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Algae: Exploring Open Pond Production Opportunities

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  • 1. Algae: Exploring Open Pond Production Opportunities
    Terri Chiang
    Biomass Partners, LLC
    801 Commerce Drive
    Gulf Shores, Alabama 36542
    251-978-7788
    www.biomasspartner.com
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 2. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 3. Pond Construction
    Proper design and construction of ponds is critical to the success of a commercial catfish operation. Well-designed ponds, constructed on soil with a proper clay content and adequate water supply, have a useful life of at least 10 years.
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 4. Pond Types
    Three types of ponds are used in catfish farming. The first, called embankment or levee
    ponds, is the most common type of pond used in channel catfish farming. Embankment
    ponds are the preferred type for large-scale catfish farming because they can be built in
    large contiguous tracts, which aids in pond management. Embankment ponds are built
    on flat land by removing soil from the area that will be the pond bottom and using that
    soil to form levees or embankments around the pond perimeter.
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 5. The second type, watershed ponds, are built in hilly areas by damming a small stream. In the long term, the major source of water is runoff from the drainage basin above the dam, although a source of pumped water is desirable to help offset evaporation and seepage during droughts. Watershed ponds represent less than 10 percent of the total pond area devoted to channel catfish farming, but are common in some regions, such as western Alabama.
    .
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 6. The third pond type is a hybrid between embankment and watershed ponds. These ponds may have two or three sides consisting of embankments (actually low dams) across a relatively small drainage basin. A significant amount of water may be obtained from runoff, but because the catchment area above the pond is relatively small, a source of pumped water also must be available. Hybrid watershed-embankment ponds are built in regions with gently rolling topography, such as the Blackland Prairie of east Mississippi
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 7. Pond Morphology
    The ideal size and depth of catfish ponds has changed in recent years. Fish farmers report that smaller ponds (8 to 10 acres) are easier to manage and feed than larger ponds (18 to 25 acres). Research indicates and producers confirm that deeper ponds (5 to 6 feet average depth) have a longer life expectancy and allow greater water conservation. A bottom slope of 0.2 to 0.3 inches per 100 linear feet along the long axis is recommended for adequate drainage.
    Interior levees should have a minimum top width of 16 feet to allow vehicle access for management purposes even in wet conditions. Main access levees should have a minimum top width of 20 feet (preferably 25 feet) to accommodate fixed equipment such as wells, generators, and aerators while permitting passage of feed delivery and hauling trucks. These main levees should be graveled for all-weather access.
    Slope is expressed as the horizontal distance (in feet) that results in a 1-foot change in height. For most soils, an outside levee slope of 3:1 is recommended. Inside slope for commercial ponds typically ranges from 3:1 to 4:1.
    A single 10-inch diameter drain of heavy gauge, coated metal or PVC pie is adequate to maintain water level and drain a commercial pond. The drain should extend into the pond and past the outside levee toe by at least 5 feet. A perimeter drainage system should be constructed to receive effluents and to prevent water from standing outside levees.
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 8. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 9. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 10. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 11. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 12. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 13. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 14. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 15. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 16. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 17. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 18. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 19. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 20. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 21. Released July 24, 2009
    by the
    National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)
    Agricultural Statistics Board
    U.S. Department of Agriculture
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 22. Catfish: Number of Operations and Water Surface Acres, Used for
    Production, 2004-2005, by State and United States
    Number of
    Operations
    on July 1
    Water Surface Acres
    Used for Production
    State During July 1 - December 31
    State
    2004 2005 2004 2005
    Number Number Acres Acres
    AL
    AR
    LA
    MS
    Total
    250
    158
    48
    430
    886
    210
    124
    32
    400
    766
    27,900
    34,900
    9,400
    103,000
    175,200
    23,900
    29,500
    7,700
    98,000
    159,100
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 23. Catfish: Number of Operations and Water Surface Acres, Used for
    Production, 2006-2007, by State and United States
    Number of
    Operations
    on July 1
    Water Surface Acres
    Used for Production
    State During July 1 - December 31
    State
    2006 2007 2006 2007
    Number Number Acres Acres
    AL
    AR
    LA
    MS
    Total
    217
    132
    24
    380
    753
    203
    131
    19
    360
    713
    24,500
    30,200
    5,700
    95,700
    156,100
    23,200
    32,000
    5,500
    92,700
    153,400
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 24. Catfish: Number of Operations and Water Surface Acres
    Used for Production, 2008-2009, by State
    Number of
    Operations
    on July 1
    Water Surface Acres
    Used for Production
    State During July 1 - December 31
    State
    2008 2009 2008 2009
    Number Number Acres Acres
    22,100
    26,600
    5,700
    83,200
    137,600
    21,700
    20,500
    70,000
    112,200
    AL
    AR
    LA
    MS
    Total
    240
    141
    31
    407
    819
    613
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 25. Catfish: Number of Operations and Water Surface Acres,
    Used for Production, 2004 vs 2009, by State
    Water Surface Acres Used for Production
    2004 2009
    State
    Acres Acres
    27,900
    34,900
    9,400
    103,000
    175,200
    21,700
    20,500
    70,000
    112,200
    AL
    AR
    LA
    MS
    Total
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 26. Freshwater and Saltwater Acres Used for Aquaculture Production,
    by State and United States: 2005 and 1998
    2005 1998
    Farms Acres Farms Acres
    Geographic area
    United States . .Freshwater . . . . .
    3,127
    365,566
    3,252
    320,732
    Saltwater . . . . .
    1,203
    327,487
    815
    64,179
    213
    25,351
    259
    21,896
    Alabama . . . . Freshwater. . . . .
    -
    -
    -
    -
    Saltwater. . . . .
    Arkansas . . . . Freshwater. . . . .
    211
    61,135
    222
    55,914
    -
    -
    -
    -
    Saltwater. . . . .
    Louisiana . . . . Freshwater . . . .
    738
    104,645
    681
    68,661
    Saltwater. . . . .
    135
    215,770
    -
    -
    Mississippi . . . Freshwater. . . . .
    403
    102,898
    419
    108,192
    -
    -
    -
    -
    Saltwater. . . . .
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
    Source: USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service
  • 27. BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009
  • 28. Terri Chiang
    Biomass Partners, LLC
    801 Commerce Drive
    Gulf Shores, Alabama 36542
    251-978-7788
    www.biomasspartner.com
    BIOMASS PARTNERS, LLC
    November 18, 2009