Natural cycles in the world’s ecosystems help deliver nutrition and water to the soil, and microbes in the soil help capture and process those materials so they are available to be taken up by plants. Plants become a part of the food chain and are eaten by other living things.
Massive biodiversity loss is essentially irreversible
Each species is the product of a unique, non-reproducible history
Paleontology shows that it takes about ten million years to recover previous levels of species diversity after a period of mass extinction, and the new biodiversity strongly differs from that lost
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment : five main causes of biodiversity loss
invasive alien species,
The Assessment argued that the loss of the species and the progressive homogenization of many ecosystems is one of the main threats to the survival of the natural systems.
The term BIODIVERSITY was first coined by the entomologist E.O. Wilson in 1986.
Biodiversity is the heritage of million of years of evolution.
Diversity is a basic property of life.
The striking feature of Earth is the existence of Life and the striking feature of Life is its Diversity.
Biodiversity allowed the advent of modern civilizations, but…
Plant and animal domestication often involves a reduction in biodiversity through artificial selection
• Industrialization and modern technology provide humankind with increasing control over, and independence from, nature
Plants begin invading land Evolution and expansion of life First fossil record of animals Plants invade the land Age of reptiles Age of mammals Insects and amphibians invade the land Modern humans (Homo sapiens) appear about 2 seconds before midnight Recorded human history begins 1/4 second before midnight Origin of life (3.6–3.8 billion years ago) noon midnight
Biodiversity is the measure of the number, variety and variability of living organisms .
Variety - the number of different types.
Quantity - the number or total biomass of any one type.
Distribution - the extent and nature of geographic spread of different types.
Gamma diversity : the total biodiversity within a landscape.
Gamma diversity is a function of local or ‘within habitat diversity’ ( alpha diversity ) and differences in species composition or ‘turnover’ of species, between habitats or localities ( beta diversity ).
A measurement that accounts for the richness and the percent of each subspecies from a biodiversity sample within a zone. The index assumes that the proportion of individuals in an area indicate their importance to diversity.
Simpson's index: D = sum(Pi2)
The first step is to calculate Pi, which is the abundance of a given subspecies in a zone divided by the total number of subspecies observed in that zone.
Shannon-Wiener index (H)/ the Shannon index / the Shannon-Weaver index
This measurement takes into account subspecies richness and proportion of each subspecies within a zone.
The first step is to calculate Pi for each category subspecies. Then multiply this number by the log of the number. While you may use any base, the natural log is commonly used. The index is computed from the negative sum of these numbers.
H = -sum (Pi log [Pi])
Using species richness (S) and the Shannon-Wiener index (H), you can also compute a measure of evenness:
Focus on biologically mediated flows of energy and materials
Biodiversity Value : Ecological values All living creatures are supported by the interactions among organisms and ecosystems. Loss of biodiversity makes ecosystems less stable, more vulnerable to extreme events, and weakens its natural cycles.
New ways of thinking Ecosystem Services: the benefits people obtain from ecosystems
Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes
• climate regulation
• disease regulation
• flood regulation
Provisioning Goods produced or provided by ecosystems • food • fresh water • fuel wood • genetic resources Cultural Non-material benefits from ecosystems • spiritual • recreational • aesthetic • inspirational • educational Supporting Services necessary for production of other ecosystem services • Soil formation • Nutrient cycling • Primary production
Many human activities disrupt, impair, or reengineer ecosystems every day including:
runoff of pesticides, fertilizers, and animal wastes
pollution of land, water, and air resources
introduction of non-native species
overharvesting of fisheries
destruction of wetlands
erosion of soils
Linkages among Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Human Well-Being
Land use change - type - intensity Species invasions Loss of biodiversity Over-harvest http://www.oceansatlas.org/ http ://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Molles 2007 http://www.ourworldfoundation.org.uk/polar.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/
The Government of India approved biodiversity bill in December 2002 which became an ACT known as Biological Diversity Act of 2002 .
Later, Biological Diversity Rules, 2004 were formulated as a step towards conservation of biodiversity.
According to this act, any one who destroys biodiversity in any way or takes it away for commercial utilization or any other purpose without approval of authorities is liable to be imprisoned for up-to five years or to pay a fine of Rs.10 lakhs.
Every country has three forms of wealth: material, cultural and biological . The first two we understand well, because they are the substance of our everyday lives. The essence of the biodiversity problem is that biological wealth is taken much less seriously. . . ..”
“ Harmony with the land is like harmony with a friend; you cannot cherish his right hand and chop off his left. The land is one organism. Its part compete with each other and co-operate with each other. To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent thinking” – Aldo Leopold
We remember we depend on each other, live and let live.