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Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders
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Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe - Johan Sanders

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Presentation by Johan Sanders, Professor Valorisation of Plant Production Chains, Wageningen University and Research center. …

Presentation by Johan Sanders, Professor Valorisation of Plant Production Chains, Wageningen University and Research center.
BioMotion Tour congress at Agritechnica, Hannover - 13 november 2009

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  • 1. Sustainability and climate protection, the role of bio fuels and biorefineries in Europe Biomotion, Hannover, 12 November 2009 Johan Sanders Professor Valorisation of Plant Production Chains Wageningen University and Research center
  • 2. Energy consumption past and future Scenario A1F1: A1F1 1500 Global economy, fossil fuel intensive 1250 Scenario A2: Regional economy Yearly energy production, EJ 1000 A2 750 500 250 1900 1950 2000 2050 Jaartal
  • 3. The New Biomass value chain: 1st Agro logistics Food pretreatment Foodconversion Food production Food Biobased New Pre treatment New production Products conversion Performance materials • Biobased bioconversion physicalchemical conversion process Baseplatform chemicals Performance chemicals materials • Bio-based engineering Bio Energy chemicals Biomass sources • Bio-fuels productionproduction Logisticsstorage Agro food • Bio-energy NL production By products Imports waste Existing non- food: • Feed Existing conversion Existing production • Paper • Additives •Fibres • Waste management .
  • 4. Platform Renewable Materials 30% substitution of fossil by Biomass in 2030 • 25% chemical resources (140 PJ) • 60% transportation fuels (324 PJ) • 17% heat (65 PJ) • 20% electricity (203 PJ) By: • Enhancing efficiency present Biomass (400 PJ) • Development (new) crops (250 PJ) • Aquatic cultures (250 PJ) • Import (250 PJ)
  • 5. 75 15 G How biomass can best compete with fossil derived products Production costs overall Dutch (/GJ endproduct) industry cost price 30 30 overall Dutch coal 6 G industry raw oil material cost capital 23 6 G 20 6 G 12 10 10 5 G 7 2 G beet 4 grass 3 2 G wood heat electricity transport average other biomass fuel bulkchemical
  • 6. Biomass can bring different contributions to the farmer (/ha) Assuming a yield of 10 tonnes dry weight per hectare, being 160 GJ, using whole crop and GAP up to 20 tonnes whole crop yield, 320 GJ/ha On raw materials substitution only /hectare • All Energy at coal value : 640 • All transportfuel : 1360 • All bulkchemical : 6400 • 20% bulkchemical, 80% Energy : 1800 – 3600 • 20% bulkchemical, 40% fuel, 40% Energy : 2080 4160 Including capital cost substitution • 20% bulkchemical, 40% fuel, 40% Energy : 3000 6000
  • 7. Eco pyramid for biomass utilization You cannot have your cake and eat it: Biorefinery Biomass cascading: Farma high value Pharma Cosmetics Fun Farma Food Fun Feed Food Food Feed Functional chemical Feed Fibre Fibre Bioplastics Polymers Fermentation Fermentation Fuel Fuel Fertilizer Bulk chemicals Fuels Fertilizer Fire FlareFire Energy Heat fill Fill low value
  • 8. Functionalized Savings Potential 1,2 Ethanediamine : rubber chemicals, pharma, lubricants,detergents Biomass A CH3CH2 Biomass B H2NCH2CH2OH COOH OH Naphtha NH3 NH3 O2 O H2NCH2CH2OH H2NCH2CH2NH2 CH2 CH2 Cl2 NH3 ClCH2CH2Cl H2NCH2CH2NH2 NH2 1,4 Butanediamine: polymers e.g. nylon 4,6 H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 C NH2 Naphtha CH4 + NH3 HCN + COOH H2C=CHCH3 + NH3 + 1.5 O 2 H2C=CHC N H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 Biomass C CO2 NH3 H2NCONH2 Introduction Goal and Scope Inventory/Data Results Final Remarks Biomass A: Ethanol Biomass B: Serine Biomass C: Arginine
  • 9. Biorefining will give Mitigation under Economic conditions (125 M (62) hectare = 0,8 % (0.4%) world land area at 10 ton/ha (20 ton/ha)) = 4% agricultural land (excl. grassland) 75 billion 97 billion 225 billion 60 /ton biomass 80 /ton biomass 180 /ton biomass minus 1200 Mton CO minus 1200 Mton CO minus 1500 Mton CO2 2 2 40% 20% 40% electricity (3 x 106 MW) fuels (375 Mton) (15%) platformchemicals (250 Mton) (100%) (40%) electricity (750000 MW) (10%) electricity (750000 MW) (10%) fuels (250 Mton) (10%)
  • 10. DuPont /Tate Lyle BioProducts :1,3 Propanediol factory, Loudon, USA
  • 11. Many ‘Rotterdam’ chemicals can be produced from Biomass Example of short term substitution potential Ethylene epichlorhydrin glycol Physical / Chemical Chemical Chemical Propylene Biomass Glycerol glycol Isopropanol methanol Acetone formaldehyde Acetic Dimethyl MTBE acid Ether Scheme. Chemical production in Rotterdam a bio based alternative for butadiene and ethylene. Current production by Shell Chemical and Lyondell
  • 12. PLA in different applications (Synbra/PURAC) Biofoam
  • 13. Developments that should improve the biomass route Lower raw material price better refinery/ separation technologies/downstream processes More efficient fermentations Plant GMO to tailor make products new material properties small scale technology and integrations that can give more income to the farmer
  • 14. Development of Dutch BbE can be build on Dutch pilars: Agriculture, Chemistry, Ports. 1980/1995 6 Mton soy 50 PJ cake electricity ethanol 2007/2015 5 Mton wheat lignocellulose lignocellulose accessable lignocellulose N, P, 1 Mton N, P, 2 Mton glu, asp, ser K protein K protein 50 PJ lys, trp, thr, met ethanol 2007/2015 compound fertilizer compound compound chemicals 3 Mton rape feed feed feed (100.000 ton/aa seed manure 50 PJ 2006 2009? 2010 2012? 2014 biodiesel
  • 15. Upscaling 30L lime pretreatment of straw + cellulase Reactor during enzymatic hydrolysis at t = 0 and t=24 h after adding enzymes EET project with consortium of 3 RD institutes, 3 companies, 1 university
  • 16. Other co products as a consequence of biofuel production if 10% of the WW transportation fuels are produced from corn, wheat, rape, palm, sunflower, cane this will supply 100 million tonnes of proteins Several bulkchemicals might be produced from different amino acids: 1,4 butandiol, 2,3 butandiol, 1,2 propanediol, Succinic acid, Acrylonitril, Acrylate, Metacrylate, (hydroxy) Styrene, (hydroxy) Phenethylamine, Caprolactam, Butandiamine, urea
  • 17. Jatropha as a source for biodiesel Energy: The seed contains about 30 40% oil potential source of biodiesel and bio oil Food: Contains toxic compounds not suitable for food Can be grown in extremely dry soil—not suitable for most food plantations Increasing productivity of unused/barren land
  • 18. Components of J. curcas seeds Components Seed (%) Crude Protein 15 Lignin 20 Fiber 15 Carbohydrate 10 Oil 35 Ash 5
  • 19. Jatropha protein functional properties
  • 20. Economics biobased chain (Sugar beet)
  • 21. Forward integration reduces tranport cost and seasonality and will give more income to the farmer Fields Farm Processing Present 100% 100% Return flow 10% concentration fermentation Concept Small scale 100% processing 30% Return flow 70%
  • 22. Zeafuels Biogas Electricity Biogas CHP fermentation biogas /minerals Stem Corn heat Grain Ethanol 60% Filtration Distillation fermentation ethanol Zein Less investment costs/liter ethanol than large scale US ethanol production from corn
  • 23. ZEA FUELS bv
  • 24. ZEA FUELS bv
  • 25. Mobile Cassava starch refinery in Africa Source: Duteso
  • 26. Total Crop Yields Wet Weight and Dry Weight Yields Total Biomass Production Best Practice Yields 100 143 140 240 Wet Weight Dry Weight 90 80 70 60 ton/ha 50 40 30 Above 30ton/ha/a dry weight = Fantastic 20 Above 20ton/ha/a dry weight = Great 10 Above 10ton/ha/a dry weight = Good 0 lm m e to an t er ss ss a e ed ne o e at ee z rn tre av cc ta hu he w ra ra pa ai be ca e rb ce ba lo s Po es M hg G rg W w as nf il r Lu ya ga To ap illo ga So O itc C Su So Su R Su W Sw
  • 27. kg/kg C 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% as sa va G ra s s Lu ce r ne M ai ze O il Pa l m Po ta to So rg h um So ya Be an Su s ga rB ee Su t g ar C an e Constituents Proportions Su nf lo w Sw er i tc hg ra Fat ss Lignin Protein To ba cc o W he at W illo w Tr Simple Carbohydrate (S.C.) ee Complex Carbohydrates (C.C.)
  • 28. Nominalised Results: Optimal Biorefinery 721GJ/ha 50.8GJ/ton 125GJ/ha 22.2GJ/ton Introduction Goal and Scope Inventory/Data Results Final Remarks
  • 29. Afsluiting © Wageningen UR
  • 30. 1e Generatie transportbrandstoffen leidt mogelijk tot verlaging van honger; 2e generatie wellicht niet €/GJ Kapitaalkosten 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Waarde Raapzaad M ais Suikerriet Biet 2e FT diesel Transport diesel Ethanol Ethanol generatie Brandstof ethanol Schatting werkgelegenheid 4% 0.1% van gehele bevolking CO2 reductie % matig matig matig Incl. verbranden stro goed goed goed goed goed goed
  • 31. 1e Generatie transportbrandstoffen leidt mogelijk tot verlaging van honger; 2e generatie wellicht niet €/GJ Kapitaalkosten Transportkosten Grondstofkosten + Winst 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Waarde Raapzaad M ais Suikerriet Biet 2e FT diesel Transport diesel Ethanol Ethanol generatie Brandstof ethanol Schatting werkgelegenheid 4% 0.1% van gehele bevolking CO2 reductie % matig matig matig Incl. verbranden stro goed goed goed goed goed goed
  • 32. Amino acid reactive separation Traditional Functionalized method Fossil Fuel Ethylene Oxidation Amination Specialty Ethylene amine Proposed Protein Electro method Amino acids Bulk Source dialysis Chemicals Specific modification Feedstock Focus of Building Product proposed project Block Figure 1: Comparison of the traditional and proposed, energy efficient method for the production of building blocks for (bulk) chemicals. STW: 1 AIO + ¼PD + ¼TA
  • 33. General scheme Biorefinery Rotterdam DDGS DDGS corn corn wheat wheat ethanol + other ethanol + other starch starch C6 sugars C6 sugars fermentation fermentation cassava chips cassava chips O-chemicals O-chemicals glycerol glycerol oil oil fermentation fermentation soybeans products products soybeans rapeseed rapeseed jatropha seed jatropha seed biodiesel biodiesel fuel fuel press cake press cake (high protein) (high protein) animal feed animal feed Medium protein 1st residues Medium protein 1st residues -- DDGS DDGS -- rape pods rape pods protein protein -- sunflower pods sunflower pods N-chemicals N-chemicals Low protein 1st residues Low protein 1st residues -- soybean straw soybean straw -- cane leaf -- corn stover cane leaf corn stover C5 sugars lactic acid C5 sugars lactic acid lignocellulose lignocellulose (LC) (LC) Zero protein 1st residues Zero protein 1st residues ethanol + other ethanol + other C6 sugars C6 sugars -- wheat straw wheat straw fermentation fermentation -- residual wood residual wood -- primary LC primary LC -- miscanthus miscanthus lignin lignin electricity electricity protein protein Underlined: available for Rotterdam (2009) Wet crops Wet crops (= animal feed) (= animal feed) Italics: partly available for R’dam – future -- grass grass -- luzerne luzerne juice com- ——— : existing process / application juice com- ponents --------- : still to be developed ponents
  • 34. Bulk chemicals from Biomass: lysine fermentation direct plant products State of the art ADM, TWIN (under GMO (under Plant residues (in Degussa, Ajinomoto development development progress 65 Wageningen UR) Wageningen UR) Wageningen UR) Fossil 1345 chemical reference 500 37 215 795 33 28 200 28 620 610 85 150 300 350 18 GJ 110 18 21 18 70 19 250 300 400 400 15 3 7 10 6 60 GJ/ton /ton GJ/ton /ton GJ/ton /ton GJ/ton /ton Fossil raw materials (fermentation) Biomass raw materials Fossil raw materials (recovery) Capital (fermentation) Capital (recovery)
  • 35. Import large scale bio commodities Pyrolysis oil Torrefaction pellets HTU biocrude Non purified syngas (hydrous) ethanol Biodiesel Pure plant oil Rape seed Soy beans Cereal grains Crude protein (hydrolysates)
  • 36. Biobased Economy Chains Cultivation/harvest pretreatment Transport/Storag Processing Application e export harbour Rotterdam as: Lignocellulose densification Pyrolysis oil FT diesel Transportation fuels Torrefaction pellets Electricity HTU biocrude heat Oil crops - Seed, beans Refinery/conversion Transportation fuels Animal feed Fertilizer Chemical Industry Sugar/Starch Refinery/conversion (hydrous) ethanol Transportation fuels fermentation Seeds - Cereal grains Refinery/conversion Transportation fuels Animal feed fertilizer Chemical industry Leaf Refinery/conversion (hydrous) ethanol Transportation fuels protein (hydrolysates) Chemical industry Algae Refinery/conversion Biocrude HTU HTU upgrading Transportation fuels protein (hydrolysates) Manure Refinery/conversion protein (hydrolysates) Transportation fuels Chemical industry
  • 37. Costs breakdown of Bulkchemicals (/ton) at 60$/bbl non functionalised functionalised Raw materials 300 975 Capital 300 500 400 650 Operational 50 50 Recovery 50 100 50 100 Total 825 1525 Derived from J.P. Lange (Shell)
  • 38. Our daily food needs a twenty fold higher energy input Biomass 635PJ Fossil 575PJ Net Import Food Industry 160 150 Household 165 Dutch Agriculture 475 Transportion Food 100 Greenhouses/Food 100 Other Agriculture 2500 kcal/day = 55 PJ 60
  • 39. BEET chain can deliver renewable energy and sugar as well! decentral pretreatment 0 feed 0 leaf 4 leaf field agricultural beet lime nutrients -2 Gross (PJ) -3 beettops +19 -3.6 +26 +29.6 (central) processing protein pulp feed +4 0 Nett fermentor press 0 (PJ/85000 ha) ethanol -4 A: Actual 13 -3.3 biogas 0 B2: No diffusion + ethanol + biogas 20 -3.3 +8 D2: B2 + leaf 23 +8 0 GMO Bulkchemicals would save another 10 PJ +3 +3 sugar electricity CHP heat
  • 40. Many different drivers for one Biobased Economy Shortage of cheap oil High energy prices Security of energy supply Climate change by green house gasses Rural development Developing countries Geo political conditions Different countries/groups are confident however that a BbE can contribute to their goals.
  • 41. Different Economies of Scale 30 Ethanol Fischer Tropsch 25 20 /GJ 15 108 $ / barrel 10 72 $ / barrel 5 36 $ / barrel 100/ton 95% conversion 30/ton 50 60% conversion 0 0 0.1 1 10 100 PJ Nedalco 1000 MW Investments Other costs, including transportcosts Raw materials
  • 42. Pilot biorefinery line Foxhol (Groningen) (Prograss Consortium), nu Grassa (Oenkerk) Grass protein (products) white grass protein compound feed Green grass protein Protein Grass juice Fibers Grass juice concentrate compound feed Construction Polymer + ..... HTU material extrusion Ethanol Biofuel + paper products
  • 43. Ethanol production and Cyanophycin accumulation (collab. Univ. Münster/Steinbuchel, AVEBE, Cosun, Energy Valley) cyanophycin granule peptide, mainly in cyano bacteria as nitrogen and energy reserve material = Asp + Arg Granule 35% (wt/wt) and slow growth EOS project (Economic Affairs)

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