Chapter 9 Biology I


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cellular respiration, photosynthesis

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Chapter 9 Biology I

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9 <ul><li>ENERGY IN A CELL </li></ul>
  2. 2. ENERGY <ul><li>All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from their environment </li></ul><ul><li>All energy comes from sunlight and organisms either obtain it directly or indirectly </li></ul>
  3. 3. ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE ( ATP) <ul><li>Energy storing molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Releases energy quickly whenever a cell needs it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATP Structure <ul><li>Composed of an adenosine molecule with three phosphate molecules attached. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy of ATP becomes available when the bond is broken between the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate groups. </li></ul><ul><li>adenosine TRI phosphate to adenosine DI phosphate </li></ul>
  5. 5. ATP
  6. 6. Photosynthesis <ul><li>The process that uses sunlight to make simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 2 reactions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Light - dependent reaction <ul><li>Requires light in order to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: Sunlight and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Products: ATP and NADPH and releases oxygen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Light - Independent Reaction <ul><li>Also known as the dark cycle or calvin cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not need sunlight in order to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Products: Glucose and Pgal. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calvin Cycle OR Dark Cycle
  10. 10. Formula for photosynthesis <ul><li>6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + sunlight -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chloroplast <ul><li>The plant organelle in which photosynthesis occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains pigments called chlorophyll that absorbs most wavelengths of light except green. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chloroplast
  13. 13. Aerobic Cellular Respiration (with Oxygen) <ul><li>Breakdown of sugar (food) into ATP (usable energy). </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>3 phases: </li></ul><ul><li>1. glycolysis: Anaerobic (no oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>*Steps 2&3 with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>2. citric acid cycle (kreb cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>3. electron transport chain </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mitochondria
  15. 15. Formula for aerobic respiration <ul><li>Opposite of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>
  16. 16. GLYCOLYSIS (sugar splitting) <ul><li>Anaerobic : no oxygen is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes the 6-Carbon glucose and breaks it into 2, 3-Carbon pyruvic acid molecules. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Glycolysis Cont… </li></ul><ul><li>Only produces 2 ATP molecules </li></ul>
  18. 18. Glycolysis Cont… <ul><li>Pyruvic acid is then converted into Acetyl Co-enzyme A before it enters the citric acid cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Products: Pyruvic Acid </li></ul>
  19. 19. CITRIC ACID CYCLE (Also called the Kreb Cycle) <ul><li>During this process high energy electrons are captured by NADH and FADH 2 . (electron carriers) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulls carbons off the sugar molecules, releasing carbon dioxide and generating 2 ATP (varies) . </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants: Acetyl Co-enzyme A </li></ul><ul><li>Products: NADH and FADH 2 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Kreb Cycle ( Citric Acid Cycle)
  21. 21. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN <ul><li>The electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 transfer their electrons to the electron transport chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons are passed through a series of proteins, gradually releasing the energy they contain, to form 32 ATP molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>The final electron acceptor is oxygen . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Electron Transport Chain
  23. 23. Aerobic Respiration
  24. 24. Anaerobic Respiration (No oxygen) <ul><li>Lactic acid fermentation: Occurs during strenuous exercise when the body is not able to supply needed oxygen to the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the continued production of ATP until oxygen levels are restored . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Anaerobic Respiration Cont... No Oxygen!!! <ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces lactic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Not very efficient – Only 2 ATP produced. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Anaerobic Respiration Cont.. Alcoholic Fermentation <ul><li>Used by yeast and some bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. </li></ul>