Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle
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Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle






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Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 8 Notes Cellular Transportation And The Cell Cycle
  • Cell Transportation : 2 main types
    • 1. Passive transport : Does not require energy from the cell
    • Moves downhill, with the concentration gradient
  • Cellular Transportation Type 2
    • 2 . Active Transport : Requires energy to occur.
    • Moves uphill, against the concentration gradient.
  • Passive Transport (No energy required)
    • 3-Types
  • 1 st Type Passive Transport
    • Simple Diffusion : Movement of any substance from areas of higher to lower concentrations
    • diffusion animation
  • 2 nd Type Passive Transport
    • Osmosis: Movement of water from areas of higher to lower concentrations
  • 3 rd Type Passive Transport
    • Facilitated diffusion : Movement of substances from higher to lower concentration with help from a protein molecule
    • Animation: How Facilitated Diffusion Works
  • 2-Types of Active Transport (Energy Required)
    • 1 . Exocytosis : The expulsion of particles from the cell.
    • 2. Endocytosis : surrounding and engulfing particles.
          • Pinocytosis : Cell drinking – the cell takes in liquids.
          • Phagocytosis : Surrounding and taking in of large particles.
  • Phagocytosis
    • Animation: Phagocytosis
  • Solute vs Solvent
    • Solute : The dissolved substance in a liquid.
    • Solvent : The liquid that the solute is dissolved in: Usually water
  • Types of solutions Isotonic solution
    • Concentrations of solute are equal in the cell and the solution. (cell=solution)
    • Water moves back and forth at the same rate.
    • Water in =Water Out
  • Hyp-O-tonic solution (Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic)
    • Hyp O tonic : Concentrations of solute are higher in the cell than in the solution (cell-higher, solution-lower)
    • Water moves into the cell.
    • The cell swells and can burst.
  • Hypertonic Solution
    • Concentrations of solute are lower in the cell than in the solution (cell-lower, solution-higher)
    • Water moves out of the cell .
    • The cell shrinks .
  • Limits to cell size
    • A cells size is limited, so organisms grow by cellular division.
    • The cells of a baby are the same size as the cells of an adult.
  • So… Why Can’t cells just grow larger???
  • Three factors that limit the growth of cells
    • 1. Diffusion across cell surface.
    • 2. Shortage of DNA.
    • 3. Surface to volume ratio.
  • Diffusion
    • Diffusion is efficient over short distances, but becomes inefficient and slow over large distances.
    • So…cells that are large have a more difficult time getting nutrients into the cell and waste products out of the cell.
  • DNA
    • A cell cannot survive without sufficient amounts of DNA to make necessary proteins
    • Unusually large cells must have multiple nuclei in order to supply needed DNA
  • Surface Area to Volume Ratio
    • As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases faster than its surface area
  • Cell Reproduction
    • Mitosis : Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle)
    • The process by which one cell divides into two cells, both identical to the original parent cell
  • The Dreaded “ C ” Words!
    • Chromatin
    • Chromosomes
    • Chromatid
    • Centromeres
    • Centioles
  • Chromatin
    • Relaxed DNA.
  • Chromosomes
    • Condensed DNA.
    • DNA that is preparing to undergo cellular division
    • Can now be seen with a microscope.
  • Chromatids and Centromeres
    • Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicated parent chromosome.
    • Centromeres: The structure that joins two sister chromatids.
  • Chromatin and Chromosome
  • Centrioles- Produce the spindle and aid in replication
  • The Cell Cycle
    • The process of asexua l reproduction (mitosis) of the cell
    • Contains three major parts
    • 1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis
  • The Cell Cycle
  • Part One of the Cell Cycle Interphase
    • The cell spends the majority of its life in interphase.
    • A time in which the cell is preparing for division.
  • Interphase 3-Parts
    • G-1 : Maturation.
    • S-Phase : DNA replicates - makes a duplicate copy of itself.
    • G-2 : Organelles replicate and final preparations for division.
  • Mitosis
    • Division of the nucleus
    • 4-phases
      • P rophase
      • M etaphase
      • A naphase
      • T elophase
      • PMAT
  • Parts of Mitosis Prophase
    • The chromatin condense to form visible chromosomes
    • The nuclear envelope begins to dissolve
    • The centrioles divide and begin to migrate to opposite sides of the cell
  • Parts of Mitosis Cont… Metaphase
    • Centrioles have moved to opposite sides of the cell
    • The spindle has formed
    • Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell across the equator
  • Parts of Mitosis Cont… Anaphase
    • The centromeres split and the spindles pull the sister chromatids apart toward opposite sides of the cell
  • Parts of Mitosis Cont… Telophase
    • The chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell.
    • The nuclear envelope begins to reform around each set of chromosomes at opposite sides of the cell.
  • Cytokinesis
    • Division of the cytoplasm
    • Begins to occur during telophase
    • Different in plants and animal cells
  • Cytokinesis Cont…
    • Animal cells : the plasma membrane pinches in to form two separate cells
    • Plant cells : A rigid cell plate begins to form between the two new cells, dividing them and becoming a cell wall.
  • mitosis animation
  • Control of the Cell Cycle
    • The cell cycle is controlled by proteins and enzymes
    • Contact with other cells causes cell to stop dividing.
    • Cell stop dividing when they lose contact with other cells
  • Cancer
    • Uncontrolled cell growth resulting in tumors
    • Metastasis: Cells break lose and travel through the circulatory system spreading throughout the body.
  • Causes of Cancer
    • Environmental factors that damage genes.
      • Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun, air and water pollution, viruses