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BIOEN2: Bioenergy CropProduction, Handling & Logistics Dennis Pennington – Michigan State University Extension
Agenda• Overview of BION2: Bioenergy Crop Production and Harvesting• Research data from MI• Handling and logistics
BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.1 Analyzing the economics of bioenergy cropproduction• Cost-benefit analysis in farm decision-making• Bioenergy crop budgets• Analyzing potential markets• Federal and state incentive programs for production of biomass
BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.2 Bioenergy Crop Production: a crop by cropanalysis• Crop production – 19 fact sheets – Crop Comparison Matrix• Energy Potential Box
BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.3 Bioenergy Crop Production SustainabilityFactors• Landscape diversity• Carbon Offset Markets• Life Cycle Analysis• Sustainable Management
Switchgrass Biofuel Productivity Trial Variety Trial MiscanthusEstablishment Trial Crop by Crop Analysis Michigan Data Switchgrass Agronomy Trial
LodgingSweet sorghum – Clinton CountyAugust 6, 2010
Lodging Cass County November 9, 2010 Big Bluestem Indiangrass
Weed ControlSunflowers (and ragweed!) – Clinton Co. June 1, 2010
Cass County (Edward Lowe Foundation) 2010 2011 Yield1 Ethanol2 Yield1 Ethanol2 Switchgrass 3.57 303.5 7.28 618.8 a Indiangrass 5.02 426.7 6.97 592.5 ab Miscanthus 3.77 320.5 6.56 557.6 ab Big Bluestem 3.07 261.0 3.43 291.6 b1 tons of dry matter/acre2 tons/acre X 85 gal/ton = gal of ethanol/acre3 Ethanol yield calculated at 2.8 gallons per bushel for corn grain.
Miscanthus Establishment• Purpose: compare transplants started in greenhouse to planting bare rhizomes in non- irrigated soil• Treatments: – m-root = bare root planted directly in soil – m-trans = live plant grown for 8 weeks in greenhouse In partnership with and funded by the Energy Biosciences Institute at the University of Illinois.
Switchgrass Variety Trial (KBS) Yield (tons DM/acre) Ecotype Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Alamo L a 3.59 3.87 Blackwell U a 4.51 4.67 Cave-in-Rock U a 4.22 4.48 Dakota U a 1.71 1.81 EG 1101 L 1.44 2.42 - EG 1102 L 2.18 4.08 - EG 2101 U 0.94 2.41 - Kanlow L a 2.62 4.40 NE28 L a 2.53 2.47 Shelter U 0.90 2.12 - Southlow U a 2.44 3.46 Trailblazer U a 2.25 2.30aIn varieties established in 2009, yield data was not collected due to the fact that mowing was needed for weed control.L=lowland ecotype (typically out produces upland, grown in southern states)U=upland ecotype (better overwinter survival in northern states like Michigan)
Biomass Feedstock Sources Amount needed to reach U.S. bioenergy goalsForest• Logging residues Forest• Excess timber (fuel treatments)• Fuel wood• Processing residues• Pulping liquors AgriculturalAgricultural• Crop residues• Grains Total• Perennial Grasses• Woody crops• Food processing waste 0 500 1000 1500• Municipal solid waste Million Dry Tons Per Year Source: Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 2005.
So which system is better?Bales Bulk• More dense • Less dense - requires• Easier for farmer to handle packing equip for• Cheaper at the farm end transportation • Saves de-twine, de-bale and chop operations at biorefinery • Cheaper at biorefinery
Other issues• Year round supply – can’t deliver all at harvest• Storage on farm – Covered bales – Bunker silo• Equipment cost – baler is much cheaper
Cellulosic Ethanol• How close is it?• 3-5 years?• Poet Ethanol – Reduced energy use, enzyme costs, raw material requirements and capital expenses (Dec. 09) $4.13 $2. 35 Photo by Dr. Cole Gustafson, NDSU
Cellulosic Ethanol• How close is it?• 3-5 years?• Genera Energy• $1.65 cash costs + $0.30 capital costs $2. 00