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The quality of Human life is directly related to the quality of Environment. A healthy environment is essential to human survival. Water, air and soil pollution causes 40 per cent of deaths of the world.
Global change includes natural and human- induced changes in the Earth's environment .
Global change can be defined as changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life.
I mpact = P opulation x A ffluence x T echnology. where: I is the impact on the environment resulting from consumption P is the population number A is the consumption per capita (affluence) T is the technology factor
Ecological footprint (sometimes called Ecological footprint analysis or EF analysis for short) is measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems and natural resources.
Ecological footprint analysis compares human consumption of natural resources with planet Earth's ecological capacity to regenerate them.
Ecological footprint is, therefore, an estimate of the amount of biologically productive land and sea area needed to regenerate (if possible) the resources a human population consumes and to absorb and render harmless the corresponding waste, given prevailing technology and current understanding.
Carbon footprint = the amount of greenhouse gases produced by human activities and is measured in the amount of CO2 produced.
Main activities that will increase our carbon footprint: a) use of transportation (planes, cars, trains) b) burning of fossil fuels (petrol, coal) c) process of manufacturing products (clothing, food, personal products) d) use of household electricity (computers, lights) e) use of pesticides f) heating and cooling – hot water showers, central heating, air conditioning
A carbon footprint is made up of the sum of two parts: the primary footprint and the secondary footprint.
The primary footprint is a measure of our direct emissions of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels including domestic energy consumption and transportation. For example, car and plane.
The secondary footprint is a measure of the indirect carbon dioxide emissions from the whole lifecycle of the products we use. Products with more packaging will generally have a larger secondary footprint than products with a minimal amount of packaging.
Drivers of Environmental change Core values Amplifiers Consumptive behavior Drivers of Environmental change Anthropocentrism Human –centered values- Contempocentrism Generation – centered values- Technology Population growth Poverty Affluence
Impact of Industrialization I N D U S T R Y Chemical inputs (raw materials Power inputs ( gas, oil, coal) Other inputs (water) Air Pollution Water Pollution Land Pollution The products Gaseous effluent Liquid effluent Solid Waste
Small Population and Little Technology - Society has low impact on Environment Society Deplete Pollute Environment Traditional Economics Resources/ Raw materials Environmental pollutants
Large Population and Increased Technology - Society has great impact on Environment Society Deplete Pollute Environment Environmental Economics Resources/ Raw materials Environmental pollutants
Industrial pollution Chemical industry Energy Emissions Chemical Products Chemical by-products Feed Chemicals
A Life Cycle Assessment (life cycle analysis, eco-balance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is the investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused by its existence.
Pollution : A silent Killer People are exposed to harmful Pollutants in the air they breathe , the liquids they drink, the food they eat, the surface they touch, and the products they use. When the environment can not process the load of pollutants , pollution takes place . Every environmental system has a carrying capacity .
Health impacts of water pollution Water related Diseases Water – borne infections -typhoid, cholera, hepatitis Water – washed infections scabies , conjunctivitis, diarrhea Water – based infections Schistosomiasis,guinea worm Water – related insect vectors Yellow fever, sleeping sickness Defective sanitation -Hook worm
Man is subjected to a variety of environmental hazards
Biodiversity/biological resources Contribute 40 percent of the world’s economy and 80 percent of the needs of the poor.
Biodiversity loss has an impact on everything from food, water and energy production, to life saving drug sources to cultural and aesthetic benefits
Threats to Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity Habitat loss and destruction Alterations in ecosystem composition Introduction of exotic species Over-exploitation pollution and contamination Global climate change
Coral reefs provide a unique habitat characterized by high diversity and density of life. They are referred to as ‘the Tropical Rainforests of the Oceans’.
Massive coral bleaching episodes have impacted the function of the reefs and increased rates of mortality. Currently 30% of reefs are recorded as in decline, and up to 60% may be in decline by 2030 (Wilkinson, 2002).
Coral reefs are crucial biodiversity hotspots and support both coastal fisheries and tourism in many regions.
Scarce Water - Currently, 434 million people face either water stress or scarcity. By 2025 it may increase between 2.6 billion and 3.1 billion people.
Scarce Cropland -The number of people living in countries where cultivated land is critically scarce is projected to increase between 600 million and 986 million in 2025.
Fisheries - The capacity of coastal and marine ecosystems to produce fish for human harvest is highly degraded by over-fishing, destructive trawling techniques, and loss of coastal nursery areas . Seventy-five percent of all fish stocks are in urgent need of better management.