0
Economic viability and sustainability by regional
          implementation concepts
             Vegetable oil as fuel
   ...
Classification of biofuels according to
                        chronology of recognition and their
                      ...
Introduction
A market of biofuels is emerging in Hungary, as
evidenced by recent investment moves but there are
still huge...
Hungarian potential of raw material
   Wheat raw material                   Maize raw material
• 1, 15 million ha         ...
EU directives
    EU directives          The goal    Hungarian   Hungarian present
                          of the EU-   ...
Legislative background

• Measures were taken to bring Hungary in line with EU
directive that 0.4 % of all vehicle fuel co...
Demand of biofuels
Bioethanol




Biodiesel
Fuel consumption in Hungary
                                     Million ton                Billion liter
  Gasoline      ...
Corn production per capita




  Hungary is in the third place in the World!

                                        Sour...
Bioethanol overview
There are two major players in Hungary:


Győr Distillery                       http://www.gyoriszesz....
Biodiesel



Concerning biodiesel: for the 4,4 vol% blending 156 million
liter (130 thousend ton) was used as fuel in 2008...
Biodiesel
Two biodiesel plant was build in Hungary earlier: Kunhegyes
(Közép-Tiszai MG) and Mátészalka (Intertram). They h...
Further development
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development:

Decentralisation is the key for further development in...
Biogas

Agricultural raw material for biogas production in Hungary
is enough for about 8-10 million ton biogas production
...
Biogas utilization



Budapest Gas Works CO. would like to utilize biogas as a
fuel in 2009. april they opened a CNG filli...
Studies on RME in practical conditions


 Variations:
     100% RME
     70:30% RME : Diesel oil
     50:50% RME : Diesel ...
Examination of used cooking oil in
            tractor engines
                                                           ...
National R&D projects to establish
 the Hungarian bio-diesel utilization

Sunflower experiments

          2004: Six genet...
Quality requirements of plant based
                                        oil as fuel

                                 ...
Instruments used for the
           measurements




CSOP 92 type oil-press

                         Plate and 10 frame f...
Results for sunflower varieties

                                                                       Iodine
          F...
Effect of pressing temperature

                            120




Pressing temperature [°C]
                            ...
Thermographic images of oil press
                         87.0°C

                 SP01
                                 ...
Scanning electron microscopic
images of different sunflower seeds
      Low oil yield           High oil yield

Magn.: 100...
The pressing temperatures as a
function of oil yield in varieties of 2005

                                90




    Pres...
Selection of rapeseed oils for fuel
                                                  Iodine
           Acid              ...
The changes of kinematic viscosity of
 rapeseeds in different temperatures

                      90                      ...
Conclusions of the measurements

There are major differences among sunflower and
rapeseed varieties in connection to the p...
Cellulase enzyme activition to
increase bio-ethanol production
Aims of this project:

Enhance the efficiency of cellulosic...
Potentials of energetic biomass from
       agriculture in Hungary

       No.                              Biomass       ...
Crop-bioenergy-animal-food
        production




       FVMMI - Aston University England
Thank You for Your attention!
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Biofuel Usage In Hungary - Dr Gabor Milics

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Presentation by Dr. Gábor Milics, Ph.D
University of West Hungary,
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences,
Institute of Biosystems Engineering
BioMotion Tour congress at Agritechnica, Hannover - 13 november 2009

Published in: Business, Technology
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Transcript of "Biofuel Usage In Hungary - Dr Gabor Milics"

  1. 1. Economic viability and sustainability by regional implementation concepts Vegetable oil as fuel - Biofuel usage in Hungary - Dr. Gábor Milics, Ph.D University of West Hungary, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering milics@mtk.nyme.hu
  2. 2. Classification of biofuels according to chronology of recognition and their introduction First Second Third Fourth Generation • bioethanol • biocomponent as • higher (>C 2 ) • biohydrogen • vegetable molecular bioalcohols • biomethanol oils consituents • biogasoline and bio • bio electric • biodiesels (bio-ETBE) gas oil current • blends of • bio gas oils (hydrocracking of (indirectly for previous and (hydroisomerised biooils produced by fuel cells) petroleum- vegetable oils) biomass pyrolysis • etc. based fuels • bioethanol from • biofuels from bio lignocelluloses synthesis gas • biobuthanol • bioparaffins from • biomethane carbohydrates (biogas) • biodimethyl-ether • etc. • etc.
  3. 3. Introduction A market of biofuels is emerging in Hungary, as evidenced by recent investment moves but there are still huge potentials in biofuel production supported by agricultural products, well developed infrastructure, inland waterway ports. Area planted in Hungary in the last years: Sunflower: 500 000 ha Rapeseed: 200 000 ha Maize: 1.1 million ha Wheat: 1.1 million ha Surplus wheat and maize grain: 3.7 – 5.4 million tonnes
  4. 4. Hungarian potential of raw material Wheat raw material Maize raw material • 1, 15 million ha • 1, 2 million ha • 4-5 t/ha production average • 6-8 t/ha production average • 4, 6 million tonns/year • 7, 1 millió tonns/year •1 million tonns for ethanol •1,5 million tonns for ethanol 1294,5 kt 351,4 kt 3638,1 kt 1895,6 kt 755,2 kt 913,2 kt 1973,4 kt 297,7 kt 1796,8 kt 821,7 kt 3948,9kt 3450,1 kt Cereal whereof 2272,4 kt 1702,9 kt maize million tonns
  5. 5. EU directives EU directives The goal Hungarian Hungarian present of the EU- accepting and expected future by 2010 by 2010 capacity 2005 2008 2010 2001/77/EK 22.1 % 3,6 % 4,5 % 5,3 % 6,2 % renewable energy rate in the electric energy 2003/30/EK bio-fuels 5,75 % 2,0 % 0,5 % 2,0 % 4,0 % rate in the whole fuels The whole renewable 12,0 % 5,0 % 4,0 % 6,0 % 7,9 % energy rate
  6. 6. Legislative background • Measures were taken to bring Hungary in line with EU directive that 0.4 % of all vehicle fuel consumed in the country is of biological origin in 2006, increasing to 4% by 2010. • The produced quantity is free from excise tax till 2010, if the whole quantity is blended in Hungary or is transported from a Hungarian tax warehouse to a foreign tax warehouse or is bought by a registered distributor. • If gasoline and diesel oil blended with at least 4.4% biofuel, a discounted excise tax for gasoline and diesel oil will be applied (tax: 103.5 HUF/l – gasoline, 85.0 HUF/l – diesel oil). • Sales of petroleum fuel that contains no biofuel will carry a tax penalty. Source: A.J.Kovács
  7. 7. Demand of biofuels Bioethanol Biodiesel
  8. 8. Fuel consumption in Hungary Million ton Billion liter Gasoline 2.5 3.5 Petrol 1.5 2 For the 4,4 vol% blending 88 million liter (70 thousand ton) bioethanol was needed in 2008. By 2010 to rich the 5.75% target (8.61 vol%) 172 million liter (136 thousand ton) is needed. Raw material demand: 400 thousand ton corn (about 50- 60 thousand hectare. Area of Corn in Hungary 1400 1200 thousand hectare 1000 800 600 400 200 0 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Source:KSH
  9. 9. Corn production per capita Hungary is in the third place in the World! Source: NationMaster.com
  10. 10. Bioethanol overview There are two major players in Hungary: Győr Distillery http://www.gyoriszesz.hu http://www.hungrana.hu and Hungrana. In 2008 out of 250 milliion liter output 90 million liter bioethanol was produced using 250 ton corn. Optimistic estimations calculate with the 40-50% of the total corn production for using it as raw material for bioethanol on the long run. (that is a yearly 3-4 million ton.) Of this amount of raw material 1,1-1,5 million ton bioetanol can be produced, of which a large share can be sold for Sweden, Denmark probably even in Germany.
  11. 11. Biodiesel Concerning biodiesel: for the 4,4 vol% blending 156 million liter (130 thousend ton) was used as fuel in 2008. To fulfill the expectation of 5,75% (in energy equivalent) blending by 2010 6,51 vol% blending is needed, that means 228 million liter (200 thousend ton) biodiesel have to be produced. The raw material need for this is 400 thousand ton of rape of sunflower. Paralell to this in Hungary a yearly 200 thousand ton used cooking oil can be turned into fuel.
  12. 12. Biodiesel Two biodiesel plant was build in Hungary earlier: Kunhegyes (Közép-Tiszai MG) and Mátészalka (Intertram). They have couple of million liter capacity annualy, however they ofter stop the production. Mol & Rossi Beteiligungs in biodiesel joint venture has a plant in Komárom, their raw material is 70% rape, 30% used cooking oil. The capacity of the plant is 150 million liter which equals to 0,3-0,4 million ton oilseed. That is 40% out of the 650 thousand ton rapeseed utilization. The tour in Kunhegyes
  13. 13. Further development Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development: Decentralisation is the key for further development in this sector. According to the opinion of the officials of the Ministry: 10-15 small scale plant with about 10 thousand ton capacity 4 middle scale plant with 50 thousand ton capacity and 4 large scale plant with 100 thousand ton capacity shold be build in the country.
  14. 14. Biogas Agricultural raw material for biogas production in Hungary is enough for about 8-10 million ton biogas production which equals about 7-9 PJ. (Total energy demand is about 1150 PJ). Tha main basis are the animal farms. In Hungary wet technology (8-20% dry material) and semi dry (20-50% dry material content) technology can be feasable technically and economically. Out of 1 kg dry material about 300-400 liter 60% methane content biogas can be produced, which can be further developed by plant based materials.
  15. 15. Biogas utilization Budapest Gas Works CO. would like to utilize biogas as a fuel in 2009. april they opened a CNG filling station (not for the public yet...) There are two public CNG filling stations: one in Győr, the other is in Szeged.
  16. 16. Studies on RME in practical conditions Variations: 100% RME 70:30% RME : Diesel oil 50:50% RME : Diesel oil Working hours Spectrometric oil examinations Main conclusions: - there was not any power loss, even in the 100% RME; - 10-20% loss in oil change period; - there was only slight problem in cold ignition.
  17. 17. Examination of used cooking oil in tractor engines OILCHECK measuring device for determination of oil conditions by dielectric properties 100% Wearing out (%) 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Working hours Plant_oil1 Gasoline1 Plant_oil2 Gasoline2 Main conclusions: - there was not any problem in machine operation with the used oils; - there was ignition problems in cold weather, where the cooling water was below 50-60 ºC; - there was problems in long time storage with resinification.
  18. 18. National R&D projects to establish the Hungarian bio-diesel utilization Sunflower experiments 2004: Six genetic experimental varieties; 2005: 28 cultivars and hybrids; parameters were measured: viscosity (at 40 °C and 100 °C); iodine value; density (at 15 °C); Oil yield; palmitic acid; stearic acid; linolic acid; potassium content; sulfur content; nitrogen content; 2006: Selected varieties. Rapeseed experiments 2005: 15 cultivars and hybrids; 2006: 42 cultivars and hybrids.
  19. 19. Quality requirements of plant based oil as fuel Limit Specification Standard min. max. DIN EN ISO 3675. DIN EN ISO Density (at 15 °C), [g/cm3] 0.90 0.93 12185 Kinematic Viscosity (at 40 °C), [mm2/s] - 38 DIN EN ISO 3104 Flash Point (closed cup, Pensky-Martens), [°C] 220 - DIN EN ISO 22719 Heating value, [MJ/kg] 35 DIN 51900-3 Cetane number - - kidolgozás alatt Carbon Residue (Conradson number), [%] - 0.40 DIN EN ISO 10370 Cold point, [°C] to be determined DIN V 51608 Total contamination, [mg/kg] - 25 DIN EN 12662 Total contamination larger than 0.005 mm, to be determined DIN 51419 [mg/kg] Ash, [%] - 0.01 DIN EN ISO 6245 Water, [%] - 0.075 pr EN ISO 12937 Phosphorus, [mg/kg] - 15 ASTM D 3231-99 Sulfur Content, [mg/kg] - 20 ASTM D 5453-93 Acid Value, [mg KOH/g] - 2.0 DIN EN ISO 660 Iodine value (iodine-bromine), g I2/100g 100 120 DIN 53241-1 Oxidation Stability, [h] 5 - ISO 6886
  20. 20. Instruments used for the measurements CSOP 92 type oil-press Plate and 10 frame filter (filter area: 3.2 m2)
  21. 21. Results for sunflower varieties Iodine Fatty acid Remained in Acid value number Oil yield Carbon Number content press cake mgKOH/g gI2/100 Ranking [%] Residue [sz.a.%] [%] g 1 36.61 24.98 11.02 4.8 113 0.32 2 47.37 33.72 9.21 2 116 0.3 3 3 52.62 40.2 8.85 3.2 117 0.34 4 52.2 37.86 9.32 1.9 120 0.23 4 5 46.76 32.65 10.1 2.1 118 0.29 10 6 49.31 36.04 9.5 2.5 112 0.27 9 7 46.87 32.48 9.7 3.9 118 0.24 8 51.02 38.8 8.27 1.1 117 0.27 1 9 50.72 37.04 9.49 2.8 118 0.28 6 10 52.23 39.7 8.83 3.1 120 0.34 11 49.94 37.53 9.76 2.9 121 0.29 12 47.13 34.81 9.43 2.3 117 0.29 13 44.05 31.53 9.7 2.7 112 0.34 14 50.61 34.4 10.08 1.8 116 0.34 5
  22. 22. Effect of pressing temperature 120 Pressing temperature [°C] y = 2.1227x + 12.763 110 R2 = 0.5049 100 90 80 70 60 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 Oil yield [%] The pressing temperatures as a function of oil yield in varieties of 2005
  23. 23. Thermographic images of oil press 87.0°C SP01 80 70 Low oil yield type 60 NOS 3-1165 50 40 AR01 37.0°C 87.0°C SP01 80 FLIR PM675 type IR camera 70 60 High oil yield 70 NOS 50 3-1170 40 AR01 37.0°C
  24. 24. Scanning electron microscopic images of different sunflower seeds Low oil yield High oil yield Magn.: 1000× × Magn.: 1000× × Magn.: 2000× × Magn.: 2000× ×
  25. 25. The pressing temperatures as a function of oil yield in varieties of 2005 90 Pressing temperature [°C] 85 80 75 70 y = 2.2829x - 1.9496 65 R2 = 0.7882 60 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Oil yield [%]
  26. 26. Selection of rapeseed oils for fuel Iodine Acid Remained in Oil yield number Acid value Number content press cake Ranking [%] gI2/100 mgKOH/g [sz.a.%] [%] g 1 50.29 33.98 12.9 105 1.7 4 2 47.01 31.05 12.8 105 1.2 7 3 50.58 34.94 12.2 108 2.6 4 49.31 33.44 12.5 107 2.5 5 50.88 33.06 14.1 102 0.8 5 6 50.2 31.82 14.0 108 1.8 6 7 50.17 31.69 14.5 104 4.2 8 51.86 36.89 11.8 104 1.2 1 9 47.69 32.38 12.3 106 3.5 10 48.73 30.6 14.0 103 2.3 11 48.95 32.72 12.2 104 2.2 12 44.92 24.99 15.5 105 3 13 53.13 36.12 12.2 102 1.1 2 14 50.29 34.66 11.8 107 1.4 3 15 51.66 35.48 12.2 106 4.4
  27. 27. The changes of kinematic viscosity of rapeseeds in different temperatures 90 20°C 80 70 40°C Viscosity [mm 2/s] 60 50 60°C 40 40°C 30 (Univ. 20 Veszprém) 100°C 10 (Univ. 0 Veszprém) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cultivar #
  28. 28. Conclusions of the measurements There are major differences among sunflower and rapeseed varieties in connection to the pressing characteristics and oil yields. Several cold pressed varieties, cultivars and hybrids fulfill the requirements for bio-fuel utilization. By testing the varieties in rapeseed the acid values are significant; in sunflower besides the acid values, the iodine number, the cinematic viscosity and carbon residue have to be determined. The oil residues in cakes in the tested small screw press can be up to 25-30%. This has to be decreased by temperature control (heater) and partial dehulling of sunflower.
  29. 29. Cellulase enzyme activition to increase bio-ethanol production Aims of this project: Enhance the efficiency of cellulosic ethanol production. Study the non-thermal effect of microwave treatment. Measure the cellulase enzyme activity.
  30. 30. Potentials of energetic biomass from agriculture in Hungary No. Biomass Quantity Energy content 1000 t/year PJ/year Min. / Max. Min. / Max. I. Biomass for combustion 1. Straw 1.000 1.200 11,7 14,0 2. Stalk 2.000 2.500 24,0 30,0 3. Energy grass 500 600 6,0 7,0 4. Vine-and orchard shoot 300 350 4,3 5,0 5. Energy plants on arable land 1.800 2.500 27,3 38,0 II. Production of bio fuels 1. Corn (maize) 1.200 2.000 14,4 24,0 2. Wheat/rye 600 1.800 7,2 21,6 3. Rape 300 660 4,5 9,0 4. Sunflower 90 200 1,6 3,2 III. Biogas production 1. Liquid manure, organic waste 6.000 10.000 5,4 9,0 2. Silo maize, sorghum 1.600 3.200 5,4 10,8 IV. Total agriculture: 111,8 171,6 V. Forestry 50,0 62,0 VI. Sum 161,8 233,6 In % of the total Hungarian energy consumption of 1130 PJ %-ban 14,4 % 20,9%
  31. 31. Crop-bioenergy-animal-food production FVMMI - Aston University England
  32. 32. Thank You for Your attention!
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