Teaching Skills

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Teaching Skills

  1. 1. Dr. B. Victor., Ph.D., Teaching Skills For A College Teacher
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>What is good teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>Core qualities of a good teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture method </li></ul><ul><li>How to prepare and present a good lecture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Good Teaching? <ul><li>All students have had hundreds of teachers in their lifetimes. </li></ul><ul><li>They remember only a few teachers as being exceptionally good. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the qualities that combine to create an excellent, memorable teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some teachers inspire students to work harder, while others inspire students to skip class? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do students learn more from some teachers than others? </li></ul>
  4. 4. &quot;Core qualities&quot; of a good teacher <ul><li>The characteristics fall into two specific categories: </li></ul><ul><li>a set of &quot;core qualities&quot; that students recognize in good teachers, and </li></ul><ul><li>a set of specific skills that are developed by good teachers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Knowledge <ul><li>The first quality of a good teacher is knowledge of the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>You must be an expert in your field if you are going to be a good teacher at a college . This is a prerequisite . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communication <ul><li>The second core quality of a good teacher is the ability to communicate their knowledge and expertise to their students. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a saying, &quot;Give me a fish and I eat for a day, teach me to fish and I eat for a lifetime.“ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interest <ul><li>A good teacher builds knowledge of the subject, with a clarity and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Best teachers make the class interesting and relevant to the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers work hard to make their material relevant. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Respect <ul><li>Good teachers have a deep-seated concern and respect for the students in the classroom. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusion <ul><li>When you strive and work to become a good teacher and to create a good class, the four core qualities are essential: </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>the skills to convey that knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to make the material you are teaching interesting and relevant, and </li></ul><ul><li>a deep-seated respect for the student . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning and Teaching <ul><li>Learning is a change in the way </li></ul><ul><li>an individual thinks, acts and feels. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place through experiences involving people, things and events and the response to these. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methods of Learning <ul><li>The individual learns through the five senses – hearing, sight, touch, smell, taste and combinations of these – in involvement-oriented experiences. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods of Teaching <ul><li>The method of teaching selected must be interesting to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>The methods can be tied to the methods of learning – listening, seeing and doing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Listening <ul><li>Listening involves the hearing of something (use of only one of the senses). </li></ul><ul><li>Since hearing accounts only 13 percent of learning, this is the least effective method used alone. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Seeing <ul><li>Seeing involves the eyes in observing new information. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 75 percent of learning is derived from the eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of teaching techniques include illustrated talks, demonstrations, tours, field trips and exhibits </li></ul>
  15. 15. Listening and Seeing <ul><li>When the young people see and hear new material, they will retain approximately 50 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>Observing demonstrations, seeing movies, participating in tours, etc., are all ways Learners can see and hear. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Doing <ul><li>Doing involves the total individual in the learning process or experience. </li></ul><ul><li>By the involvement of the learner, maximum learning occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of teaching techniques include work sessions or workshops, judging and role-playing, </li></ul>
  17. 17. Saying and Doing <ul><li>When learners are actively involved in saying and doing, they will retain approximately 90 percent of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people learn best by actually “doing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for the learners to practice and explore what they have learned. They might plan and present a demonstration or teach younger members. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lecture <ul><li>STRENGTHS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presents factual material in direct, logical manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains experience which inspires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates thinking to open discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>useful for large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIMITATIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experts are not always good teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audience is passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning is difficult to gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication in one way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PREPARATION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needs clear introduction and summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needs time and content limit to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should include examples, anecdotes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Attention <ul><li>The instructor may begin by telling a story, making an unexpected or surprising statement, asking a question, or telling a joke. </li></ul><ul><li>The main concern is to gain the attention of everyone and concentrate on the subject. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Motivation <ul><li>The purpose of the motivation element is to offer the students specific reasons why the lesson content is important to know, understand, apply, or perform. </li></ul><ul><li>This motivation should appeal to each student personally and engender a desire to learn the material </li></ul>
  21. 22. Overview <ul><li>A clear, concise presentation of the objective and the key ideas gives the students a road map of the route to be followed. </li></ul><ul><li>A good visual aid can help the students the path that they are to travel. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction should avoid stories, jokes, or incidents. Also, the instructor should avoid a long introduction. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Development <ul><li>Development is the main part of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must logically organize the Teaching material to show the relationships of the main points. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher can proceed by developing the main points in one of the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>from past to present, </li></ul><ul><li>simple to complex, </li></ul><ul><li>known to unknown, and </li></ul><ul><li>most frequently used to least frequently used. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Past to Present <ul><li>the subject matter is arranged chronologically, from the present to the past or from the past to the present. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Simple to Complex <ul><li>The student will find it easier to master simple concepts first and then apply these concepts to more complex ones. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Known to Unknown <ul><ul><li>Learning moves faster when it builds on what the student already knows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching that begins by comparing the old, known information and the new, unknown, one allows the student to grasp new information more quickly. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Accommodate learning style of students <ul><ul><li>Teach according to the learning style preference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual learners gain knowledge best by seeing or reading ; auditory learners , by listening; and tactile or psychomotor learners , by doing. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Sort goals by learning domain <ul><ul><li>A teacher can combine the knowledge of the student's preferred learning style with the knowledge of LEARNING DOMAINS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning behaviors fall in three domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cognitive domain deals with intellectual abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The psychomotor domain includes physical or motor skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The affective domain involves expression of feeling about attitudes, interests, and values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most learning involves all three domains. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Make material meaningful <ul><ul><li>Another way to facilitate learning is to relate material to the student's lifestyle and to recognize incompatibilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more meaningful material is to a student, the quicker and easier it will be learned. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Allow immediate application of knowledge <ul><ul><li>Give students the opportunity to apply his or her new knowledge and skills reinforces learning and builds confidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This immediate application translates learning to the &quot;real world&quot; and provides an opportunity for problem solving, feedback, and emotional support. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Plan for periodic rests <ul><ul><li>When your instructions are especially complex or lengthy, your students may feel overwhelmed and appear unreceptive to your teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to recognize these signs of mental fatigue and allow the students to relax. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Tell your students how they are progressing <ul><ul><li>Learning is made easier when the students are aware of their progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedback can motivate them to greater effort because it makes their goal seem attainable. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Reward desired learning with praise <ul><ul><li>Praising desired learning outcomes improves student’s retention of the material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassuring them that they have learned the desired material or technique can help them retain and refine it. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Types of lectures <ul><li>Illustrated talk : the speaker relies heavily on visual aids to convey ideas to the listeners . </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing : the speaker presents a concise array of facts to the listeners who normally do not expect elaboration of supporting material . </li></ul><ul><li>Formal lecture : the speaker's purpose is to inform, to persuade, or to entertain with little or no verbal participation by the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching lecture : the instructor plans and delivers an oral presentation in a manner that allows some participation by the students and helps direct them toward the desired learning outcomes. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Preparing the Teaching Lecture <ul><li>Careful preparation is one key to successful performance as a classroom lecturer. </li></ul><ul><li>This preparation should start well in advance of the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>The following four steps should be followed in the planning phase of preparation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing the objective and desired outcomes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researching the subject; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing the material; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning productive classroom activities. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Advantages of the Lecture <ul><li>In a lecture, the instructor can present many ideas in a relatively short time. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and ideas that have been logically organized can be concisely presented in rapid sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturing is unquestionably the most economical of all teaching methods in terms of the time required to present a given amount of material. </li></ul><ul><li>The lecture is particularly suitable for introducing a new subject and for explaining the necessary back- ground information. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Disadvantages of the Lecture <ul><li>the lecture inhibits student participation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process, and the lecture method tends to foster passiveness and teacher-dependence on the part of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>As a teaching method, the lecture does not bring about maximum attainment of certain types of learning outcomes. Motor skills, for example, can seldom be learned by listening to a lecture. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Disadvantages of the Lecture <ul><li>The lecture does not easily allow the teacher to estimate the students' understanding as the material is covered. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to hold the attention of all students in a lecture throughout the class period. </li></ul><ul><li>A student's rate of retention drops off significantly after the first 10-15 minutes of a lecture and picks back up at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>The retention rate for a lecture is about five percent after 24 hours. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Thank you very much
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