Los Tacos
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Los Tacos



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Los Tacos Presentation Transcript

  • 1. LOS TACOS Olabade and Urma
  • 2. Debriefing 67 cases in NJ, NY, PA, DE, and SC Bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps of 67, 51 hospitalized and 8 kidney failures (hemolytic-uremic syndrome) November 20 - December 5 Peak in the last week of November Had all eaten at a Taco Bell Chopped yellow onions tested positive for a pathogen; DNA fingerprinting confirms onions were not source of the infection
  • 3. Possible Culprits Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella enterica Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes Haemophilus influenzae
  • 4. Gram Stain E. coli = gram – S. aureus = gram + Sample = ?
  • 5. Gram Stain
  • 6. Gram Stain
  • 7. Gram Stain
  • 8. Gram Stain
  • 9. Gram Stain
  • 10. Gram Stain
  • 11. Gram Stain
  • 12. Gram Stain
  • 13. Microscopic E. coliS. aureus Sample
  • 14. First Elimination Escherichia coli (Gram-) Rod Shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-) Rod Shaped Salmonella enterica (Gram-) Rod Shaped Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) Spherical Streptococcus pyogenes (Gram+)Spherical Haemophilus influenzae (Gram-) Rod Shaped
  • 15. Selective/Differential Media MacConkey Agar  Salt bile is selective aspect  Lactic acid is differential aspect Grows Gram- bacteria and stains for lactose fermentation Lac+  CO2, acid, and alcohol  agar will become a bright pink/red color when lactose is fermented because the acid lowers the pH Lac-  cannot ferment the lactose  colorless  Gram+ can’t ferment lactose because the bile salts do not allow for them to grow, therefore not allowing them to ferment the lactose
  • 16. MacConkey Agar
  • 17. Second Elimination Escherichia coli (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac +) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac-) Salmonella enterica (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac-) Haemophilus influenzae (Gram-) Rod Shaped (Lac +)
  • 18. Escherichia coli or Haemophilus Haemophilus influenzae? Escherichia coli influenzae Can cause:  Can cause:  Food poisoning  Bacteremia  Diarrhea  Pneumonia  Gastroenteritis  Acute Bacterial Meningitis  Urinary Tract Infection  Usually in kids
  • 19. It’s… E. coli!! Gram – Rod shaped Generally aerobic Most strains are opportunistic pathogens Capsulated and Non-Capsulated
  • 20. Cell Wall/Shape/ Arrangement Outer membrane of cell wall is lipopolysaccharide that functions as endotoxin  can lead to inflammation, high fever, hypotension, capillary damage, intravascular coagulation, tissue degradation, and irreversible shock Some pili let bacterium adhere to epithelial cells of the mucous membranes Some cell wall adhesions let bacterium make more intimate contact with the mucous membranes Some strains secrete enterotoxins that cause the loss of sodium ions and water from the small intestines  watery diarrhea Some strains secrete a toxin that kills epithelial cells of the large intestines  bloody diarrhea
  • 21. Metabolism Facultative Anaerobe Metabolizes glucose in both the presence and absence of oxygen
  • 22. Location in Nature Lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms Can be found in:  Unpasteurized milk and apple cider  Ham, turkey, chicken, roast beef, sandwich meats  Raw vegetables, cheese  Contaminated water
  • 23. Damaging Human Host Can severely damage lining of intestines Resulting in
  • 24. Epidemiology Consumption of contaminated foods Hand- mouth Human-human
  • 25. AntimicrobialSusceptibility Test
  • 26. AntimicrobialSusceptibility Test
  • 27. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test E. Coli (mm) Staph (mm)Gentamycin 21 (S) 10 (R)Penicillin 0 (R) 27 (R)Vancomycin 0 (R) 12 (S)Chloramphenicol 25 (S) 17 (I)Streptomycin 13 (I) 12 (I)Tetracycline 22 (S) 19 (S)
  • 28. Tetracycline Generally used in fighting infections of urinary tract and intestines Protein Synthesis Inhibitor Kills bacterial cells by inhibiting their translation Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit  Prevents tRNA from binding to ribosome
  • 29. Conclusion Patients ingested raw or undercooked meat with E. coli from Taco Bell Caused an infection Tetracycline is the best antibiotic to give them  Will halt the protein synthesis in the E. coli