistent Water pollutants
      • This is the most rapidly growing type of pollution
      • This includes substances that degrade very slowly or cannot be broken down at all;
      • They may remain in the aquatic environment for years or longer periods of time.
      • The damage they cause is either irreversible or repairable only over decades or centuries
    • Other w ater quality pollutants
      • warm water from cooling towers (thermal pollution)
      • floating debris
      • garbage
      • foam
      • These physical pollutants interfere mainly with the usability and/or aesthetic appeal of the water. In certain cases, thermal pollution can kill fish.
    • 1 . Classes of Water pollutants
      •   Pathogens  Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Parasitic Worms, Colliform Bacteria Used As Indicators Of Water Quality
      • Oxygen Demanding Wastes  Organics That Are Decomposed By Bacteria And That Use A Lot Of O2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Decreases, And BOD Increases
      • Water Soluble Inorganic Chemicals  Acids, Salts, Toxic Metal Compounds Like Mercury, And Lead.
      • Inorganic Plant Nutrients  Water Soluble Phosphates, Nitrates => Algal Blooms, Decreased Dissolved O2, Increased BOD, Methemoglobinemia (="blue baby syndrome")
    • 2. Classes of Water pollutants
      • Organic Chemicals  Oil, Gas, Plastics, Pesticides, Cleaning Solvents, Detergents, Etc.  
      • Sediment & Suspended Mater  Insoluble Soil Particulates & Other Solids. Clouds The Water, Decreasing Photosynthesis, Carries Pesticides And Disrupts Aquatic Food Webs.  
      • Radioactive Isotopes  Are Biologically Amplified To Higher Concentrations In The Food Chain. Ionizing Radiation & Birth Defects, Cancer.
      •  
      • Warmed Water  From Power Plants, Decreases DO And Increases Susceptibility To Diseases And Parasites And Toxic Wastes.  
      • Alien Species  Zebra Mussels, Asiatic Catfish, Sea Lamprey, etc. Out compete Native Species And Ultimately Decrease Biodiversity
    • Industrial Water pollution
      • Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals , resin pellets, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids.
      • Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water supplies, while 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. This has led to widespread microbial contamination of drinking water.
      • Water-associated infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6% of all deaths globally.
      Microbial contamination of water
    • Eutrophication
      • Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication .
      • Organic wastes such as sewage impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion.
    • Drought
      • D rought causes more damage and suffering than any other natural disaster.
      • 80 countries experience droughts lasting more than 1 year.
      • According to the UN, almost 500 million people, in 31 countries (~40% of the world’s population) experience chronic water shortages today.
    • Flooding: o versupply of water
      • Water Logged Soil
      • Nutrient Leakage
      • Topsoil Erosion
    • Acid rain
      • Acid rain is formed when moisture in the clouds mixes with sulfur or nitrogen in the air.
      • Acid rain includes rain, sleet or snow with a pH level that falls below 5.6 (normal rainwater).
      • The sulfur and nitrogen get into the air by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline. The average pH of rainfall is 4.3.
    •  
    • River pollution
      • Asian rivers are the most polluted in the world.
      • Three times as many bacteria from human waste as the global average
      • 20 times more lead than rivers in industrialized countries.
    • Mass fish kills
    • Plastic waste in water
      • Each year, plastic waste in water and coastal areas kills up to:
      • 100,000 marine mammals,
      • 1 million sea birds, and
      • countless fish.
    • Water borne diseases
      • Diseases caused by the ingestion of water contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites include:
      • cholera
      • typhoid
      • schistosomiasis
      • dysentery and other diarrheal diseases
    • Disease burden from water pollution
      • Water-associated infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6% of all deaths globally.
      • The burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene totals 1.8 million deaths and the loss of greater than 75 million healthy life years.
    • Water and sanitation
      • It is well established that investments in safe drinking water and improved sanitation show a close correspondence with improvement in human health and economic productivity.
      • Each person needs 20 to 50 liters of water free of harmful chemical and microbial contaminants each day for drinking and hygiene.
      • There remain substantial challenges to providing this basic service to large segments of the human population.
    • Oil Pollution of water
      • Both Point and Nonpoint Sources
      • Largest source of oil pollution is pipeline leaks and runoff
        • 61% ocean oil pollution river & urban runoff
        • 30% intentional discharges from tankers
        • 5% accidental spills from tankers
    • Remedial measures
      • Locate the point sources of pollution.
      • Work against acid rain.
      • Educate your community.
      • Ensure sustainable sewage treatment.
      • Watch out for toxins.
      • Be careful what you throw away.
      • Use water efficiently.
      • Prevent pollution .
      • Think globally, act locally.
    • Thank you