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Global depletion and conservation of natural resources

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Natural resources are the materials which are required for the survival and prosperity of human beings. …

Natural resources are the materials which are required for the survival and prosperity of human beings.
Life of resources can be prolonged by using them diligently
The resources can be useful for a longer period of time and for a larger number of people.
During consumptive use, prevent exploitation, destruction or neglect.

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  • 1. •1
  • 2.  Definition, kinds and characteristics of natural resources. Non-renewable and renewable natural resources. Forest resources Water resources Food resources Air resource Mineral resources Land resources Energy resources Sustainable conservation •B.Victor.,Ph.D •2
  • 3.  Natural resources are the materials which are required for the survival and prosperity of human beings. Natural resource can be a substance, an energy unit or a natural process or phenomenon. •3
  • 4. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •4
  • 5. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •5
  • 6. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •6
  • 7. Resources have multi-dimensions: •7
  • 8. A Resource is something that is useful andvaluable in the condition in which we find it.Natural resources are objects, materials,creatures or energy found in nature that canbe used by humans. •8
  • 9. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •9
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  • 16. Forest services control local climate and water regimes. helps recycle nutrients. prevent soil erosion control flow of water in streams and rivers.absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygenmaintain gene banks of wild relatives.supply food, fodder, medicine, timber, poles andfuel wood and raw materials for industry. valued as sites of natural and cultural heritage aswell as education and recreation.Ecotourism
  • 17. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •17
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  • 25.  A movement against felling trees initiated by Mr. Sundar Lal Bahuguna – 1972. The name of the movement came from a word meaning embrace: the villagers hugged the trees and thus saved them from the contractors axes.  Gandhian method of Satyagraha is used to save the forests in the Garhwali region in northern India. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •25
  • 26.  Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life. Water forms 60% of our body weight. Water is a renewable and limiting resource. About three – fourth of earth’s surface is occupied by oceans. About 97.5% of the earth’s water is strong saline. The rest 2.5% is freshwater. Pure, usable water on land is only 0.3%. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •26
  • 27.  About 70% of the total consumption is used in agriculture. About 1.1% is used for domestic and municipal supplies. Rest is used by various industries. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •27
  • 28.  Increase irrigation efficiency and reduce water wastage. Recycle industrial waste water. Construct waste water treatment plants. Reduce domestic water wastage. Adopt rainwater harvesting methods. Protect watersheds and afforestation to improve water economy. Never dump wastes and garbage in streams and river. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •28
  • 29.  Construct dams and water reservoirs. Desalinize sea water into usable water. Divert canals to dry areas. Regularly dredge and desilt rivers, and water bodies. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •29
  • 30. •The major source of our food are plants / plant products. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •30
  • 31.  Intensive farming reduce fertility and productivity of soil. Increase soil salinity. Over use of chemical fertilizers contaminate soil and ground water. Excessive use of pesticides and herbicides kill beneficial soil organisms. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •31
  • 32. › Air is one of the natural resources and is a life-supporting system.› It forms the immediate environment of the earth and biosphere.› Organisms can respire oxygen and survive in the world.› Rainfall in any area depends on Wind or air current. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •32
  • 33. › Wind has been used to generate electrical energy.› Ozone protects the earth from Ultra violet rays.› Nitrogen is an important mineral nutrient for plants.› Air acts as a medium for some microorganisms.› Water vapour maintains atmospheric humidity and in precipitation. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •33
  • 34. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •34
  • 35.  Recycling – Minerals in products can be recycled. Reuse – reuse the beneficial items e.g. glass bottles Substitution – Scarce minerals can be substituted with more abundant minerals. e.g. ceramics, alloys Reduce consumption – Consumers must decrease their mineral consumption. Recycle industrial wastes – One industry may use the waste products of another industry. •35
  • 36.  Land is one of the major life supporting systems. It forms about one fifth of the earth surface. Soil covers about four fifth of the land area. A fertile soil is a living soil containing billions of living organisms in every Cubic centimeter. Solar energy is the natural fuel that drives the soil cycles. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •36
  • 37.  The activities of living organisms all sizes are interdependent and combine harmoniously to provide the nourishment that sustains all life on earth. Soil erosion is the removal of top soil by physical agents like wind, water, ice etc. Depletion of soil fertility is caused by removal of vegetation, water logging and application of non-degradable chemicals. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •37
  • 38. 1. Conservational tillage – Ploughing improves soil permeability, soil moisture and nutrients.2. Organic farming – More organic inputs to soil.3. Crop rotation – Growing legumes after cereal crops.4. Contour ploughing – Ploughing with alternate furrows and ridges.5. Mulching – Soil is allowed to remain untilled and is covered with plant litter. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •38
  • 39. 6. Strip cropping – Planting in rows or strips.7. Terrace farming – Slope is converted into terraces.8. Agrostological methods – Grasses are grown in rotation or along with agricultural crops (lay farming).9 Afforestation – Trees or wind breaks are planted in deserts. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •39
  • 40. ‘Nothing happens without energy conversion and entrophy production’ Life depends on energy flow through ordered structures of matter. Energy is produced usually from fuel burning and atom splitting. 70% of the world population has no sufficient access to energy. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •40
  • 41. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •41
  • 42. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •42
  • 43.  Renewable: an energy source that can be replenished in a short period of time. Nonrenewable: some energy sources cannot recreated in a short period of time.  •B.Victor.,Ph.D •43
  • 44.  Fossil fuels e.g., Coal, petroleum products, natural gas Coal is more polluting than oil and gas. Global coal reserve: 940 billion tonnes. Coal reserves last for 50 years. Amount of energy demand met by coal: 60%. Cheap and convenient energy sources. Oil and gas. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •44
  • 45.  Fossil fuels e.g., Coal, petroleum products, natural gas Coal is more polluting than oil and gas. Global coal reserve: 940 billion tonnes. Coal reserves last for 50 years. Amount of energy demand met by coal: 60%. Cheap and convenient energy sources. Oil and gas. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •45
  • 46.  Non-fossil energy source – Nuclear energy– 17% of electricity demand Geothermal: Underground steam from geysers – Used to generate electricity. Underground hot rock turns water into hot water or steam. Tidal and wave energy – Wave energy is used to generate electricity. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •46
  • 47.  Wind energy – Wind power is used to rotate a wind turbine motor, which is coupled to a generator – Clean, pollution-free. Hydropower – Water falling from a height turns turbines at the bottom of dams to generate electricity. 20% of world electricity demand. Solar energy: Inexhaustible, Pollution - free. Photovoltaic cells convert direct solar energy into electricity. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •47
  • 48. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •48
  • 49. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •49
  • 50.  Renewable energy sources that indirectly use radiant energy from the sun › Biomass › Wind Energy › Hydropower •B.Victor.,Ph.D •50
  • 51.  Primary producers capture sunlight energy through photosynthesis biomass is produced Energy is generated by burning the biomass in the presence of oxygen. crop residues & animal manure can be burned or converted into bio-fuels •B.Victor.,Ph.D •51
  • 52.  Solid biomass, in the form of plants and trees, can be converted into liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, and bio-diesel. Algal biomass contains different types of complex sugars. Enzymes from microorganisms is used to convert starches to simple sugars and to ferment sugars into ethanol •B.Victor.,Ph.D •52
  • 53.  Europe- rapeseed/canola as biodiesel feedstock U.S-Soy Philippines -Jatropha Curcas plant India, Western China- Jatropha Indonesia- palm oil. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •53
  • 54.  Biomass fuel – Biomass (Plant matter) is a way of storing solar energy. Energy plantation- Growing plant species to produce biomass for energy. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •54
  • 55.  Differences in solar radiation cause airflow over earth’s surface Airflow cause turbine blades to turn Energy is generated by the spinning action which sends electricity to a generator Clusters of wind turbines are called “wind farms” •B.Victor.,Ph.D •55
  • 56.  The sun’s energy drives the hydrologic cycle, produces the winds which cause waves, and warms the surface of the ocean Energy of flowing or falling water is used to generate electricity •B.Victor.,Ph.D •56
  • 57.  Earth has internal heat from its formation at the core, from the friction of continental plates, and from radioactive decay Energy is used to generate electricity and for space heating •B.Victor.,Ph.D •57
  • 58.  Life of resources can be prolonged by using them diligently The resources can be useful for a longer period of time and for a larger number of people. During consumptive use, prevent exploitation, destruction or neglect. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •58
  • 59.  Energy conservation – moderating or eliminating wasteful or unnecessary energy-consuming activities Energy efficiency – using technology to accomplish a particular task with less energy •B.Victor.,Ph.D •59
  • 60.  allows nonrenewable fuels to last longer gives time to phase in renewable energy decreases dependence on oil imports reduces environmental damage slows global warming saves money •B.Victor.,Ph.D •60
  • 61. Methods of Resource conservation1. Material Substitution. e.g.- Substitution of Copper sheet by aluminium. - Substitution of Plastics by paper.2. Product life extension method. - Customer can hold the goods for a longer period.3. Recycling- Industrial waste and by products can be profitably recycled. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •61
  • 62.  4. Waste reduction. 1. Consume or exploit the resources in a minimal way 2. Avoid or reduce wastage in the process of production 3. The waste of one industry can be used as the raw material of another industry. e.g. - Bagasse of Sugar industry is the main raw material for manufacture Papers. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •62
  • 63. 1. Stabilizing population growth The relentless growth of population has been a critical factor in over utilizing natural resources. Human race must willingly practice population control. It should be stabilized at the level of carrying capacity.2. Change-over in energy use A change – over is necessary from non- renewable polluting energy to renewable and non-polluting. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •63
  • 64. 3. Change – over in technology: Change is needed from resource – intensive and pollution – prone technologies to environment – friendly technologies.4. Change – over is economy: The economic development must be environmentally sensitive and sustainable.5. Scientific conservation: Conservation is the “global of efficiency”. Scientific methods should be followed to manage nature and natural resources efficiently. •B.Victor.,Ph.D •64
  • 65.  Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced professor, recently retired from the reputed educational institution- St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001. He was the dean of sciences, IQAC coordinator and assistant controller of examinations. He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience He has taught a diversity of courses and guided 12 Ph.D scholars. send your comments to : bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com
  • 66. •66