Chapter 2 Biology

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Chapter 2 Biology

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Ecology
  2. 2. Ecology <ul><li>the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 <ul><li>The biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports living things. </li></ul><ul><li>It extends from high in the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceans. </li></ul>The Biosphere
  4. 4. Biotic Factors <ul><li>The Living parts of the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>(giraffe, trees, grass…) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abiotic Factors <ul><li>The Nonliving parts of the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>(temp., humidity, rocks, water…) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Organism – Species – Population </li></ul><ul><li>– Community – Ecosystems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Species
  8. 8. Population
  9. 9. Community
  10. 10. Niche <ul><li>The role an organism plays in its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule : No two organisms can occupy the same niche at the same time for very long. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ecosystem <ul><li>Made up of interacting populations in </li></ul><ul><li>a biological community and the </li></ul><ul><li>community’s abiotic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two major kinds of ecosystems— terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organisms in Ecosystems <ul><li>A habitat is the place where an organism lives out its life. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Symbiosis <ul><li>Living Together </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mutualism <ul><li>Both species Benefit from the relationship. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Parasitism <ul><li>One species benefits </li></ul><ul><li>the other is harmed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Commensalism <ul><li>One species benefits </li></ul><ul><li>The other is not hurt or helped </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organisms and Energy <ul><li>All the energy on Earth comes from the sun!! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Autotroph <ul><li>Organisms that use the energy from the sun to produce their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>(producers) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Heterotroph <ul><li>Consumes other organisms as food source. </li></ul><ul><li>3-Types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scavengers and decomposers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Herbivores <ul><li>Heterotrophs that consume plants only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: cows, deer, rabbits… </li></ul><ul><li>(First order consumers) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Carnivores <ul><li>Heterotrophs that consume other animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Humans, cats… </li></ul><ul><li>(Second… order consumers.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Scavengers <ul><li>Feed on dead organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: vultures </li></ul>
  23. 23. Decomposers <ul><li>Break down dead plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bacteria and fungus </li></ul>
  24. 24. How does energy flow through the ecosystem??? <ul><li>In ONE direction only </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Sun-Producers-Consumers-Decomposers- Released as heat Autotrophs First-order heterotrophs Third-order heterotrophs Second-order heterotrophs Decomposers
  26. 26. Food Chain <ul><li>Simplest exchange of energy. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Food Web: Interconnected, overlapping food chains
  28. 28. Food Web
  29. 29. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Shows how energy flows through the ecosystem </li></ul>
  30. 30. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Shows how energy decreases by 90% at each trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of the energy is passed onto the next level. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Organisms at the bottom of the pyramid are more numerous than at the top. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Different Types of Pyramids
  33. 33. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients cycle through the ecosystem, never disappearing. </li></ul>nutrients nutrients nutrients
  34. 34. Water Cycle <ul><li>3 parts… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Water Cycle
  36. 36. Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>2 Parts… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denitrification </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Carbon Cycle

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