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  • 1. ICT- centered Teaching Learning Presented by Dr. B. Victor St. Xavier’s College Palayamkottai.
  • 2.
    • Teacher centered Philosophy
    • Learner centered Philosophy
    • ICT centered Philosophy
    • ICT Skills and competencies
    • ICT Tools and Digital Techniques
    • Computers in Education
    • Web based teaching/ learning
    • Exploratory learning
    • Visual representations
    • End Note
    Presentation outline
  • 3. “ The quality of education is not to be measured by its length and breadth but only by its depth” -Vinoba Bhave
  • 4.
    • For many years, teachers taught and students were responsible for learning the material.
    • It was the student’s responsibility to acquire the knowledge for success.
    • The primary concern of the teacher was to impart the knowledge.
    Teacher Centered Philosophy
  • 5.
    • Student learning is the primary goal of the teacher as opposed to teaching.
    • The teacher must motivate the students to learn, participate, critically think and successfully perform in tests.
    Learner centered philosophy
  • 6. Student- centered Flexible Learning
  • 7.
    • Learning is a process in which four components interact :
    • (1) the teacher,
    • (2) the student,
    • (3) curriculum content and goals, (4) instructional materials and infrastructure
    Process of Learning
  • 8. Materials Teachers Learners Teaching / Learning Materials
  • 9.
    • Learning by Objectives
    • Learning through Experience
    • Learning by Example
    • Learning by Discovery
    • Learning to learn
    Learning Modes
  • 10.
    • ICT in education is a much needed vehicle of achieving the modern philosophy of education whereby a student can decide on: 
      • WHAT he learns 
      • WHEN he learns 
      • WHERE he learns, and 
      • HOW he learns 
    The modern philosophy of education
  • 11.
    • “ Technology will not have a significant impact on student learning until teachers change the way they teach.” Larry Cuban, 1986
  • 12.
    • Technology is continuously changing . It is an ongoing process. It demands continual learning.
    • Change is not always easy.
    • The initial human reaction to change is resistance. Resistance makes for slow change.
    • Change is inevitable .
    • Change led to progress .
    • The acceptance of change is a major requirement for technology integration.
    Technology integration
  • 13.
    • Technology is revolutionizing the way we think, work, and play.
    • Technology enables teachers to provide multiple representations of content (images, graphs, diagrams, tables) and multiple options for expression ( multimedia, power point).
    • Computer technology changes traditional classroom instructional techniques.
    • Computers enable students to process the information via multiple intelligences .
    Why do we need technology integration?
  • 14.
    • Technology integration helps to achieve 21st Century Skills in students . They are:
    • Personal and social responsibility.
    • Planning, critical thinking , reasoning, and creativity .
    • Strong communication skills , both for interpersonal and presentation needs.
    • Visualizing and decision-making.
    • Knowing how and when to use technology and choosing the most appropriate tool for the task.
    Technology integration: Reasons
  • 15.
    • Technology helps change the student/teacher roles and relationships .
    • Technology cannot teach; only teachers can teach.
    • Technology can enhance the teaching- learning process.
    Technology can do..
  • 16. What is Technology integration?
    • Technology integration is the use of technology resources -- computers, Internet, e-mail, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, electronic publications, etc. -- in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a College.
  • 17. How to use Information technologies effectively ?
    • Using computer-based services to search for and find relevant information in a range of contexts.
    • using a variety of media to retrieve information.
    • Decoding information in variety of forms- written, statistical and graphic.
  • 18. Information literacy
    • Using computer based services to write, analyze, present and communicate information;
    • Using information technologies to create, to share and to store knowledge .
  • 19.
    • The literature generally describes 3 major instructional use of computer based technologies:
    • Learning from the Technology
    • Learning about the Technology
    • Learning with the Technology.
    Instructional use of Computer based Technology
  • 20.
    • According to Mr. Kofi Annan , Secretary-General of the United Nations, Information and Communication Technology has transformed education.
    Viewpoint...
  • 21.
    • ICTs provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text - bound classrooms into rich, student – focused, interactive knowledge environment.
    Viewpoint...
  • 22. Food for thought
    • “ Any technology which increase the rate of learning would enable the teacher to teach less and the learner to learn more ”
  • 23. Information and Communication technology
    • Information technology (IT) is defined as the study or use of electronic equipments, especially computers for storing, analysing and sending out information.
    • Communication technology is the process of sending, receiving and exchanging information.
  • 24.
    • ICT is a generic term referring to technologies, which are being used for collecting, storing, editing and passing on information in various forms (SER,1997)
    The meaning of ICT
  • 25. Factory model of education Broadcast model of education Paradigm shift
  • 26. TEACHER-CENTERED LEARNING ICT LEARNER-CENTERED LEARNING
  • 27.
    • ICT literacy basically involves using digital technology, communication tools and/or access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information in order to function in a knowledge society.
    ICT literacy
  • 28.
    • EFFICIENCY:
        • FASTER
        • CHEAPER
        • FEWER STEPS
        • LESS PEOPLE
        • LESS PAPER WORK
    • EFFECTIVENESS:
    • MOST INTERACTIVE
        • FEWER ERRORS
        • CUSTOMIZED
        • PERSONALIZED
        • ARCHIVABLE
        • TRANSPARENT
        • SEARCHABLE
    • INNOVATION
    • NEW PRODUCTS
    • NEW TECHNIQUES
    ICT- Characteristics
  • 29. 1.Entry Phase
    • Teachers use traditional print-based media.
    • Learning activities center around seat-based work.
    • Teachers are most concerned about the basic operation of computers.
    • “ I just don’t have time!”
  • 30. 2.Adoption Phase
    • Classroom instruction still depends heavily upon chalkboards, textbooks,
    • Teachers use word processors for writing activities.
    • Teachers use educational software, including rudimentary drill-and-practice software to develop low-level skills.
  • 31. 3.Adaptation Phase
    • Students use word processors, databases, some graphics applications, and many computer-assisted instruction packages.
    • With the support of technology, student productivity increases
    • Students’ basic computer skills improve.
    • Students are allowed to progress at their own paces.
  • 32. 4.Appropriation Phase
    • Teachers and students demonstrate highly developed skills with technology.
    • Teachers are comfortable with technology
    • Teachers develop new instructional strategies.
    • Emphasis shifts to collaborative learning.
    • Students move toward collaborative work patterns.
  • 33. 5.Invention Phase
    • Teachers facilitate the construction of student knowledge
    • Classrooms promote social interaction, encouraging students to share their own knowledge and experiences.
    • Teachers implement a curriculum integrated with technology.
    • Teachers employ a variety of student assessment activities,
  • 34. the educators should acquire:
    • 1.ICT Operations and Concepts – teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts.
    • 2.Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences – teachers plan and design effective learning environments supported by ICT.
    • 3 . Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum – teachers implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying ICT.
    ICT skills and competencies-
  • 35. The skills and competencies
    • 4.Assessment and Evaluation – teachers apply ICT to facilitate a variety of effective assessment.
    • 5.Productivity and Professional Practice – teachers use ICT to enhance their productivity and professional practices
    • 6.Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues – teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of ICT in College.
  • 36.
    • Initial: This level indicates that the educator has a level of awareness of the potential uses of ICT.
    • This is the stage when the educator first begins to experiment ICT in the classroom at a basic level for discrete lessons.
    Skilled Educators :  ICT Literacy Level - I
  • 37.
    • Developing :  This level indicates that the educator is increasingly aware of using ICT to enhance student learning. 
    • The educator now incorporates ICT into the classroom on a daily basis.
    ICT Literacy Level - II
  • 38.
    •   Proficient :  This level indicates that the educator is a leader in the use of ICT.
    ICT Literacy Level - III
  • 39.
    • Instructional computing consists of IT tools, methods and services.
    • It allows faculty to improve their teaching.
    • It provide an enhancing learning environment for students.
    Instructional Computing
  • 40.
    • 1.Improved /expanded faculty- student communications-e.g e-mail, on-line chatrooms, virtual class hours.
    • 2.Improved instructional logistics and communications-e.g. e-syllbus, on-line submission of assignment, on-line testing
    Instructional I T
  • 41.
    • 3.Expanded and improved classrooms and laboratory instructional methods- e.g . simulations ,visualization applications.
    • 4.Use of alternate learning delivery mechanisms- e.g . satellite, video, cable, internet
    Instructional I T
  • 42.
    • 5.Faculty IT access to electronic material-e.g . digital library, multimedia
    • 6.The IT infrastructure needed to support the above uses-e.g . www, file servers, news servers, courseware acquisition and distribution.
    • Wired classrooms with audio/visual equipment and computer projection and instructional laboratories.
    Instructional I T
  • 43. Attributes of Computer based technology
    • Multi-sensory delivery : Text, graphics, animation, sound and video.
    • Active learning : enhanced learner interest .
    • Co-operative learning : positive group/social interaction.
    • Communication Skills : one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many.
    • Multicultural education : link students from across the country/around the world.
    • Motivation : greater learner engagement (time).
  • 44. Computer technology-based learning
    • Prior to working with computers , students can discuss concepts in the lesson and plan - what they are going to do.
    • While using computers , students can discuss - either orally or via computer - what they are working on.
    • During a pause in computer use , students can analyze - what they have learned and done , share information with others, and plan their next steps.
    • After using computers , students can again analyze and share - what they have learned and done, as well as what they need to do next.
  • 45. ICT poses new challenges to Educators
    • The teachers have to learn how to use the variety of ICT applications;
    • The teachers have to use , adapt and design ICT-enhanced curricula;
    • They have to expand the content area of knowledge;
    • They have to take new roles ; and
    • They have to respond to individual students
  • 46.
    • Learning Facilitator
    • Collaborator
    • Trainer
    • Advisor
    • Knowledge Manager
    • Curriculum designer
    • Instructional designer
    • Team Coordinator
    • Co-learner
    • Assessment Specialist
    New roles of teachers
  • 47.
    • Traditional medium
    • Lectures
    • books
    • ICT medium
    • Computers
    • Multimedia
    • Internet
    • Lectures
    • Books
    New Learning Resources
  • 48.
    • ICT does not automatically add quality to teaching and learning.
    • ICT application in education can accelerate and improve learning on a number of fronts from basic skills, problem solving, information management, establishing life-long learning habits and concepts development .
    • It can also provide the means of gathering, connecting and analysing data about teaching and learning.
    ICT in Education
  • 49.
    • Multimedia PC, Laptop, Notebook.
    • CDs& DVDs. digital video, still camera.
    • Internet and its tools- e-mail ,browsers, website, search engines, chat etc.
    • Computer aided instruction & computer mediated conferencing , video/audio conferencing.
    • Digital libraries , e-books& electronic publications.
    • Interactive TVs.
    • Microsoft publishing -news letter, poster, brochure.
    ICT - Tools
  • 50.
    • Creativity
    • Flexibility
    • Logistic skills
    ICT-Benefits
  • 51. Advantages of ICT
    • resource sharing; 
    • wide variety of services; 
    • flexibility; 
    • reliability; 
    • faster speed; 
    • cheaper cost. 
  • 52.
    • Word processing -documents, notes, projects, assignments
    • Spread sheet programming -records, exam scores
    • Data bases -information storage
    • Graphing software -to prepare teaching-learning resources
    • Developing Multimedia kits -to make process interesting
    • Using internet and e-mail facilities -to gain knowledge
    • Games and simulations -to improve quality of learning
    Digital techniques in Education
  • 53.
    • Helps to provide interactive learning experiences
    • Students are stimulated and motivated by the technology
    • Students have comfortable learning .
    • Visualization aids in the understanding of difficult concepts and processes
    • Caters to different learning styles
    • Helps students to gain valuable computer skills.
    • Aids in collaboration and group work .
    ICT influence in Learning
  • 54.
    • Transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective .
    • Aids in the organization and the structure of the course and the course materials.
    • Provides innovative ways to help students learn basic concepts and skills .
    • Aids in the provision of interesting and creative presentations of content.
    ICT Influence on Teaching
  • 55.
    • Facilitate collaboration and communication .
    • Aid in the visualization of difficult concepts
    • Promote creativity .
    • Enable ease in revision and updating of course content.
    • Provide flexibility and variety in learning .
    • Provide a multimedia presence in the classroom.
    Unique Attributes
  • 56.
    • C omputer is a creativity machine,
    • Computer is a information processing tool,
    • Computer is a teaching aid.
    Computer
  • 57. Computer technology
    • 1. Computers provide an opportunity to enhance the way students think about, manage, process and use information.
    • 2.The use of computers helps us see patterns and relationships in the data that we collect and work with.
    • 3.Students can learn the material at their own time and pace.
    • 4.Computer based learning appeals to a variety of cognitive strengths and learning styles.
  • 58. Computer-mediated instructional (CMI) materials
    • Learner centered
    • Knowledge centered
    • Assessment centered
    • Society centered
  • 59.
    • CBI provides consistency of content delivery.
    • CBI provides for diverse learning needs.
    • CBI offers learner flexibility in controlling and pacing learning.
    • CBI provides motivation and promotes interactivity.
    • CBI provides greater retention and reduces the instructional time.
    Computer –Based Instruction, CBI
  • 60.
    • CBI provides means of tracking learners’ progress.
    • CBI allows standardized testing.
    • CBI provides opportunities for practice through simulation.
    • CBI more readily provides training to remote locations and eliminates cost associated with travel.
    CBI
  • 61.
    • A system that allows access to information sites all over the world.
    • Information is presented in text, audio and video files.
    • Resources such as lecture notes, readings, tutorials and assignments can be delivered to, and received from, students both on and off campus.
    World Wide Web
  • 62.
    • Web assisted classroom instruction -the teacher teaches the lesson with the help of the website.
    • The interactions may be in the form of discussion ,questioning, demonstration and experiment.
    Web Based Instruction
  • 63.
    • The learner searches website, collects information and learns the lesson.
    • Web is a viable tool to help students gain education without being on campus.
    • It allows greater autonomy of learning.
    Web based learning
  • 64.
    • the Internet consists of a vast collection of independent computers linked by national and international tele-communication networks.
    • Each Internet site contains information ( text, images, audio, video, links etc .) which are accessible to the individual working from their home computer.
    Internet
  • 65.
    • Internet sites are increasing in number, sophistication and content.
    • These changes have arisen due to commercial adoption of the Internet.
    • Internet provides information in text, graphics, audio and video .
    • New programming allows a greater degree of interactivity through real time audiovisual transfers and chat.
    • Coloured and animated graphics are of much greater educational value than photocopied images
    Properties of Internet sites
  • 66. Online learning tasks
    • One - alone: Online data bases, e-journals, digital libraries.
    • One – to - one: Collaborative assignments’ interviews.
    • One – to - many: Online lectures, symposiums.
    • Many - to - many : Discussion groups, debates, games, simulations, case studies, brain storming, project groups.
  • 67.
    • Hypertext consist of a complex webs of interrelated ideas/documents.
    • The linking of information together by highlighted key words that have been marked up creating paths through related material from different sources.
    Hypertext tools
  • 68.
    • An approach to information storage and retrieval that provides multiple linkages among elements .
    • It allows the learner to navigate easily from one piece of information to another.
    • It is the storage and retrieval of text, images audio and video files.
    Hypermedia tools
  • 69.
    • A connection among documents in a hypermedia or hypertext format.
    Hyperlink
  • 70.
    • It provides a platform for incorporating a variety of different kinds of multi-media file types: images, video, audio and animations.
    • It is neat and clean and it allows for portability of materials.
    • It is easy for professors to update, saving them time and energy.
    Power point Presentation
  • 71.
    • Scanning media.
    • Talking to experts.
    • Recording information.
    • Writing/ producing compositions.
    • Engaging research.
    Multi-media applications
  • 72.
    • Students who use multimedia tools are active learners.
    • Students reflect these kind of tasks throughout their life.
    • Students work collaboratively, not only with each other, but with researchers and teachers.
    Multimedia Applications in Student Learning
  • 73.
    • A typical system consists of a combination of a compact disc, computer and video technology.
    • The interactive video refers broadly to software that responds to certain choices and commands by the user.
    Interactive video
  • 74.
    • Videodisc systems store video pictures, still pictures, and sound on discs that users can control with a videodisc player.
    • These systems can provide the interactive capabilities of computers and the motion-picture capabilities of videos.
    The interactive video
  • 75.
    • Video Conferencing is a medium where individuals or groups can meet face-to-face in real time to interact and exchange ideas.
    • Video conferencing began in the mid 1980's as compressed video.
    • Since it was introduced, communication technologies have improved exponentially.
    Video Conferencing
  • 76.
    • A computer simulation attempts to reproduce real-life situations
    • Simulations feature a combination of text and graphics ,using dialogue and inquiry to guide the student through a situation.
    • Simulations also can bring about higher-order synthesis and analysis skills .
    Simulation
  • 77.
    • Tutorials are one of the most common types of computer-assisted instruction.
    • Tutorials are “page-turners” similar to textbooks, interspersed with predetermined questions and responses.
    • The one-to-one tutoring and feedback provided by a tutorial can make it an excellent tool for improving student knowledge (cognitive domain).
    Tutorials
  • 78.
    • Drill-and-practice programs work well in increasing student knowledge through repetition, usually through cues
    • Students can take as much time as they need or repeat sections, helping to individualize instruction
    • Drill-and-practice programs provide automatic feedback to learners.
    Drill-and-Practice (Review)
  • 79.
    • ICT allow students to direct their own learning.
    • the student learns facts, concepts, and procedures through the process of discovery, or guided discovery.
    Role of ICT in Discovery Learning
  • 80. ICT in Discovery Learning
    • 1.Computer-based information retrieval systems (e.g., electronic databases),
    • 2. Micro-worlds (microcomputer-based labs and simulations. Simulations are available for biology, genetics, geology, chemistry, physics, environment, social studies, economics, and mathematics- ), and
    • 3.Interactive video
    • It allows control of sound, animation, text, graphics, and full-motion video .
  • 81.
    • A digital library is a collection of textual, numeric, graphic, audio and video data stored in digital form, indexed and logically linked for ease of retrieval.
    Digital Library
  • 82.
    • Textual data
    • Numeric data
    • Graphics data
    • Photographs
    • Audio data
    • Video data
    Components of a Digital Library
  • 83. Unique features of digital library
    • Safe storage and multiple access of material
    • Ability to process numerical data published in the literature
    • Ability to store variety of data
    • Access information from anywhere in the world
    • Ease of search and retrieval
  • 84.
    • E-learning allows for different learning experiences through:
    • On - line students group : allowing students to interact with each other
    • On - line lecturing : allowing faculty to interact with students
    • On - line counseling : helps students in decision- making
    • On - line libraries and resource center : providing text, documents, articles for reference.
    E-learning
  • 85.
    • E-mail enables students and faculty to communicate with each other and with people all over the world.
    • Students send questions to the instructor and instructor can transmit the answer instantaneously to all students.
    • Faculty can hold “ electronic office hours” so that students can ask questions and receive answers almost immediately.
    • Faculty can create “electronic suggestion foxes” where students can post their comments about the course.
    E- mail
  • 86.
    • Structured face-to-face telephone interviewing where computer is used to prompt the interviewee and record the answer in a format convenient for further processing.
    • It saves time and the need to travel.
    • It opens up possibilities for interviewing research subjects from different parts of the world.
    • It provides a limited register for communication.
    E- interviews
  • 87. Technology-enhanced pedagogical practices
    • Promote active and autonomous learning in students;
    • Provide students with competencies and technological skills that allow them to search for, organize, and analyze information, and communicate their ideas in a variety of media forms;
    • Enable teachers, students, and their parents to communicate and share information on-line;
    • Engage students in collaborative, project-based learning in which students work with classmates on complex, real-world-like problems or projects;
    • Provide students with individualized or differentiated instruction , to meet the needs of students with different achievement levels, interests, or learning styles;
  • 88. Computers and Related Technology in Education
  • 89. Applications of graphics
    • Rieber (1994) proposed five applications of graphics that relate to learning outcomes and events of instruction; these include:
    • cosmetic – graphics serve only as decoration
    • motivation – graphics serve to arouse curiosity
    • attention-gaining – graphics serve to focus the learner’s attention on the instruction
    • presentation – graphics serve to "demonstrate or elaborate a lesson concept" (p.50)
    • practice – graphics serve to provide visual feedback
  • 90. A dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)   
  • 91. Framework of Mayer (1993)
    •  
    • This framework postulates the formation of three types of mental "connections":   
    • 1) visual material is used to mentally form a internal visual representation; 
    • 2) verbal material is used to form a verbal representation, thus forming a verbal representational connection;
    • 3) the learner builds referential connections between the visual representation and verbal representation.
  • 92. SIMPLE GRAPHICS- 1
  • 93. SIMPLE GRAPHICS-2
  • 94. SIMPLE GRAPHICS-3
  • 95. VISUAL TOOLS
    • To clarify your point
    • To emphasize your point
    • To simplify your point
    • To unify your point
    • To impress your learner
  • 96.
    • Dart, B & Boulton-Lewis, G (eds) (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education . Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research.
    • Gibbs G & Habeshaw T (1995) 253 Ideas for your Teaching. Bristol, Technical and Education Services.
    • Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use
    • of Educational Technology . London, Routledge.
    • Weimer, M. (1990). Improving college teaching: Strategies for developing instructional effectiveness . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Sandholtz, J. H., C. Ringstaff, and D.W. Dwyer (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating Student-centered Classrooms . New York, Teachers College Press.
    References
  • 97.
    • “ If we understand the human mind, we begin to understand what we can do with educational Technology”
    • - Herbert A. Simon.
  • 98. About the presenter
    • Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.
    • He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of examinations.
    • He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience
    • He has taught a diversity of courses ranging from Send your comments to : pre- university to post graduate classes.
    • [email_address]
  • 99. Thanks a lot Presentation is over