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Dr. B. Victor Biological  diversity
Bio  = Bio diversity What does  “ Bio ”  mean? Life
Bio diversity D i v e r s i t y  =  V a r i e t y What does  “ Diversity ”  mean?
Why protect biodiversity ? <ul><li>MORAL </li></ul><ul><li>right to exist, stewardship (heritage), </li></ul><ul><li>unnec...
Human impact on Global  Biodiversity <ul><li>Human activities have altered the world’s terrestrial, freshwater and marine ...
The world is a living system where… <ul><li>Everything is connected and…. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is interdependent a...
A Basic Equation for Life <ul><li>Seeds + Soil + Nutrition + Water + Sun  =  Food </li></ul><ul><li>Natural cycles in the ...
Massive biodiversity loss is essentially irreversible <ul><li>Each species is the product of a unique, non-reproducible hi...
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment : five main causes of biodiversity loss   <ul><li>habitat change, </li></ul><ul><li>cl...
Introduction <ul><li>The term  BIODIVERSITY  was first coined by the entomologist E.O. Wilson in 1986.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Biodiversity allowed the advent of modern civilizations, but… <ul><li>Plant and animal domestication often involves a redu...
Plants begin invading land Evolution and expansion of life First fossil record of animals Plants invade the land Age of re...
Biodiversity is the measure of  the number, variety and variability of living organisms . <ul><li>Variety  - the number of...
 
What is biodiversity? <ul><li>Biodiversity includes diversity within species, between species and among ecosystems. </li><...
Significance of biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity is the sum of life on earth and includes genetic, species and functional...
The Earth is home to a tremendous biological diversity <ul><li>This “biodiversity”, which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
Biodiversity <ul><li>Variety of living things, number of kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
A B Which do you like better?
Which do you like better? A B
Which do you like better? A B
What is biodiversity? <ul><li>The spectrum of life on earth, in terms of variation in  </li></ul><ul><li>genes,  </li></ul...
Biological Diversity <ul><li>Genetic diversity  – the genetic variation among individuals in a species </li></ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Biodiversity, the variety of life </li></ul><ul><li>more interactions </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><l...
Biological Diversity
Biological diversity  organization
Levels of genetic organization Gene Text sequence Chromosome Chapter Genome Gene pool
Genetic diversity <ul><li>Variation within genes   </li></ul><ul><li>alleles & haplotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Variation with...
Species diversity <ul><li>It represents the different types of plants, animals and other life forms within a region. </li>...
Ecosystem diversity <ul><li>It is the variety of different  habitats/ecosystems  in  a particular area  ( e.g.. wetland, w...
Ecosystem Characteristics <ul><li>Biological structure, composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical structure, composition. </...
Ecosystem Characteristics <ul><li>Major vegetation types and developmental stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare and unique habit...
Structure Characteristics <ul><li>Proportion and distribution of vegetation types and successional stages. </li></ul><ul><...
Processes Characteristics <ul><li>Fire, landslides, flood types, frequencies, severities, patch size, landscape pattern. <...
 
Diversity of organisms
How many different species are there? <ul><li>The number of species identified and named is  more than 1.7 million, includ...
Biodiversity: # of species estimates <ul><li>Most estimates of the total number of species on Earth lie between  5 million...
Biodiversity Attributes
1.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Alpha – number of species in a given plot or area </li></ul>a c d a b c c a a a a a b b b
2.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Beta – species turnover across an environmental gradient </li></ul>16.14
  3.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Gamma diversity :   the total biodiversity within a landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma div...
Scales of diversity
Types of biodiversity measures <ul><li>What is being measured? </li></ul><ul><li>- measures of numbers of things (e.g., nu...
Species Richness (S)   <ul><li>The total number of different organisms present. It does not take into account the proporti...
Simpson Index (D)   <ul><li>A measurement that accounts for the richness and the percent of each subspecies from a biodive...
Shannon-Wiener index (H)/   the Shannon index / the Shannon-Weaver index   <ul><li>This measurement takes into account sub...
Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity maintains the health of the earth and its people. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides us with ...
Biodiversity – Hierarchy
Biodiversity Is determined By : <ul><li>Species richness </li></ul><ul><li>Species evenness </li></ul><ul><li>Species comp...
Species richness  is the number of species in a given area.
High-, medium- and low Diversity
Why is biodiversity important? <ul><li>Regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles,  </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological fu...
What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water </li></ul><ul><li>Me...
Biodiversity is dynamic <ul><li>Biodiversity is not static, but constantly changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is inc...
Earth's five mass extinctions  Earth is experiencing a sixth mass extinction today.
Anthropogenic Impacts <ul><li>By the end of the 21st century, we may have lost two-thirds of the species on Earth  </li></...
 
Principal causes of extinction <ul><li>73% - Destruction of habitat </li></ul><ul><li>68% - Displacement by introduced spe...
The main threats to biodiversity
Endangered and Extinct Species  <ul><li>Extinction, the elimination of a species from Earth, occurs when the last individu...
Endangered and Extinct Species  <ul><li>Endangered species are in imminent danger of extinction throughout all or part of ...
Characteristics of Endangered Species <ul><li>Endangered species have one or more of these characteristics that make them ...
Extinctions can be caused by: <ul><li>· natural processes (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts); </li></ul><ul><li>excessive ...
Human activities threatening biological diversity:  <ul><li>Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and  degradation </li></ul...
Habitat Fragmentation <ul><li>Habitat fragmented into smaller “patches </li></ul><ul><li>The patches grow further apart, m...
Fragmentation most easily observed in forest habitat is caused by human activities. Anywhere that humans transformations c...
“ Edge Effect” and edge vs. interior species.
Habitat Destruction  <ul><li>Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and degradation is the leading   cause of biodiversity de...
Invasive Species  <ul><li>Biotic pollution is the introduction of a foreign species into an area where it is not native </...
Pollution  <ul><li>Acid deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Pl...
Overexploitation <ul><li>Over-hunting – unregulated hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Poaching – illegal hunting </li></ul><ul><li...
Homogenization <ul><li>Homogenization is the process whereby species assemblages become increasingly dominated by a small ...
http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312380/images/wheat.jpg Anthropogenic Homogenization
Exotic species Homogenization
Biodiversity affects human well-being Human activities Global changes Biodiversity Ecosystem processes Ecosystem services
Links between biodiversity, climate change and Human well-being
Links between biodiversity, climate change and ecosystem services
 
 
Aesthetic value Ethical  value Social  value  Productive value Consumptive  value Biodiversity  Value
Values of  biodiversity Values of biodiversity Ecological values Economic values Cultural  values
“Value” of Biodiversity <ul><li>1. Market values </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-market values </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ecosystems se...
Biodiversity Value :  Ecological values   All living creatures are supported by the interactions among organisms and ecosy...
Economic values   <ul><li>:  A biologically diverse natural environment provides humans with the necessities of life and f...
Cultural values   <ul><li>Most people feel connected to nature, often for  </li></ul><ul><li>reasons hard to explain.  </l...
Ecosystem Services
New ways of thinking  Ecosystem Services: the benefits people obtain from ecosystems <ul><li>Regulating </li></ul><ul><li>...
Many human activities disrupt, impair, or reengineer ecosystems every day including: <ul><li>runoff of pesticides, fertili...
Linkages among Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and  Human Well-Being
Major Concepts <ul><li>Most species are moderately abundant; few are very abundant or extremely rare. </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
Global changes <ul><li>Climatic change </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>Land use change - type - intensity Species in...
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEMS   <ul><li>decline of forests, due to air pollution and acid deposition;  </li></ul><ul><li>l...
 
Percentage of birds, mammals, fishes and plants/ Total number of species   disappearing (after Pimms et al., 1995 in Chapi...
The role of biodiversity in global change
 
Biodiversity and Sustainability <ul><li>The biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to the sustainability of that ecosyst...
Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity
Ex-situ  Conservation <ul><li>Ex-situ  conservation means  “off-site” conservation.  </li></ul><ul><li>The species of plan...
In-situ  Conservation <ul><li>I n-situ  conservation means  “on-site”  conservation i.e. protection of species within the ...
In-situ  Conservation <ul><li>In India we have 608 protected areas.  </li></ul><ul><li>· National Parks: 95 </li></ul><ul>...
Biodiversity Hotspot Zones <ul><li>British ecologist Norman Myers gave the concept of ‘ biodiversity hotspots ’ in 1988. <...
Indo-Burma  hotspot region <ul><li>This region extends from North-east India to Burma and has a rich treasure of biologica...
The Himalayan Hotspot <ul><li>The Himalayan Hotspot  has over 10,000 plant species of which 31.6 5 are endemic. </li></ul>...
Western  Ghats and Sri Lanka <ul><li>Western Ghats and Sri Lanka  is one of the richest biodiversity areas with a high rat...
Biodiversity Act of India (2002) <ul><li>The  Government of India approved biodiversity bill in December 2002 which became...
Some closing thoughts
How do we restore ecological balance and meet human needs? <ul><li>Don’t deplete non-renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li...
Biological Diversity
Biological Diversity
Biodiversity  quotes <ul><li>Every country has three forms of wealth:  material, cultural and biological . The first two w...
 
“ Harmony with the land is like harmony with a friend; you cannot cherish his right hand and chop off his left.  The land ...
We remember we depend on each other,  live and let live.
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BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

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  • Richness = number of species present Evenness = relative abundance Composition = particular species present Interactions = non-additive affects
  • Here’s another way to look at earth – a bit more conceptual, but I’ll walk through it. Understanding how to make human endeavor more sustainable ecologically – most important question. Human activities Global change s - affecting biodiversity – richness, or # of species, abundances (not just are they there or not, but how many individuals?), composition – which types of species (e.g., grasses, or trees? Alligators or snakes?), and interactions (how do they influence each other – who is eating whom? Who is helping whom?). All this is changing and trying to deal with the causes of these changes is the realm of conservation. Looking at species as responding to changes in the environment, wrought by man. But the biota isn’t just a passive pile of flesh and cellulose getting batted about by the winds of change. In reality, the biota drive ecosystems. All that plant growth is what generates the energy other organisms use to grow, all those bacteria and fungi decomposing detritus – they are the ones responsible for breaking down old organic compounds and freeing up the nutrients so plants can keep growing, they are the ones responsible for building up rich soils, all those animals eating plants and other animals, they are the ones that grow big enough that we find it worth our time to kill and eat them to sustain ourselves. In that sense, biodiversity affects ecosystem processes – and ecosystem goods and services, things that benefit mankind. Some obvious – food, fuel, building materials, medicinals = goods. Relatively easy to assign a dollar value to them. Some water purification, natural flood control, pollination of crops, regulation of climate – we’re just beginning to understand. Processes that haven’t typically been accounted for in cost-benefit analyses during conversion of land from natural ecosystems. MVP vs. MFP: Conservation biologists, and even federal legislation like the endangered species act, typically talk in terms of minimum viable populations of a species – that is, what’s the smallest population size that is likely to persist for some set amount of time, say 100 years. To understand this other part of the equation, however, we need a very different perspective. We need to think in terms of minimum FUNCTIONAL populations of species: How many individuals are necessary to support a population large enough to fulfill an important ecosystem service? If a species was once very abundant and provided important ecosystem services, it doesn’t have to be globally extinct to cause major disruption to human activities. Just ask the people who used to fish for cod on the east coast. The big question is if and how the changes in biodiversity resulting from human actions will come back and bite us in the butt. Can we keep our species and eat them (and their habitats) too? To my mind, this question of sustainability is probably the most critical one of our time. Part of the reason I got into science was the feeling that people’s activities were just a small part of what is going on in the world – that to understand how the world is REALLY working, we need to understand processes that set the context for the human endeavor – the chemical, biological, and physical forces that shape the way the earth works. The type of global change most influencing a given region or ecosystem type will determine , these scenarios could be equally important as the linked traits in determining ecosystem properties. Understanding how communities will change in response to stressors and how altered communities will influence ecosystem goods and services depends on looking at biodiversity as a dynamic variable.
  • Transcript of "BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY"

    1. 1. Dr. B. Victor Biological diversity
    2. 2. Bio = Bio diversity What does “ Bio ” mean? Life
    3. 3. Bio diversity D i v e r s i t y = V a r i e t y What does “ Diversity ” mean?
    4. 4. Why protect biodiversity ? <ul><li>MORAL </li></ul><ul><li>right to exist, stewardship (heritage), </li></ul><ul><li>unnecessary waste immoral </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC </li></ul><ul><li>valuable resources now and in the future </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>maintain local to global ecosystem health </li></ul><ul><li>LEGAL </li></ul><ul><li>have to by law </li></ul>
    5. 5. Human impact on Global Biodiversity <ul><li>Human activities have altered the world’s terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems throughout history. </li></ul><ul><li>  In the last 50 years, there was “a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth” (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of species at risk of extinction – 16,306 species of plants and animals listed as threatened globally – clearly reflects this loss of diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity – plants, animals, microorganisms and the ecological processes that interconnect them – forms the planet’s natural productivity.  </li></ul>
    6. 6. The world is a living system where… <ul><li>Everything is connected and…. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is interdependent and…. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained in a dynamic balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Matter and energy may change form, but they do not disappear. </li></ul>
    7. 7. A Basic Equation for Life <ul><li>Seeds + Soil + Nutrition + Water + Sun = Food </li></ul><ul><li>Natural cycles in the world’s ecosystems help deliver nutrition and water to the soil, and microbes in the soil help capture and process those materials so they are available to be taken up by plants. Plants become a part of the food chain and are eaten by other living things. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Massive biodiversity loss is essentially irreversible <ul><li>Each species is the product of a unique, non-reproducible history </li></ul><ul><li>Paleontology shows that it takes about ten million years to recover previous levels of species diversity after a period of mass extinction, and the new biodiversity strongly differs from that lost </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment : five main causes of biodiversity loss <ul><li>habitat change, </li></ul><ul><li>climate change, </li></ul><ul><li>invasive alien species, </li></ul><ul><li>overexploitation and </li></ul><ul><li>pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assessment argued that the loss of the species and the progressive homogenization of many ecosystems is one of the main threats to the survival of the natural systems. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>The term BIODIVERSITY was first coined by the entomologist E.O. Wilson in 1986.  </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is the heritage of million of years of evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity is a basic property of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The striking feature of Earth is the existence of Life and the striking feature of Life is its Diversity. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Biodiversity allowed the advent of modern civilizations, but… <ul><li>Plant and animal domestication often involves a reduction in biodiversity through artificial selection </li></ul><ul><li>• Industrialization and modern technology provide humankind with increasing control over, and independence from, nature </li></ul>
    12. 12. Plants begin invading land Evolution and expansion of life First fossil record of animals Plants invade the land Age of reptiles Age of mammals Insects and amphibians invade the land Modern humans (Homo sapiens) appear about 2 seconds before midnight Recorded human history begins 1/4 second before midnight Origin of life (3.6–3.8 billion years ago) noon midnight
    13. 13. Biodiversity is the measure of the number, variety and variability of living organisms . <ul><li>Variety - the number of different types. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity - the number or total biomass of any one type. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution - the extent and nature of geographic spread of different types. </li></ul>
    14. 15. What is biodiversity? <ul><li>Biodiversity includes diversity within species, between species and among ecosystems. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Significance of biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity is the sum of life on earth and includes genetic, species and functional diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>The status and trends in biodiversity reflect the health of the ecosystems that support and enrich human life. </li></ul>
    16. 17. The Earth is home to a tremendous biological diversity <ul><li>This “biodiversity”, which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>The millions of different species </li></ul><ul><li>The diversity of their genes, physiologies, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The multitude of their ecological interactions </li></ul><ul><li>The variety of the ecosystems they constitute </li></ul><ul><li>This biodiversity, which is the result of more than 3 </li></ul><ul><li>billion years of evolution, is under serious threat today </li></ul>
    17. 18. Biodiversity <ul><li>Variety of living things, number of kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different habitats, niches, species interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different kinds of organisms, relationships among species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different genes & combinations of genes </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. A B Which do you like better?
    19. 20. Which do you like better? A B
    20. 21. Which do you like better? A B
    21. 22. What is biodiversity? <ul><li>The spectrum of life on earth, in terms of variation in </li></ul><ul><li>genes, </li></ul><ul><li>populations, </li></ul><ul><li>species, </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystems, </li></ul><ul><li>interactions among them. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Biological Diversity <ul><li>Genetic diversity – the genetic variation among individuals in a species </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity – the number of different species in a given area </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem (Habitat) diversity – the variety of interactions among organisms in a community (or the variety of ecosystems on Earth) </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>Biodiversity, the variety of life </li></ul><ul><li>more interactions </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>GENOME </li></ul><ul><li>CHROMOSOME </li></ul><ul><li>GENE </li></ul><ul><li>ENZYME </li></ul><ul><li>more biological units </li></ul>
    24. 25. Biological Diversity
    25. 26. Biological diversity organization
    26. 27. Levels of genetic organization Gene Text sequence Chromosome Chapter Genome Gene pool
    27. 28. Genetic diversity <ul><li>Variation within genes </li></ul><ul><li>alleles & haplotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Variation within individuals </li></ul><ul><li>individual heterozygosity </li></ul><ul><li>Variation within populations </li></ul><ul><li>allele frequencies, average heterozygosity, average number of polymorphic alleles and loci. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation among populations </li></ul><ul><li>differentiation and genetic distance (pairwise and average) </li></ul>
    28. 29. Species diversity <ul><li>It represents the different types of plants, animals and other life forms within a region. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a dynamic property and changes over space and time. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of species and their relative abundances depend on the size and geographic area of the ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Species diversity is an indicator of the biological richness/stress of an ecosystem. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Ecosystem diversity <ul><li>It is the variety of different habitats/ecosystems in a particular area ( e.g.. wetland, woodland, grassland). </li></ul><ul><li>The ecosystems of the world are maintained by their biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Every ecosystem can be characterized by its own species composition. </li></ul><ul><li>The ecosystems differ in features such as physical structure, temperature, water availability and food types. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Ecosystem Characteristics <ul><li>Biological structure, composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical structure, composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Major vegetation types. </li></ul><ul><li>Successional stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare or specialized communities (or otherwise at risk.) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and air resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Stream flows, streambanks, shorelines, lakes, wetlands, riparian areas, floodplains. </li></ul><ul><li>Principal ecological processes, invasives. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Ecosystem Characteristics <ul><li>Major vegetation types and developmental stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare and unique habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>Species richness, diversity, distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow endemic, geographically restricted, or rare species. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial structure of populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasives. </li></ul><ul><li>Keystone species or ecological engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms adjacent to stream channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Structure Characteristics <ul><li>Proportion and distribution of vegetation types and successional stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Density of large trees per acre. </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape patch dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Stream habitat complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Tributaries, lake morphometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil productivity, soil compaction layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Percent particulate matter in air. </li></ul><ul><li>Stream diversions and impoundments. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Processes Characteristics <ul><li>Fire, landslides, flood types, frequencies, severities, patch size, landscape pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Successional pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>Stream and lake temperature regimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Riverine flow regimes, sediment transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate and extent of invasion by exotics. </li></ul>
    34. 36. Diversity of organisms
    35. 37. How many different species are there? <ul><li>The number of species identified and named is more than 1.7 million, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>950,00 species of insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>270,000 species of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19,000 species of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,500 species of reptiles and amphibians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9,000 species of birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 species of mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rest includes mollusks, worms, spiders, fungi, algae, and microorganisms. </li></ul>
    36. 38. Biodiversity: # of species estimates <ul><li>Most estimates of the total number of species on Earth lie between 5 million and 30 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Of this total, roughly 2 million species have been formally described; the remainder are unknown or unnamed. </li></ul>
    37. 39. Biodiversity Attributes
    38. 40. 1.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Alpha – number of species in a given plot or area </li></ul>a c d a b c c a a a a a b b b
    39. 41. 2.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Beta – species turnover across an environmental gradient </li></ul>16.14
    40. 42. 3.Scales of diversity <ul><li>Gamma diversity : the total biodiversity within a landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma diversity is a function of local or ‘within habitat diversity’ ( alpha diversity ) and differences in species composition or ‘turnover’ of species, between habitats or localities ( beta diversity ). </li></ul>
    41. 43. Scales of diversity
    42. 44. Types of biodiversity measures <ul><li>What is being measured? </li></ul><ul><li>- measures of numbers of things (e.g., number of species </li></ul><ul><li>- measures of processes (e.g., primary productivity) </li></ul><ul><li>- measures of system properties (e.g., resilience) </li></ul><ul><li>What scale? </li></ul><ul><li>- genetic </li></ul><ul><li>- species </li></ul><ul><li>- community </li></ul><ul><li>- ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>- landscape </li></ul>
    43. 45. Species Richness (S)   <ul><li>The total number of different organisms present. It does not take into account the proportion and distribution of each subspecies within a zone. </li></ul>
    44. 46. Simpson Index (D)   <ul><li>A measurement that accounts for the richness and the percent of each subspecies from a biodiversity sample within a zone. The index assumes that the proportion of individuals in an area indicate their importance to diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Simpson's index: D = sum(Pi2) </li></ul><ul><li>The first step is to calculate Pi, which is the abundance of a given subspecies in a zone divided by the total number of subspecies observed in that zone. </li></ul>
    45. 47. Shannon-Wiener index (H)/ the Shannon index / the Shannon-Weaver index   <ul><li>This measurement takes into account subspecies richness and proportion of each subspecies within a zone. </li></ul><ul><li>The first step is to calculate Pi for each category subspecies. Then multiply this number by the log of the number. While you may use any base, the natural log is commonly used. The index is computed from the negative sum of these numbers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H = -sum (Pi log [Pi]) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Using species richness (S) and the Shannon-Wiener index (H), you can also compute a measure of evenness: </li></ul><ul><li> E = H/ log (S) </li></ul>
    46. 48. Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity maintains the health of the earth and its people. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides us with food and medicine and contributes to our economy. </li></ul><ul><li>It tells us a lot about the health of the biosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the variety of species, the healthier the biosphere . </li></ul>
    47. 49. Biodiversity – Hierarchy
    48. 50. Biodiversity Is determined By : <ul><li>Species richness </li></ul><ul><li>Species evenness </li></ul><ul><li>Species composition </li></ul><ul><li>Species interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal and spatial variation </li></ul>
    49. 51. Species richness is the number of species in a given area.
    50. 52. High-, medium- and low Diversity
    51. 53. Why is biodiversity important? <ul><li>Regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological functions, </li></ul><ul><li>Soil protection, </li></ul><ul><li>Crop pollination, </li></ul><ul><li>Pest control, </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation and ecotourism </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife habitat and diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally free benefits to society or “public goods” </li></ul><ul><li>Scale is variable from local to global benefits </li></ul>
    52. 54. What do we get from biodiversity? <ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul>
    53. 55. Biodiversity is dynamic <ul><li>Biodiversity is not static, but constantly changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is increased by genetic change and evolutionary processes and reduced by processes such as habitat degradation, population decline, and extinction. </li></ul>
    54. 56. Earth's five mass extinctions Earth is experiencing a sixth mass extinction today.
    55. 57. Anthropogenic Impacts <ul><li>By the end of the 21st century, we may have lost two-thirds of the species on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>To date, about 50 percent of the planet's natural habitats have been cleared for human use, and another 0.5 to 1.5 percent of nature is lost each year </li></ul>
    56. 59. Principal causes of extinction <ul><li>73% - Destruction of habitat </li></ul><ul><li>68% - Displacement by introduced species </li></ul><ul><li>38% - Alteration of habitat by chemical ` pollution </li></ul><ul><li>38% - Hybridization of species (plants) </li></ul><ul><li>15% - Over-harvesting </li></ul>
    57. 60. The main threats to biodiversity
    58. 61. Endangered and Extinct Species <ul><li>Extinction, the elimination of a species from Earth, occurs when the last individual of a particular species dies. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction is a natural process – 99.95% of all the species that have ever lived on Earth are extinct today. </li></ul><ul><li>However, human activities can speed the process - extinctions today are occurring at 100 to 1000 times faster than the natural rate. </li></ul>
    59. 62. Endangered and Extinct Species <ul><li>Endangered species are in imminent danger of extinction throughout all or part of their range. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened species have low population sizes and are likely to become endangered in the near future. </li></ul>
    60. 63. Characteristics of Endangered Species <ul><li>Endangered species have one or more of these characteristics that make them vulnerable to extinction : </li></ul><ul><li>limited natural range </li></ul><ul><li>low reproductive success </li></ul><ul><li>specialized feeding requirements </li></ul><ul><li>large territory requirement </li></ul>
    61. 64. Extinctions can be caused by: <ul><li>· natural processes (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts); </li></ul><ul><li>excessive harvesting of particular species of economic value; </li></ul><ul><li>impacts of alien invasive species including diseases; </li></ul><ul><li>the impacts of various environmental pollutants; </li></ul><ul><li>changes in climate; </li></ul><ul><li>knock-on effects from extinction of essential companion species (e.g. pollinators, fruit or seed dispersers, obligate parasites or symbionts); </li></ul>
    62. 65. Human activities threatening biological diversity: <ul><li>Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive species </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul>
    63. 66. Habitat Fragmentation <ul><li>Habitat fragmented into smaller “patches </li></ul><ul><li>The patches grow further apart, more isolated, organisms can’t move among them. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments reside in a “matrix” of anthropogenic, disturbed habitat (farmland, subdivisions, etc)—often inhospitable to native species. </li></ul><ul><li>those Species obligated to the remaining habitat patches decline, those able to move among patches and utilize the human-dominated matrix hold on. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalist species able to use patch, edge, and matrix increase (deer, raccoons, many weeds). </li></ul>
    64. 67. Fragmentation most easily observed in forest habitat is caused by human activities. Anywhere that humans transformations cut up continuous habitat.
    65. 68. “ Edge Effect” and edge vs. interior species.
    66. 69. Habitat Destruction <ul><li>Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and degradation is the leading cause of biodiversity decline. </li></ul>All in the name of progress?
    67. 70. Invasive Species <ul><li>Biotic pollution is the introduction of a foreign species into an area where it is not native </li></ul><ul><li>Other names for these: </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive Species </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic Species </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Species </li></ul><ul><li>Non-native Species </li></ul>
    68. 71. Pollution <ul><li>Acid deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul>
    69. 72. Overexploitation <ul><li>Over-hunting – unregulated hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Poaching – illegal hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Over-fishing – harvesting faster than the stocks can replace themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Over-collecting – collecting live organisms for zoos, pet stores, research etc. </li></ul>
    70. 73. Homogenization <ul><li>Homogenization is the process whereby species assemblages become increasingly dominated by a small number of widespread, human-adapted species. </li></ul>
    71. 74. http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312380/images/wheat.jpg Anthropogenic Homogenization
    72. 75. Exotic species Homogenization
    73. 76. Biodiversity affects human well-being Human activities Global changes Biodiversity Ecosystem processes Ecosystem services
    74. 77. Links between biodiversity, climate change and Human well-being
    75. 78. Links between biodiversity, climate change and ecosystem services
    76. 81. Aesthetic value Ethical value Social value Productive value Consumptive value Biodiversity Value
    77. 82. Values of biodiversity Values of biodiversity Ecological values Economic values Cultural values
    78. 83. “Value” of Biodiversity <ul><li>1. Market values </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-market values </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ecosystems services </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in terms of ecosystems function </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on biologically mediated flows of energy and materials </li></ul>
    79. 84. Biodiversity Value : Ecological values All living creatures are supported by the interactions among organisms and ecosystems. Loss of biodiversity makes ecosystems less stable, more vulnerable to extreme events, and weakens its natural cycles.
    80. 85. Economic values <ul><li>: A biologically diverse natural environment provides humans with the necessities of life and forms the basis for the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Every thing we buy and sell originates from the natural world. </li></ul>
    81. 86. Cultural values <ul><li>Most people feel connected to nature, often for </li></ul><ul><li>reasons hard to explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Some feel a strong spiritual bond that may be </li></ul><ul><li>rooted in our common biological ancestory. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are inspired by its beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>Human cultures around the world profoundly </li></ul><ul><li>reflect our visceral attachment to the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus cultural diversity is linked to Earth’s biodiversity. </li></ul>
    82. 87. Ecosystem Services
    83. 88. New ways of thinking Ecosystem Services: the benefits people obtain from ecosystems <ul><li>Regulating </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes </li></ul><ul><li>• climate regulation </li></ul><ul><li>• disease regulation </li></ul><ul><li>• flood regulation </li></ul>Provisioning Goods produced or provided by ecosystems • food • fresh water • fuel wood • genetic resources Cultural Non-material benefits from ecosystems • spiritual • recreational • aesthetic • inspirational • educational Supporting Services necessary for production of other ecosystem services • Soil formation • Nutrient cycling • Primary production
    84. 89. Many human activities disrupt, impair, or reengineer ecosystems every day including: <ul><li>runoff of pesticides, fertilizers, and animal wastes </li></ul><ul><li>pollution of land, water, and air resources </li></ul><ul><li>introduction of non-native species </li></ul><ul><li>overharvesting of fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>destruction of wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>erosion of soils </li></ul><ul><li>deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>urban sprawl </li></ul>
    85. 90. Linkages among Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Human Well-Being
    86. 91. Major Concepts <ul><li>Most species are moderately abundant; few are very abundant or extremely rare. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of the number of species and their relative abundance defines species diversity. </li></ul>
    87. 92. Global changes <ul><li>Climatic change </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>Land use change - type - intensity Species invasions Loss of biodiversity Over-harvest http://www.oceansatlas.org/ http ://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Molles 2007 http://www.ourworldfoundation.org.uk/polar.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/
    88. 93. ADVERSE EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEMS <ul><li>decline of forests, due to air pollution and acid deposition; </li></ul><ul><li>loss of fish production in a stream, due to death of invertebrates from copper pollution; </li></ul><ul><li>loss of timber growth, due to nutrient losses caused by mercury poisoning of microbes and soil insects; </li></ul><ul><li>decline and shift in age of eagle and hawk (and other top predator) populations, due to the effects of DDT in their food supply on egg survival; </li></ul><ul><li>losses of numbers of species (diversity) in ship channels subjected to repeated oil spills; </li></ul><ul><li>loss of commercially valuable salmon and endangered species (bald eagle, osprey) from forest applications of DDT. </li></ul>
    89. 95. Percentage of birds, mammals, fishes and plants/ Total number of species disappearing (after Pimms et al., 1995 in Chapin et al., 2000)
    90. 96. The role of biodiversity in global change
    91. 98. Biodiversity and Sustainability <ul><li>The biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to the sustainability of that ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher/more biodiversity = more sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower/less biodiversity = less sustainable. </li></ul><ul><li>High biodiversity in an ecosystem means that there is a great variety of genes and species in that ecosystem. </li></ul>
    92. 99. Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity
    93. 100. Ex-situ Conservation <ul><li>Ex-situ conservation means “off-site” conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>The species of plants and animals to be protected are removed from the natural habitats and are placed in the safer areas under the control of man. </li></ul><ul><li>Botanical gardens, zoos and the arboreta are the traditional methods of ex-situ conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Germ plasm banks or Seed banks (also Gene banks ) are some other methods of ex-situ conservation. </li></ul>
    94. 101. In-situ Conservation <ul><li>I n-situ conservation means “on-site” conservation i.e. protection of species within the natural habitat of the species of animals and plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes protection in the wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves etc. that have been formed to protect threatened and even rare species. </li></ul>
    95. 102. In-situ Conservation <ul><li>In India we have 608 protected areas. </li></ul><ul><li>· National Parks: 95 </li></ul><ul><li>· Biosphere Reserves: 13 </li></ul><ul><li>· Wildlife Sanctuaries: 500 </li></ul><ul><li>In India, there are four internationally recognized Biosphere Reserves: Nilgiri, Gulf of Mannar , Sunderbans and Nanda Devi (Man and Biosphere Programme of UNESCO). </li></ul><ul><li>In Tamil nadu we have: </li></ul><ul><li>National parks: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Wild life sancturies: 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere reserves: 2 </li></ul>
    96. 103. Biodiversity Hotspot Zones <ul><li>British ecologist Norman Myers gave the concept of ‘ biodiversity hotspots ’ in 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 25 hotspots on a global level. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the 25 hotspots, 11 have lost at least 90% of their natural vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>The TWO Indian hotspots viz. the eastern Himalayas and the western Ghats are rich in flora, reptiles amphibians butter flies and some mammals. </li></ul>
    97. 104. Indo-Burma hotspot region <ul><li>This region extends from North-east India to Burma and has a rich treasure of biological resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The region has a remarkable diversity of fresh water turtles and bird species (over 1300 species). </li></ul><ul><li>A number of dipterocarps, orchids and ginger </li></ul><ul><li>11 species are present in this region. </li></ul>
    98. 105. The Himalayan Hotspot <ul><li>The Himalayan Hotspot has over 10,000 plant species of which 31.6 5 are endemic. </li></ul><ul><li>These include pines, firs, spruces, rhododendrons and variety of orchids, mosses and ferns. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of birds and mammals including vultures, tigers, elephants, rhinos and wild water buffaloes exist in the Himalayas. </li></ul>
    99. 106. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka <ul><li>Western Ghats and Sri Lanka is one of the richest biodiversity areas with a high rate (52%) of endemism of plants species. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of unique and rare plants and ferns are present in this hotspot. </li></ul>
    100. 107. Biodiversity Act of India (2002) <ul><li>The Government of India approved biodiversity bill in December 2002 which became an ACT known as Biological Diversity Act of 2002 . </li></ul><ul><li>Later, Biological Diversity Rules, 2004 were formulated as a step towards conservation of biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>According to this act, any one who destroys biodiversity in any way or takes it away for commercial utilization or any other purpose without approval of authorities is liable to be imprisoned for up-to five years or to pay a fine of Rs.10 lakhs. </li></ul>
    101. 108. Some closing thoughts
    102. 109. How do we restore ecological balance and meet human needs? <ul><li>Don’t deplete non-renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Use renewable resources efficiently and sustainably </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t create persistent toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Respect and protect biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming provides the foundation for restorative agriculture. </li></ul>
    103. 110. Biological Diversity
    104. 111. Biological Diversity
    105. 112. Biodiversity quotes <ul><li>Every country has three forms of wealth: material, cultural and biological . The first two we understand well, because they are the substance of our everyday lives. The essence of the biodiversity problem is that biological wealth is taken much less seriously. . . ..” </li></ul><ul><li>- EDWARD WILSON, The Diversity of Life (1992). </li></ul>
    106. 114. “ Harmony with the land is like harmony with a friend; you cannot cherish his right hand and chop off his left. The land is one organism. Its part compete with each other and co-operate with each other. To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent thinking” – Aldo Leopold
    107. 115. We remember we depend on each other,  live and let live.
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