Water Quality
Hypoxia – What is it?An area of low dissolved oxygen concentrations that cannot support marine life. Typically O2 < 2 ppm
Hypoxia – Why does it occur? Algae bloom in freshwater Algae settle to bottom Algae decomposition consumes O2
Hypoxia – How large an area?                                                             x   http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/pdf/2...
Hypoxia – Is nutrient flux constant?             co.water.usgs.gov
Hypoxia – Nitrogen Source?   20 – 25 lb/Awww.umces.edu/President/hypoxia.htm
Hypoxia – Source of Phosphorus?
Look to the FuturePlanted area: Corn, wheat, and soybeansMillion acres100 90                                              ...
Corn/Soybean and PerennialNitrate-N Concentrations in Tile            Drain                             25 Tile drainage ...
Tom Kaspar
Rye after corn silage                        Tom Kaspar
Cumulative annual nitrate-N load of drainage                                                 water for 2002-2005          ...
Cropping System Impacts on Drainage     Water Quality and Quantity Dr. Matt Helmers, Dr. Xiaobo Zhou, and             Carl...
ISU South Reynoldson FarmBoone County, IAComparison of Biofuel Systems(COBS)Each of the 24 plots is 90 ft x 200 ft        ...
Tile Drainage Flow 2010
Tile Drainage Flow 2011
NO3-N Concentration 2010
NO3-N Concentration 2011
NO3-N Loss 2010
NO3-N Loss 2011
Iowa Daily Erosion Project Estimates daily soil erosion, runoff and soil moisture for the state of Iowa     Daily estima...
Simulated crops   Eight scenarios based on ISU research                                 Residue   Cover      Rotation    ...
NEXRAD – Aug 22, 2007    Statewide mean precipitation: 1.56 in.
Switchgrass – NT, RRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Cont. Corn – NTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Corn/Soybean – NTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Cont. Corn – NT, RRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Cont. Corn – NT, RR, CCSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
NRI Projected RotationSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Corn/Soy - MTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Cont. Corn - MTRRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
Event Summary             8/22/2007 Mean Loss   8/22/2007 MeanManagement                  (tons/acre)         Runoff (in) ...
Cumulative                          sediment export (lb acre-1)                                                           ...
Thoughts to Ponder Corn   grain ethanol     N applications likely unchanged     P applications likely unchanged     Wa...
Thoughts to Ponder (II) Cellulosic   - conversion of corn stalks     Likely greater water quality challenges than      c...
Water resources and biofuels water quality   april 2012
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Water resources and biofuels water quality april 2012

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Water resources and biofuels water quality april 2012

  1. 1. Water Quality
  2. 2. Hypoxia – What is it?An area of low dissolved oxygen concentrations that cannot support marine life. Typically O2 < 2 ppm
  3. 3. Hypoxia – Why does it occur? Algae bloom in freshwater Algae settle to bottom Algae decomposition consumes O2
  4. 4. Hypoxia – How large an area? x http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/pdf/2007-hypoxia-pred-web-5.pdf Turner and Rabalais, 2007 X – size in 2008
  5. 5. Hypoxia – Is nutrient flux constant? co.water.usgs.gov
  6. 6. Hypoxia – Nitrogen Source? 20 – 25 lb/Awww.umces.edu/President/hypoxia.htm
  7. 7. Hypoxia – Source of Phosphorus?
  8. 8. Look to the FuturePlanted area: Corn, wheat, and soybeansMillion acres100 90 Corn 80 Soybeans 70 60 Wheat 50 40 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: USDA Agricultural Projections to Projections to USDA Agricultural 2016, February 2007. 2016 Economic Research Service, USDA. D. R. Keeney
  9. 9. Corn/Soybean and PerennialNitrate-N Concentrations in Tile Drain 25 Tile drainage system 20 U of MN - Lamberton Gyles Randall, 2003 15 mg/L Midpoint 10 of range 5 0 Corn/Bean Perennials D. R. Keeney
  10. 10. Tom Kaspar
  11. 11. Rye after corn silage Tom Kaspar
  12. 12. Cumulative annual nitrate-N load of drainage water for 2002-2005 90 81.1 80 Control 70Annual nitrate-N load (kg/ha) Rye Cover Crop 60 50.8 50 47.2 40.4 40 33.9 34.4 30 23.0 19.8 20 11.2 11.1 10 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 Avg. Kaspar et al., JEQ 36:1503-1511
  13. 13. Cropping System Impacts on Drainage Water Quality and Quantity Dr. Matt Helmers, Dr. Xiaobo Zhou, and Carl Pederson
  14. 14. ISU South Reynoldson FarmBoone County, IAComparison of Biofuel Systems(COBS)Each of the 24 plots is 90 ft x 200 ft Photo by T. Schultz August 2009
  15. 15. Tile Drainage Flow 2010
  16. 16. Tile Drainage Flow 2011
  17. 17. NO3-N Concentration 2010
  18. 18. NO3-N Concentration 2011
  19. 19. NO3-N Loss 2010
  20. 20. NO3-N Loss 2011
  21. 21. Iowa Daily Erosion Project Estimates daily soil erosion, runoff and soil moisture for the state of Iowa  Daily estimations since 2002  Published in Jan/Feb 2006 Journal of the Soil and Water Conservation Society  Served on the web at http://wepp.mesonet.agron.iastate.edu  Parameterizes WEPP erosion model with radar rainfall, climate stations, and NRI
  22. 22. Simulated crops Eight scenarios based on ISU research Residue Cover Rotation Tillage Abbreviation Removal Crop NRI NRI No No NRI Corn/Soy Min-till No No CS-MT Cont. Corn Min-till Yes No CC-MTRR Corn/Soy No-till No No CS-NT Cont. Corn No-till No No CC-NT Cont. Corn No-till Yes No CC-NTRR Cont. Corn No-till Yes Yes CC-NTRRCC Switchgrass No-till Yes No Sw-NTRR
  23. 23. NEXRAD – Aug 22, 2007 Statewide mean precipitation: 1.56 in.
  24. 24. Switchgrass – NT, RRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  25. 25. Cont. Corn – NTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  26. 26. Corn/Soybean – NTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  27. 27. Cont. Corn – NT, RRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  28. 28. Cont. Corn – NT, RR, CCSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  29. 29. NRI Projected RotationSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  30. 30. Corn/Soy - MTSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  31. 31. Cont. Corn - MTRRSw-NTRRCC-NTCS-NTCC-NTRRCC-NTRRCCNRICS-MTCC-MTRR
  32. 32. Event Summary 8/22/2007 Mean Loss 8/22/2007 MeanManagement (tons/acre) Runoff (in) Sw-NTRR 0.044 0.657 CC-NT 0.113 0.662 CS-NT 0.184 0.651 CC-NTRR 0.230 0.649CC-NTRRCC 0.232 0.650 NRI 0.320 0.640 CS-MT 0.406 0.647CC-MTRR 0.458 0.646
  33. 33. Cumulative sediment export (lb acre-1) Cumulative surface runoff (in acre-1) 4/ 4/ 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 4/ 4/ 17 17 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 4/ 4/ 18 18 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 4/ 4/ 25 25 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 5/ 5/ 25 25 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 100% Row-crop 100% Row-crop 5/ 5/ 30 30 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 6/ 6/ 3/ 3/ 20 20Date 08 08 10% Perennial Cover at Toe Slope 10% Perennial Cover at Toe Slope 6/ 6/ 5/ 5/ 20 20 20% Perennial Cover in Contour Strips 10% Perennial Cover in Contour Strips 20% Perennial Cover in Contour Strips 10% Perennial Cover in Contour Strips 08 08 6/ 6/ 6/ 6/ 20 20 08 08 6/ 6/ 8/ 8/ 20 20 08 08 6/ 6/ 12 12 /2 /2 0 08 00 8 6/ 6/ 26 26 /2 /2 0 08 00 8
  34. 34. Thoughts to Ponder Corn grain ethanol  N applications likely unchanged  P applications likely unchanged  Water quality impacts likely unchanged  Cover crop management good for system
  35. 35. Thoughts to Ponder (II) Cellulosic - conversion of corn stalks  Likely greater water quality challenges than current ag systems  Opportunities with cover crops to improve WQ  Sediment/Phosphorus issues increase Cellulosic – conversion of perennials  Favorable WQ opportunities • Surface • Subsurface

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