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Bioenergy crop productionhandling pennington

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    • 1. BIOEN2: Bioenergy CropProduction, Handling & Logistics Dennis Pennington – Michigan State University Extension
    • 2. Agenda• Overview of BION2: Bioenergy Crop Production and Harvesting• Research data from MI• Handling and logistics
    • 3. BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.1 Analyzing the economics of bioenergy cropproduction• Cost-benefit analysis in farm decision-making• Bioenergy crop budgets• Analyzing potential markets• Federal and state incentive programs for production of biomass
    • 4. BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.2 Bioenergy Crop Production: a crop by cropanalysis• Crop production – 19 fact sheets – Crop Comparison Matrix• Energy Potential Box
    • 5. BIOEN2: Bioenergy Crops2.3 Bioenergy Crop Production SustainabilityFactors• Landscape diversity• Carbon Offset Markets• Life Cycle Analysis• Sustainable Management
    • 6. Switchgrass Biofuel Productivity Trial Variety Trial MiscanthusEstablishment Trial Crop by Crop Analysis Michigan Data Switchgrass Agronomy Trial
    • 7. Biofuel Productivity Plot Locations • 2009 (6) – Antrim, Barry, Cass, Isab ella, Kalamazoo, Sagina w • 2010 (5) – Alger, Ottawa, Presque Isle, Clinton, St. Joseph • 2011 (7) – Wayne, Kent, Muskegon, Osceola, Otsego, Branch, Lapeer
    • 8. Funding Partners
    • 9. CropsPerennial Annual• Switchgrass • Forage sorghum• Miscanthus • Sweet sorghum• Indiangrass • Energy sorghum• Big Bluestem – Photoperiod sensitive• Little Bluestem – Non-PS• Prairie Cordgrass • Corn• Reed Canarygrass • Canola • Oriental mustard • Sunflower • Soybean • Pennycress
    • 10. Wildlife damage
    • 11. Frost damage on switchgrass
    • 12. LodgingSweet sorghum – Clinton CountyAugust 6, 2010
    • 13. Lodging Cass County November 9, 2010 Big Bluestem Indiangrass
    • 14. Weed ControlSunflowers (and ragweed!) – Clinton Co. June 1, 2010
    • 15. Cass County (Edward Lowe Foundation) 2010 2011 Yield1 Ethanol2 Yield1 Ethanol2 Switchgrass 3.57 303.5 7.28 618.8 a Indiangrass 5.02 426.7 6.97 592.5 ab Miscanthus 3.77 320.5 6.56 557.6 ab Big Bluestem 3.07 261.0 3.43 291.6 b1 tons of dry matter/acre2 tons/acre X 85 gal/ton = gal of ethanol/acre3 Ethanol yield calculated at 2.8 gallons per bushel for corn grain.
    • 16. Kellogg Biological Station 2009 2010 2011 Yield1 Ethanol2 Yield1 Ethanol2 Yield1 Ethanol2 Canola (lbs/a) - - 121.6 - 467.4 - Oriental mustard (lbs/a) - - - - 179.3 - Sweet Sorghum 13.37 1136.5 7.66 651.1 7.32 622.2 Energy sorghum (PS) - - 8.53 725.1 7.64 649.4 Energy sorghum (non-PS) - - 10.9 924.0 7.55 641.8 Switchgrass - - 4.42 375.7 5.31 451.4 Miscanthus - - 4.4 373.2 7.80 663.0 Indiangrass - - 3.5 300.9 4.60 391.0 Big bluestem - - 2.6 221.9 2.51 213.4 Little bluestem - - - - 1.48 125.8 Reed Canarygrass - - 1.9 163.2 2.53 215.1 Forage sorghum 6.63 563.6 4.9 418.2 4.16 353.6 Corn grain 108.3 303.24 - - - - Corn stover 3.13 266.1 - - - -1 tons of dry matter/acre2 tons/acre X 85 gal/ton = gal of ethanol/acre3 Ethanol yield cacluated at 2.8 gallons per bushel for corn grain.
    • 17. Energy Sorghum High Biomass Sorghum Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghum12-13 foot tall 14-15 foot tallProduced seed head No seed head10.87 tons DM per acre 8.53 tons DM per acreKBS KBS
    • 18. Ottawa County (GVSU) 2010 2011 Yield1 Ethanol2 Yield1 Ethanol2Switchgrass 1.9 161.5 6.48 550.8Miscanthus 2.88 244.8 8.96 761.6Sweet Sorghum 6.7 572.1 - -Corn grain 68.0 190.4 - -Corn stover 3.6 303.5 - -1 tons of dry matter/acre2 tons/acre X 85 gal/ton = gal of ethanol/acre3 Ethanol yield cacluated at 2.8 gallons per bushel for corn grain.
    • 19. Ottawa County (GVSU)
    • 20. Miscanthus Establishment• Purpose: compare transplants started in greenhouse to planting bare rhizomes in non- irrigated soil• Treatments: – m-root = bare root planted directly in soil – m-trans = live plant grown for 8 weeks in greenhouse In partnership with and funded by the Energy Biosciences Institute at the University of Illinois.
    • 21. Miscanthus transplants
    • 22. Miscanthus Establishment 35 30 25Percent Mortality 20 m-root 15 m-trans 10 5 0 2009 2010 2011
    • 23. Miscanthus Establishment 60 49.1 50 40 37.1Tillers per Plant 35.6 30 m-root m-trans 20 18.6 10 0 2009 2010
    • 24. Miscanthus Establishment 25.0Yield (Dry Matter Tons per Acre) 20.43 20.0 15.0 13.84 m-root 10.19 10.0 8.33 m-trans 6.52 5.0 3.72 3.98 1.53 0.0 2009 2010 2011 Total
    • 25. Switchgrass Variety Trial (KBS) Yield (tons DM/acre) Ecotype Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Alamo L a 3.59 3.87 Blackwell U a 4.51 4.67 Cave-in-Rock U a 4.22 4.48 Dakota U a 1.71 1.81 EG 1101 L 1.44 2.42 - EG 1102 L 2.18 4.08 - EG 2101 U 0.94 2.41 - Kanlow L a 2.62 4.40 NE28 L a 2.53 2.47 Shelter U 0.90 2.12 - Southlow U a 2.44 3.46 Trailblazer U a 2.25 2.30aIn varieties established in 2009, yield data was not collected due to the fact that mowing was needed for weed control.L=lowland ecotype (typically out produces upland, grown in southern states)U=upland ecotype (better overwinter survival in northern states like Michigan)
    • 26. Handling & Logistics Photo by J.E Doll, MSU
    • 27. Biomass Feedstock Sources Amount needed to reach U.S. bioenergy goalsForest• Logging residues Forest• Excess timber (fuel treatments)• Fuel wood• Processing residues• Pulping liquors AgriculturalAgricultural• Crop residues• Grains Total• Perennial Grasses• Woody crops• Food processing waste 0 500 1000 1500• Municipal solid waste Million Dry Tons Per Year Source: Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 2005.
    • 28. Density125,000 acres Physical 1000 lbs/(36” x 48” x 96”) = 10.42 lb/ft3115,000 acres Physical 56 lbs/1.24 ft3 = 45.16 lb/ft3
    • 29. Biomass Field DayVonore, TNOctober 2011
    • 30. Two Material Handling Systems: Bales
    • 31. Two Material Handling Systems: Bulk
    • 32. So which system is better?Bales Bulk• More dense • Less dense - requires• Easier for farmer to handle packing equip for• Cheaper at the farm end transportation • Saves de-twine, de-bale and chop operations at biorefinery • Cheaper at biorefinery
    • 33. Other issues• Year round supply – can’t deliver all at harvest• Storage on farm – Covered bales – Bunker silo• Equipment cost – baler is much cheaper
    • 34. Cellulosic Ethanol• How close is it?• 3-5 years?• Poet Ethanol – Reduced energy use, enzyme costs, raw material requirements and capital expenses (Dec. 09) $4.13 $2. 35 Photo by Dr. Cole Gustafson, NDSU
    • 35. Cellulosic Ethanol• How close is it?• 3-5 years?• Genera Energy• $1.65 cash costs + $0.30 capital costs $2. 00
    • 36. http://fyi.uwex.edu/biotrainingcenter/ Questions?