Los Tacos


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Los Tacos

  1. 1. LOS TACOS Olabade and Urma
  2. 2. Debriefing 67 cases in NJ, NY, PA, DE, and SC Bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps of 67, 51 hospitalized and 8 kidney failures (hemolytic-uremic syndrome) November 20 - December 5 Peak in the last week of November Had all eaten at a Taco Bell Chopped yellow onions tested positive for a pathogen; DNA fingerprinting confirms onions were not source of the infection
  3. 3. Possible Culprits Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella enterica Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Haemophilus influenzae
  4. 4. Gram Stain E. coli = gram – S. aureus = gram + Sample = ?
  5. 5. Gram Stain
  6. 6. Gram Stain
  7. 7. Gram Stain
  8. 8. Gram Stain
  9. 9. Gram Stain
  10. 10. Gram Stain
  11. 11. Gram Stain
  12. 12. Gram Stain
  13. 13. Microscopic E. coliS. aureus Sample
  14. 14. First Elimination Escherichia coli (Gram-) Rod Shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-) Rod Shaped Salmonella enterica (Gram-) Rod Shaped Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) Spherical Streptococcus pyogenes (Gram+)Spherical Haemophilus influenzae (Gram-) Rod Shaped
  15. 15. Selective/Differential Media MacConkey Agar  Salt bile is selective aspect  Lactic acid is differential aspect Grows Gram- bacteria and stains for lactose fermentation Lac+  CO2, acid, and alcohol  agar will become a bright pink/red color when lactose is fermented because the acid lowers the pH Lac-  cannot ferment the lactose  colorless  Gram+ can’t ferment lactose because the bile salts do not allow for them to grow, therefore not allowing them to ferment the lactose
  16. 16. MacConkey Agar
  17. 17. Second Elimination Escherichia coli (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac +) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac-) Salmonella enterica (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac-) Haemophilus influenzae (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac +)
  18. 18. Escherichia coli or Haemophilus Haemophilus influenzae? Escherichia coli influenzae Can cause:  Can cause:  Food poisoning  Bacteremia  Diarrhea  Pneumonia  Gastroenteritis  Acute Bacterial Meningitis  Urinary Tract Infection  Usually in kids
  19. 19. It’s… E. coli!! Gram – Rod shaped Generally aerobic Most strains are opportunistic pathogens Capsulated and Non-Capsulated
  20. 20. Cell Wall/Shape/ Arrangement Outer membrane of cell wall is lipopolysaccharide that functions as endotoxin  can lead to inflammation, high fever, hypotension, capillary damage, intravascular coagulation, tissue degradation, and irreversible shock Some pili let bacterium adhere to epithelial cells of the mucous membranes Some cell wall adhesions let bacterium make more intimate contact with the mucous membranes Some strains secrete enterotoxins that cause the loss of sodium ions and water from the small intestines  watery diarrhea Some strains secrete a toxin that kills epithelial cells of the large intestines  bloody diarrhea
  21. 21. Metabolism Facultative Anaerobe Metabolizes glucose in both the presence and absence of oxygen
  22. 22. Location in Nature Lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms Can be found in:  Unpasteurized milk and apple cider  Ham, turkey, chicken, roast beef, sandwich meats  Raw vegetables, cheese  Contaminated water
  23. 23. Damaging Human Host Can severely damage lining of intestines Resulting in
  24. 24. Epidemiology Consumption of contaminated foods Hand- mouth Human-human
  25. 25. AntimicrobialSusceptibility Test
  26. 26. AntimicrobialSusceptibility Test
  27. 27. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test E. Coli (mm) Staph (mm)Gentamycin 21 (S) 10 (R)Penicillin 0 (R) 27 (R)Vancomycin 0 (R) 12 (S)Chloramphenicol 25 (S) 17 (I)Streptomycin 13 (I) 12 (I)Tetracycline 22 (S) 19 (S)
  28. 28. Tetracycline Generally used in fighting infections of urinary tract and intestines Protein Synthesis Inhibitor Kills bacterial cells by inhibiting their translation Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit  Prevents tRNA from binding to ribosome
  29. 29. Conclusion Patients ingested raw or undercooked meat with E. coli from Taco Bell Caused an infection Tetracycline is the best antibiotic to give them  Will halt the protein synthesis in the E. coli