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from students in the UR tech integration class

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  2. 2. DNA <ul><li>Double Helix structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nucleotide chains running together in opposite directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiparallel orientation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is DNA made of? <ul><li>Three main components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four nitrogenous bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. NUCLEOTIDES <ul><li>Each consisting of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and one of four nitrogenous bases </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides run along each of the two strands of DNA, bonding together </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous bases of each nucleotide bond to the base of another nucleotide by hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine of one strand bonds with Thymine of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine of one strand bonds with Cytosine of the other </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Double Helix Bonding <ul><li>Each strand has a backbone of a repeating phosphate sugar polymer: phosphodiester bonds are what bond each polymer together </li></ul>
  6. 6. ACTIVITY BREAK <ul><li>Use the colored wooden pieces provided to make a mini-double helix </li></ul><ul><li>Red pieces: adenine </li></ul><ul><li>Green pieces: guanine </li></ul><ul><li>Blue pieces: Cytosine </li></ul><ul><li>Orange pieces: Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Use the purple beads to create hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Use the yellow beads to create phosphodiester bonds—your phosphate backbone will be made out of the large black pieces </li></ul>
  7. 7. How is DNA organized in you? <ul><li>One unique set of DNA is called a genome </li></ul><ul><li>A genome composed of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of one DNA molecule carrying many genes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This one DNA molecule is extremely coiled and super coiled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes can be located in the mitochondria of a human/animal cell and in the chloroplast of a plant cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>WHAT A MESS OUR GENOME IS!
  8. 8. REPLICATION <ul><li>Final product: two identical DNA molecules (helixes) </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the two DNA strands separate </li></ul><ul><li>Each DNA strand acts as a template for the synthesis of its complimentary strand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5’AAGGCTGA3’ acts as a template to make 3’TTCCGACT5’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA Polymerase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme responsible for building new DNA strands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matches up each base of the new strand with the complementary base on the old, template strand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Genomes <ul><li>Plasmids </li></ul><ul><li>Organellar DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Viral Genomes </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Genomes </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Nuclear Genomes </li></ul>
  10. 10. PLASMIDS <ul><li>Found in bacterial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Small DNA elements that are NOT essential for the basic operation of the bacterial cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot survive outside of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>Can occasionally be found in fungal and plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Most found in mitochondria and chloroplast organelles, but can be found in nuclei or cytosol </li></ul>
  11. 11. ORGANELLAR DNA <ul><li>Organelle-specific DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Individual mitochondria and chloroplasts contain identical multiple copies of their chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Organelle chromosomes contain genes specific to the functions of the organelle concerned </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally prokaryotic cells that entered another cell and became indispensable to it </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. VIRAL GENOME <ul><li>A virus is a nonliving particle that can reproduce itself only by infecting a living cell </li></ul><ul><li>In some viruses, the DNA is double-stranded, but can be single-stranded, too </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain DNA or RNA, another type of genetic material </li></ul>
  13. 13. PROKARYOTIC GENOME <ul><li>Can also be referred to as bacterial DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contained within a single chromosome that is a single, circular double helix of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Within each bacterial cell there can be from one to several identical copies of the single chromosome type </li></ul><ul><li>DNA arranged in a dense clump called a nucleoid </li></ul>
  14. 14. EUKARYOTIC NUCLEAR GENOME <ul><li>Genes found in chromosomes of nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic species classified as either diploid or haploid with only one or two chromosome set per cell </li></ul><ul><li>Animals and plants are diploid (two chromosomes per cell) </li></ul><ul><li>46 chromosomes in a human body cell </li></ul>
  15. 15. RNA <ul><li>Production of RNA is the first step in the process of transferring information from gene to protein </li></ul><ul><li>It’s base sequence must match the base sequence of a segment of one of the two DNA strands </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of is transcription => RNA is the transcript </li></ul>
  16. 16. PROPERTIES <ul><li>Single stranded (no double helix here) </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous bases, just like DNA with one exception </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines: adenine and guanine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramidines: cytosine and uracil (not thymine) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. DNA  RNA <ul><li>mRNA (messenger RNA): Transcript synthesized directly from the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides in mRNA are read, not as individual nucleotides, but as a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain through a process called translation </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme RNA polymerase attaches to DNA and moves along it, making a longer and longer RNA molecule </li></ul><ul><li>One or more polypeptide chains and fold together to make a protein </li></ul>
  18. 19. ACTIVITY BREAK <ul><li>Now, instead of bonding together strands of DNA, we’re going to make RNA out of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Brown wooden pieces are uracil </li></ul><ul><li>Use one of your DNA strands to make new strands of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget your bonds! </li></ul>
  19. 20. PROTEINS <ul><li>Polymer composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Chain of amino acids referred to as polypeptide chain </li></ul>-20 amino acids known to occur in proteins -amino acids linked together by covalent bonds called peptide bonds -polypeptide chain always has amino end (NH 2 ) and a carboxyl end (COOH)
  20. 21. STRUCTURE OF <ul><li>PRIMARY STRUCTURE is the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY STRUCTURE specific shape the polypeptide chain takes on by folding </li></ul><ul><li>TERTIARY STRUCTURE produced by folding the secondary structure </li></ul><ul><li>QUATERNARY STRUCTURE composed of two or more tertiary structures joined together by weak bonds </li></ul>