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Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve
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Part 2 - Case study: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve

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  • 1. PhD project: Spatial Expansion of the Oil Amazon Frontier and Environmental Conflicts in Ecuador Università degli Studi di Padova Scuola di Dottorato in Scienze Storiche PhD Student: Eugenio Pappalardo Supervisor: Dr. Massimo de Marchi Dipartimento di Geografia “G. Morandini” Indirizzo “Geografia Umana e Geografia Fisica
  • 2. Research Path <ul><li>investigating the human-environment interaction within the MTF biome in the Ecuadorean Amazon in f(t) and f(s) </li></ul><ul><li>mapping the modernizing processes for substution of land cover </li></ul><ul><li>investigating the environmental conflicts (multi-actor, multi-scale) </li></ul><ul><li>evaluating the biodiversity conservation and local development projects </li></ul><ul><li>bibliographic and cartographic research </li></ul><ul><li>quantitative and qualitative research on the field </li></ul><ul><li>GIS and Remote Sensing analysis </li></ul><ul><li>ground truth </li></ul><ul><li>environments of conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>cases study </li></ul>General Objectives
  • 3. Territorialization processes for substitution of land cover
  • 4. The Amazon Basin deforestation rate: 2 milioni ha/year (Myers, 2004) hydrographic basin: 7 million km 2 flow rate: 100-300.000 m 3 /s rainfall: 2000-4000 mm/year
  • 5. Hydrographic network Amazon Basin: high density network Environmental System
  • 6. Dep. of Geography, University of Padova - Eugenio Pappalardo, PhD student TERRITORIALIZATION PROCESSES IN AMAZON Modernizing territorializations: <ul><li>Exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale agriculture activities </li></ul><ul><li>(il)legal wood extraction activities </li></ul><ul><li>Based on terrestrial communication infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Local territorializations: </li></ul><ul><li>traditional agriculture activities </li></ul><ul><li>community based ecosystem management </li></ul><ul><li>Based on hydrografic basins </li></ul>External actors Internal actors
  • 7. Geographical framework and study site <ul><li>one of 17 Countries with the biggest biological diversity (WCMC, UNEP, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>the biggest species number of vertebrate on 1000 Km 2 (IUCN, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>the biggest number of endemic species endemiche su 1000 Km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>25.000 species of vascular plants. 75% native species and 27.3% di endemism(IUCN, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>between the first Countries for absolute number of species of amphibian, birds e butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Hotspots (Myers, 2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Ecuador </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Andes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Megadiverse Country (Myers, 2000) (NASA, World Wind software)
  • 8. Geographical and territorial framework Area: 256.370 Km2 <ul><li>52.5% indigenous people </li></ul><ul><li>40% metice </li></ul><ul><li>8% afro and creols </li></ul><ul><li>indigenous communities </li></ul><ul><li>Quichua </li></ul><ul><li>Siona/Secoya </li></ul><ul><li>Cofàn </li></ul><ul><li>Wuaorani </li></ul><ul><li>Shuar </li></ul><ul><li>Achuar </li></ul>Population: 12.5 millions (INAC, 2006)
  • 9. <ul><li>Local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Oil blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Protected areas </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchble zone </li></ul>study site
  • 10. Biodiversity conservation and sustainable development Biodiversity Hotspots (WCMC, Myers, 2000) Classification System: protected areas categories IUCN CITES, RAMSAR, CONVENTION ON MIGRATORY SPECIES Biosphere Reserve (MAB, UNESCO) Zoning Species dispersion and genetic flux ( Primack , 2004 ) CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (Rio, 1992) open system
  • 11. MAB (UNESCO, 1971): RISERVE DELLA BIOSFERA Integrating the fieldwork research of Natural Sciences with Social Sciences Compatibility models between ecosystem protection and sustainable development project Benefit to local community
  • 12.  
  • 13. The Auca Road <ul><li>road extension (1985-1986): from 1830 to 7250 (400% rate) </li></ul><ul><li>every linear km = 120 ha deforestation </li></ul>One of the 14 bigger deforestation front at global level (Myers, 2000) (Sierra, 2006) AREA DI STUDIO Ecuadorean Amazon Region
  • 14. MATERIAL AND METHODS Vasca di raccolta idrocarburi (San Carlos, 2010) Pompa d’estrazione, rilievo GPS (Via Pindo, 2010) Sversamento petrolio, (Dayuma, 2009) MS Channel, QuickBird, 2003)
  • 15. Espansione spazionale Extractive Industry (not renewable) driver opening road (deforestation) landcover change Territorial dynamics Overlapping of different territories (different projects) Confrontation of different model of development Water logics vs terrestrial logics (Bertoncin) agrarian colonization (non traditional activity) (colonos, agroindustry) Oil infrastructures landuse change opening road (deforestazione)
  • 16. use of territory <ul><li>petroleum colonization </li></ul><ul><li>agrarian colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel processes in f(t) </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence processes in f(s) </li></ul>Footprint of territorial processes of substitution of land cover territorial macro-models Territorialization for “sampling” Territorialization for substitution
  • 17. Cartographic and bibliography investigation <ul><li>Scientific and sector letterature </li></ul><ul><li>Gray letterature </li></ul><ul><li>Conference, seminars, workshop </li></ul><ul><li>IGM cartography </li></ul><ul><li>satellite images </li></ul><ul><li>thematic cartography </li></ul>
  • 18. Materiali e metodi <ul><li>Quantitative and qualitative information (spatially explicit) </li></ul><ul><li>Georeferenced photos </li></ul><ul><li>Georeferenced interviews </li></ul>San Carlos, attività di campo 12/01/2008
  • 19. ParticipatoryGIS (PGIS) <ul><li>acquisition of cartography on the field </li></ul><ul><li>participation in the GPS survey </li></ul><ul><li>sharing of all the geographical information </li></ul><ul><li>participative ground truth </li></ul><ul><li>participatory approach in collecting, processing and managing data </li></ul><ul><li>access to geodata and technology </li></ul><ul><li>social learning </li></ul><ul><li>community empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>conflict management </li></ul>(Rambaldi, 2004; Chambers, 2006)
  • 20. “ Truckble” <ul><li>Rilievo GPS: </li></ul><ul><li>paved roads: 55% </li></ul><ul><li>unpaved roads: 30% </li></ul><ul><li>viable roads: 15% </li></ul>FIRST RESULT – GIS ANALYSIS 101 Differenza 381 Tracciati GPS survey 280 Tracciati MAE (2009) 1980 Totale km percorsi Km lineari GIS ANALYSIS
  • 21. PRIMI RISULTATI – ANALISI GIS <ul><li>PNY limits </li></ul><ul><li>buffer zone </li></ul><ul><li>land ownerships </li></ul>Local actor: colonos Statal actor: GMO, INDA Local actor: wuaorani Statal actor: MAE (PRAS) indigenous reserve untouchble zone oil production illegal wood extraction
  • 22. PRIMI RISULTATI – ANALISI GIS Biosfera Yasuni: conservation and conflicts <ul><li>acquisizione sul campo carta catastale INDA </li></ul><ul><li>rilievo GPS: limiti del PNY </li></ul><ul><li>interviste semistrutturate comunità Nueva Esperanza </li></ul><ul><li>operazioni di georeferenziazione </li></ul><ul><li>analisi GIS </li></ul>
  • 23. Rilievo GPS MATERIALI E METODI GPS device: garmin e-trex error: 4-6 mt su strade (90%) 10-15 mt sotto land cover (10%) Mezzi di trasporto: <ul><li>risoluzione spaziale più fine </li></ul><ul><li>agilità e praticità </li></ul><ul><li>evoluzione spaziale </li></ul>canoa moto enduro <ul><li>comunità indigene autoctone </li></ul><ul><li>(Quechua, Wuaorani) </li></ul><ul><li>accesso alla RBY </li></ul>
  • 24. missioni sul campo <ul><li>missione (Ecuador, febbraio, 2010): </li></ul><ul><li>esplorazione ed organizzazione logistica </li></ul><ul><li>indagine bibliografica (FLACSO, Università) </li></ul><ul><li>indagine cartografica (IGM, MAE) </li></ul><ul><li>definizione area di studio (frontiera, aree degradate, ambienti di conflitto) </li></ul><ul><li>mappatura attori </li></ul><ul><li>attivazione contatti </li></ul>2. <ul><li>2. missione (Ecuador, aprile, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>logistica e accessibilità sul campo </li></ul><ul><li>attività di campo (El Coca, Via Auca) </li></ul><ul><li>indagini qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>3. missione (Ecuador, luglio-agosto 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>indagini quantitative e qualitative: espansione della frontiera agricolo-petrolifera </li></ul><ul><li>attività di campo: rilievo GPS, ground truth, interviste semistrutturate, osservazione partecipante </li></ul><ul><li>analisi GIS sul terreno </li></ul><ul><li>4. missione (Messico, dicembre 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Conference of Party (COP16) on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>interviste a organizzazioni indigene e contadine (CONAIE, Via Campesina, ONIC) </li></ul>
  • 25. Mercato indigeno, barbecue di gusanos (El Coca, settembre 2010) thanks for paying attention

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