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ICT Centered Teaching & Learning

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    ICT Centered Teaching  & Learning ICT Centered Teaching & Learning Presentation Transcript

    • ICT- centered Teaching Learning Presented by Dr. B. Victor St. Xavier’s College Palayamkottai.
      • Teacher centered Philosophy
      • Learner centered Philosophy
      • ICT centered Philosophy
      • ICT Skills and competencies
      • ICT Tools and Digital Techniques
      • Computers in Education
      • Web based teaching/ learning
      • Exploratory learning
      • Visual representations
      • End Note
      Presentation outline
    • “ The quality of education is not to be measured by its length and breadth but only by its depth” -Vinoba Bhave
      • For many years, teachers taught and students were responsible for learning the material.
      • It was the student’s responsibility to acquire the knowledge for success.
      • The primary concern of the teacher was to impart the knowledge.
      Teacher Centered Philosophy
      • Student learning is the primary goal of the teacher as opposed to teaching.
      • The teacher must motivate the students to learn, participate, critically think and successfully perform in tests.
      Learner centered philosophy
    • Student- centered Flexible Learning
      • Learning is a process in which four components interact :
      • (1) the teacher,
      • (2) the student,
      • (3) curriculum content and goals, (4) instructional materials and infrastructure
      Process of Learning
    • Materials Teachers Learners Teaching / Learning Materials
      • Learning by Objectives
      • Learning through Experience
      • Learning by Example
      • Learning by Discovery
      • Learning to learn
      Learning Modes
      • ICT in education is a much needed vehicle of achieving the modern philosophy of education whereby a student can decide on: 
        • WHAT he learns 
        • WHEN he learns 
        • WHERE he learns, and 
        • HOW he learns 
      The modern philosophy of education
      • “ Technology will not have a significant impact on student learning until teachers change the way they teach.” Larry Cuban, 1986
      • Technology is continuously changing . It is an ongoing process. It demands continual learning.
      • Change is not always easy.
      • The initial human reaction to change is resistance. Resistance makes for slow change.
      • Change is inevitable .
      • Change led to progress .
      • The acceptance of change is a major requirement for technology integration.
      Technology integration
      • Technology is revolutionizing the way we think, work, and play.
      • Technology enables teachers to provide multiple representations of content (images, graphs, diagrams, tables) and multiple options for expression ( multimedia, power point).
      • Computer technology changes traditional classroom instructional techniques.
      • Computers enable students to process the information via multiple intelligences .
      Why do we need technology integration?
      • Technology integration helps to achieve 21st Century Skills in students . They are:
      • Personal and social responsibility.
      • Planning, critical thinking , reasoning, and creativity .
      • Strong communication skills , both for interpersonal and presentation needs.
      • Visualizing and decision-making.
      • Knowing how and when to use technology and choosing the most appropriate tool for the task.
      Technology integration: Reasons
      • Technology helps change the student/teacher roles and relationships .
      • Technology cannot teach; only teachers can teach.
      • Technology can enhance the teaching- learning process.
      Technology can do..
    • What is Technology integration?
      • Technology integration is the use of technology resources -- computers, Internet, e-mail, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, electronic publications, etc. -- in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a College.
    • How to use Information technologies effectively ?
      • Using computer-based services to search for and find relevant information in a range of contexts.
      • using a variety of media to retrieve information.
      • Decoding information in variety of forms- written, statistical and graphic.
    • Information literacy
      • Using computer based services to write, analyze, present and communicate information;
      • Using information technologies to create, to share and to store knowledge .
      • The literature generally describes 3 major instructional use of computer based technologies:
      • Learning from the Technology
      • Learning about the Technology
      • Learning with the Technology.
      Instructional use of Computer based Technology
      • According to Mr. Kofi Annan , Secretary-General of the United Nations, Information and Communication Technology has transformed education.
      Viewpoint...
      • ICTs provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text - bound classrooms into rich, student – focused, interactive knowledge environment.
      Viewpoint...
    • Food for thought
      • “ Any technology which increase the rate of learning would enable the teacher to teach less and the learner to learn more ”
    • Information and Communication technology
      • Information technology (IT) is defined as the study or use of electronic equipments, especially computers for storing, analysing and sending out information.
      • Communication technology is the process of sending, receiving and exchanging information.
      • ICT is a generic term referring to technologies, which are being used for collecting, storing, editing and passing on information in various forms (SER,1997)
      The meaning of ICT
    • Factory model of education Broadcast model of education Paradigm shift
    • TEACHER-CENTERED LEARNING ICT LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING
      • ICT literacy basically involves using digital technology, communication tools and/or access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information in order to function in a knowledge society.
      ICT literacy
      • EFFICIENCY:
          • FASTER
          • CHEAPER
          • FEWER STEPS
          • LESS PEOPLE
          • LESS PAPER WORK
      • EFFECTIVENESS:
      • MOST INTERACTIVE
          • FEWER ERRORS
          • CUSTOMIZED
          • PERSONALIZED
          • ARCHIVABLE
          • TRANSPARENT
          • SEARCHABLE
      • INNOVATION
      • NEW PRODUCTS
      • NEW TECHNIQUES
      ICT- Characteristics
    • 1.Entry Phase
      • Teachers use traditional print-based media.
      • Learning activities center around seat-based work.
      • Teachers are most concerned about the basic operation of computers.
      • “ I just don’t have time!”
    • 2.Adoption Phase
      • Classroom instruction still depends heavily upon chalkboards, textbooks,
      • Teachers use word processors for writing activities.
      • Teachers use educational software, including rudimentary drill-and-practice software to develop low-level skills.
    • 3.Adaptation Phase
      • Students use word processors, databases, some graphics applications, and many computer-assisted instruction packages.
      • With the support of technology, student productivity increases
      • Students’ basic computer skills improve.
      • Students are allowed to progress at their own paces.
    • 4.Appropriation Phase
      • Teachers and students demonstrate highly developed skills with technology.
      • Teachers are comfortable with technology
      • Teachers develop new instructional strategies.
      • Emphasis shifts to collaborative learning.
      • Students move toward collaborative work patterns.
    • 5.Invention Phase
      • Teachers facilitate the construction of student knowledge
      • Classrooms promote social interaction, encouraging students to share their own knowledge and experiences.
      • Teachers implement a curriculum integrated with technology.
      • Teachers employ a variety of student assessment activities,
    • the educators should acquire:
      • 1.ICT Operations and Concepts – teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts.
      • 2.Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences – teachers plan and design effective learning environments supported by ICT.
      • 3 . Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum – teachers implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying ICT.
      ICT skills and competencies-
    • The skills and competencies
      • 4.Assessment and Evaluation – teachers apply ICT to facilitate a variety of effective assessment.
      • 5.Productivity and Professional Practice – teachers use ICT to enhance their productivity and professional practices
      • 6.Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues – teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of ICT in College.
      • Initial: This level indicates that the educator has a level of awareness of the potential uses of ICT.
      • This is the stage when the educator first begins to experiment ICT in the classroom at a basic level for discrete lessons.
      Skilled Educators :  ICT Literacy Level - I
      • Developing :  This level indicates that the educator is increasingly aware of using ICT to enhance student learning. 
      • The educator now incorporates ICT into the classroom on a daily basis.
      ICT Literacy Level - II
      •   Proficient :  This level indicates that the educator is a leader in the use of ICT.
      ICT Literacy Level - III
      • Instructional computing consists of IT tools, methods and services.
      • It allows faculty to improve their teaching.
      • It provide an enhancing learning environment for students.
      Instructional Computing
      • 1.Improved /expanded faculty- student communications-e.g e-mail, on-line chatrooms, virtual class hours.
      • 2.Improved instructional logistics and communications-e.g. e-syllbus, on-line submission of assignment, on-line testing
      Instructional I T
      • 3.Expanded and improved classrooms and laboratory instructional methods- e.g . simulations ,visualization applications.
      • 4.Use of alternate learning delivery mechanisms- e.g . satellite, video, cable, internet
      Instructional I T
      • 5.Faculty IT access to electronic material-e.g . digital library, multimedia
      • 6.The IT infrastructure needed to support the above uses-e.g . www, file servers, news servers, courseware acquisition and distribution.
      • Wired classrooms with audio/visual equipment and computer projection and instructional laboratories.
      Instructional I T
    • Attributes of Computer based technology
      • Multi-sensory delivery : Text, graphics, animation, sound and video.
      • Active learning : enhanced learner interest .
      • Co-operative learning : positive group/social interaction.
      • Communication Skills : one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many.
      • Multicultural education : link students from across the country/around the world.
      • Motivation : greater learner engagement (time).
    • Computer technology-based learning
      • Prior to working with computers , students can discuss concepts in the lesson and plan - what they are going to do.
      • While using computers , students can discuss - either orally or via computer - what they are working on.
      • During a pause in computer use , students can analyze - what they have learned and done , share information with others, and plan their next steps.
      • After using computers , students can again analyze and share - what they have learned and done, as well as what they need to do next.
    • ICT poses new challenges to Educators
      • The teachers have to learn how to use the variety of ICT applications;
      • The teachers have to use , adapt and design ICT-enhanced curricula;
      • They have to expand the content area of knowledge;
      • They have to take new roles ; and
      • They have to respond to individual students
      • Learning Facilitator
      • Collaborator
      • Trainer
      • Advisor
      • Knowledge Manager
      • Curriculum designer
      • Instructional designer
      • Team Coordinator
      • Co-learner
      • Assessment Specialist
      New roles of teachers
      • Traditional medium
      • Lectures
      • books
      • ICT medium
      • Computers
      • Multimedia
      • Internet
      • Lectures
      • Books
      New Learning Resources
      • ICT does not automatically add quality to teaching and learning.
      • ICT application in education can accelerate and improve learning on a number of fronts from basic skills, problem solving, information management, establishing life-long learning habits and concepts development .
      • It can also provide the means of gathering, connecting and analysing data about teaching and learning.
      ICT in Education
      • Multimedia PC, Laptop, Notebook.
      • CDs& DVDs. digital video, still camera.
      • Internet and its tools- e-mail ,browsers, website, search engines, chat etc.
      • Computer aided instruction & computer mediated conferencing , video/audio conferencing.
      • Digital libraries , e-books& electronic publications.
      • Interactive TVs.
      • Microsoft publishing -news letter, poster, brochure.
      ICT - Tools
      • Creativity
      • Flexibility
      • Logistic skills
      ICT-Benefits
    • Advantages of ICT
      • resource sharing; 
      • wide variety of services; 
      • flexibility; 
      • reliability; 
      • faster speed; 
      • cheaper cost. 
      • Word processing -documents, notes, projects, assignments
      • Spread sheet programming -records, exam scores
      • Data bases -information storage
      • Graphing software -to prepare teaching-learning resources
      • Developing Multimedia kits -to make process interesting
      • Using internet and e-mail facilities -to gain knowledge
      • Games and simulations -to improve quality of learning
      Digital techniques in Education
      • Helps to provide interactive learning experiences
      • Students are stimulated and motivated by the technology
      • Students have comfortable learning .
      • Visualization aids in the understanding of difficult concepts and processes
      • Caters to different learning styles
      • Helps students to gain valuable computer skills.
      • Aids in collaboration and group work .
      ICT influence in Learning
      • Transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective .
      • Aids in the organization and the structure of the course and the course materials.
      • Provides innovative ways to help students learn basic concepts and skills .
      • Aids in the provision of interesting and creative presentations of content.
      ICT Influence on Teaching
      • Facilitate collaboration and communication .
      • Aid in the visualization of difficult concepts
      • Promote creativity .
      • Enable ease in revision and updating of course content.
      • Provide flexibility and variety in learning .
      • Provide a multimedia presence in the classroom.
      Unique Attributes
      • C omputer is a creativity machine,
      • Computer is a information processing tool,
      • Computer is a teaching aid.
      Computer
    • Computer technology
      • 1. Computers provide an opportunity to enhance the way students think about, manage, process and use information.
      • 2.The use of computers helps us see patterns and relationships in the data that we collect and work with.
      • 3.Students can learn the material at their own time and pace.
      • 4.Computer based learning appeals to a variety of cognitive strengths and learning styles.
    • Computer-mediated instructional (CMI) materials
      • Learner centered
      • Knowledge centered
      • Assessment centered
      • Society centered
      • CBI provides consistency of content delivery.
      • CBI provides for diverse learning needs.
      • CBI offers learner flexibility in controlling and pacing learning.
      • CBI provides motivation and promotes interactivity.
      • CBI provides greater retention and reduces the instructional time.
      Computer –Based Instruction, CBI
      • CBI provides means of tracking learners’ progress.
      • CBI allows standardized testing.
      • CBI provides opportunities for practice through simulation.
      • CBI more readily provides training to remote locations and eliminates cost associated with travel.
      CBI
      • A system that allows access to information sites all over the world.
      • Information is presented in text, audio and video files.
      • Resources such as lecture notes, readings, tutorials and assignments can be delivered to, and received from, students both on and off campus.
      World Wide Web
      • Web assisted classroom instruction -the teacher teaches the lesson with the help of the website.
      • The interactions may be in the form of discussion ,questioning, demonstration and experiment.
      Web Based Instruction
      • The learner searches website, collects information and learns the lesson.
      • Web is a viable tool to help students gain education without being on campus.
      • It allows greater autonomy of learning.
      Web based learning
      • the Internet consists of a vast collection of independent computers linked by national and international tele-communication networks.
      • Each Internet site contains information ( text, images, audio, video, links etc .) which are accessible to the individual working from their home computer.
      Internet
      • Internet sites are increasing in number, sophistication and content.
      • These changes have arisen due to commercial adoption of the Internet.
      • Internet provides information in text, graphics, audio and video .
      • New programming allows a greater degree of interactivity through real time audiovisual transfers and chat.
      • Coloured and animated graphics are of much greater educational value than photocopied images
      Properties of Internet sites
    • Online learning tasks
      • One - alone: Online data bases, e-journals, digital libraries.
      • One – to - one: Collaborative assignments’ interviews.
      • One – to - many: Online lectures, symposiums.
      • Many - to - many : Discussion groups, debates, games, simulations, case studies, brain storming, project groups.
      • Hypertext consist of a complex webs of interrelated ideas/documents.
      • The linking of information together by highlighted key words that have been marked up creating paths through related material from different sources.
      Hypertext tools
      • An approach to information storage and retrieval that provides multiple linkages among elements .
      • It allows the learner to navigate easily from one piece of information to another.
      • It is the storage and retrieval of text, images audio and video files.
      Hypermedia tools
      • A connection among documents in a hypermedia or hypertext format.
      Hyperlink
      • It provides a platform for incorporating a variety of different kinds of multi-media file types: images, video, audio and animations.
      • It is neat and clean and it allows for portability of materials.
      • It is easy for professors to update, saving them time and energy.
      Power point Presentation
      • Scanning media.
      • Talking to experts.
      • Recording information.
      • Writing/ producing compositions.
      • Engaging research.
      Multi-media applications
      • Students who use multimedia tools are active learners.
      • Students reflect these kind of tasks throughout their life.
      • Students work collaboratively, not only with each other, but with researchers and teachers.
      Multimedia Applications in Student Learning
      • A typical system consists of a combination of a compact disc, computer and video technology.
      • The interactive video refers broadly to software that responds to certain choices and commands by the user.
      Interactive video
      • Videodisc systems store video pictures, still pictures, and sound on discs that users can control with a videodisc player.
      • These systems can provide the interactive capabilities of computers and the motion-picture capabilities of videos.
      The interactive video
      • Video Conferencing is a medium where individuals or groups can meet face-to-face in real time to interact and exchange ideas.
      • Video conferencing began in the mid 1980's as compressed video.
      • Since it was introduced, communication technologies have improved exponentially.
      Video Conferencing
      • A computer simulation attempts to reproduce real-life situations
      • Simulations feature a combination of text and graphics ,using dialogue and inquiry to guide the student through a situation.
      • Simulations also can bring about higher-order synthesis and analysis skills .
      Simulation
      • Tutorials are one of the most common types of computer-assisted instruction.
      • Tutorials are “page-turners” similar to textbooks, interspersed with predetermined questions and responses.
      • The one-to-one tutoring and feedback provided by a tutorial can make it an excellent tool for improving student knowledge (cognitive domain).
      Tutorials
      • Drill-and-practice programs work well in increasing student knowledge through repetition, usually through cues
      • Students can take as much time as they need or repeat sections, helping to individualize instruction
      • Drill-and-practice programs provide automatic feedback to learners.
      Drill-and-Practice (Review)
      • ICT allow students to direct their own learning.
      • the student learns facts, concepts, and procedures through the process of discovery, or guided discovery.
      Role of ICT in Discovery Learning
    • ICT in Discovery Learning
      • 1.Computer-based information retrieval systems (e.g., electronic databases),
      • 2. Micro-worlds (microcomputer-based labs and simulations. Simulations are available for biology, genetics, geology, chemistry, physics, environment, social studies, economics, and mathematics- ), and
      • 3.Interactive video
      • It allows control of sound, animation, text, graphics, and full-motion video .
      • A digital library is a collection of textual, numeric, graphic, audio and video data stored in digital form, indexed and logically linked for ease of retrieval.
      Digital Library
      • Textual data
      • Numeric data
      • Graphics data
      • Photographs
      • Audio data
      • Video data
      Components of a Digital Library
    • Unique features of digital library
      • Safe storage and multiple access of material
      • Ability to process numerical data published in the literature
      • Ability to store variety of data
      • Access information from anywhere in the world
      • Ease of search and retrieval
      • E-learning allows for different learning experiences through:
      • On - line students group : allowing students to interact with each other
      • On - line lecturing : allowing faculty to interact with students
      • On - line counseling : helps students in decision- making
      • On - line libraries and resource center : providing text, documents, articles for reference.
      E-learning
      • E-mail enables students and faculty to communicate with each other and with people all over the world.
      • Students send questions to the instructor and instructor can transmit the answer instantaneously to all students.
      • Faculty can hold “ electronic office hours” so that students can ask questions and receive answers almost immediately.
      • Faculty can create “electronic suggestion foxes” where students can post their comments about the course.
      E- mail
      • Structured face-to-face telephone interviewing where computer is used to prompt the interviewee and record the answer in a format convenient for further processing.
      • It saves time and the need to travel.
      • It opens up possibilities for interviewing research subjects from different parts of the world.
      • It provides a limited register for communication.
      E- interviews
    • Technology-enhanced pedagogical practices
      • Promote active and autonomous learning in students;
      • Provide students with competencies and technological skills that allow them to search for, organize, and analyze information, and communicate their ideas in a variety of media forms;
      • Enable teachers, students, and their parents to communicate and share information on-line;
      • Engage students in collaborative, project-based learning in which students work with classmates on complex, real-world-like problems or projects;
      • Provide students with individualized or differentiated instruction , to meet the needs of students with different achievement levels, interests, or learning styles;
    • Computers and Related Technology in Education
    • Applications of graphics
      • Rieber (1994) proposed five applications of graphics that relate to learning outcomes and events of instruction; these include:
      • cosmetic – graphics serve only as decoration
      • motivation – graphics serve to arouse curiosity
      • attention-gaining – graphics serve to focus the learner’s attention on the instruction
      • presentation – graphics serve to "demonstrate or elaborate a lesson concept" (p.50)
      • practice – graphics serve to provide visual feedback
    • A dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)   
    • Framework of Mayer (1993)
      •  
      • This framework postulates the formation of three types of mental "connections":   
      • 1) visual material is used to mentally form a internal visual representation; 
      • 2) verbal material is used to form a verbal representation, thus forming a verbal representational connection;
      • 3) the learner builds referential connections between the visual representation and verbal representation.
    • SIMPLE GRAPHICS- 1
    • SIMPLE GRAPHICS-2
    • SIMPLE GRAPHICS-3
    • VISUAL TOOLS
      • To clarify your point
      • To emphasize your point
      • To simplify your point
      • To unify your point
      • To impress your learner
      • Dart, B & Boulton-Lewis, G (eds) (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education . Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research.
      • Gibbs G & Habeshaw T (1995) 253 Ideas for your Teaching. Bristol, Technical and Education Services.
      • Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use
      • of Educational Technology . London, Routledge.
      • Weimer, M. (1990). Improving college teaching: Strategies for developing instructional effectiveness . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      • Sandholtz, J. H., C. Ringstaff, and D.W. Dwyer (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating Student-centered Classrooms . New York, Teachers College Press.
      References
      • “ If we understand the human mind, we begin to understand what we can do with educational Technology”
      • - Herbert A. Simon.
    • About the presenter
      • Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.
      • He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of examinations.
      • He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience
      • He has taught a diversity of courses ranging from Send your comments to : pre- university to post graduate classes.
      • [email_address]
    • Thanks a lot Presentation is over