Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle


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Cell Transportation and The Cell Cycle

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Notes Cellular Transportation And The Cell Cycle
  2. 2. Cell Transportation : 2 main types <ul><li>1. Passive transport : Does not require energy from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Moves downhill, with the concentration gradient </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cellular Transportation Type 2 <ul><li>2 . Active Transport : Requires energy to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Moves uphill, against the concentration gradient. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Passive Transport (No energy required) <ul><li>3-Types </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1 st Type Passive Transport <ul><li>Simple Diffusion : Movement of any substance from areas of higher to lower concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion animation </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2 nd Type Passive Transport <ul><li>Osmosis: Movement of water from areas of higher to lower concentrations </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3 rd Type Passive Transport <ul><li>Facilitated diffusion : Movement of substances from higher to lower concentration with help from a protein molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Animation: How Facilitated Diffusion Works </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2-Types of Active Transport (Energy Required) <ul><li>1 . Exocytosis : The expulsion of particles from the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Endocytosis : surrounding and engulfing particles. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis : Cell drinking – the cell takes in liquids. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis : Surrounding and taking in of large particles. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Phagocytosis <ul><li>Animation: Phagocytosis </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solute vs Solvent <ul><li>Solute : The dissolved substance in a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent : The liquid that the solute is dissolved in: Usually water </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of solutions Isotonic solution <ul><li>Concentrations of solute are equal in the cell and the solution. (cell=solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves back and forth at the same rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Water in =Water Out </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hyp-O-tonic solution (Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic) <ul><li>Hyp O tonic : Concentrations of solute are higher in the cell than in the solution (cell-higher, solution-lower) </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves into the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell swells and can burst. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypertonic Solution <ul><li>Concentrations of solute are lower in the cell than in the solution (cell-lower, solution-higher) </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves out of the cell . </li></ul><ul><li>The cell shrinks . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Limits to cell size <ul><li>A cells size is limited, so organisms grow by cellular division. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells of a baby are the same size as the cells of an adult. </li></ul>
  15. 15. So… Why Can’t cells just grow larger???
  16. 16. Three factors that limit the growth of cells <ul><li>1. Diffusion across cell surface. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Shortage of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Surface to volume ratio. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion is efficient over short distances, but becomes inefficient and slow over large distances. </li></ul><ul><li>So…cells that are large have a more difficult time getting nutrients into the cell and waste products out of the cell. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DNA <ul><li>A cell cannot survive without sufficient amounts of DNA to make necessary proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Unusually large cells must have multiple nuclei in order to supply needed DNA </li></ul>
  19. 19. Surface Area to Volume Ratio <ul><li>As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases faster than its surface area </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Mitosis : Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which one cell divides into two cells, both identical to the original parent cell </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Dreaded “ C ” Words! <ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatid </li></ul><ul><li>Centromeres </li></ul><ul><li>Centioles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Chromatin <ul><li>Relaxed DNA. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chromosomes <ul><li>Condensed DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA that is preparing to undergo cellular division </li></ul><ul><li>Can now be seen with a microscope. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Chromatids and Centromeres <ul><li>Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicated parent chromosome. </li></ul><ul><li>Centromeres: The structure that joins two sister chromatids. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Chromatin and Chromosome
  26. 26. Centrioles- Produce the spindle and aid in replication
  27. 27. The Cell Cycle <ul><li>The process of asexua l reproduction (mitosis) of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contains three major parts </li></ul><ul><li>1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Cell Cycle
  29. 29. Part One of the Cell Cycle Interphase <ul><li>The cell spends the majority of its life in interphase. </li></ul><ul><li>A time in which the cell is preparing for division. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Interphase 3-Parts <ul><li>G-1 : Maturation. </li></ul><ul><li>S-Phase : DNA replicates - makes a duplicate copy of itself. </li></ul><ul><li>G-2 : Organelles replicate and final preparations for division. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mitosis <ul><li>Division of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>4-phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P rophase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M etaphase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A naphase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T elophase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMAT </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Parts of Mitosis Prophase <ul><li>The chromatin condense to form visible chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclear envelope begins to dissolve </li></ul><ul><li>The centrioles divide and begin to migrate to opposite sides of the cell </li></ul>
  33. 33. Parts of Mitosis Cont… Metaphase <ul><li>Centrioles have moved to opposite sides of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The spindle has formed </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell across the equator </li></ul>
  34. 34. Parts of Mitosis Cont… Anaphase <ul><li>The centromeres split and the spindles pull the sister chromatids apart toward opposite sides of the cell </li></ul>
  35. 35. Parts of Mitosis Cont… Telophase <ul><li>The chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclear envelope begins to reform around each set of chromosomes at opposite sides of the cell. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Division of the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to occur during telophase </li></ul><ul><li>Different in plants and animal cells </li></ul>
  37. 37. Cytokinesis Cont… <ul><li>Animal cells : the plasma membrane pinches in to form two separate cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells : A rigid cell plate begins to form between the two new cells, dividing them and becoming a cell wall. </li></ul>
  38. 39. mitosis animation
  39. 40. Control of the Cell Cycle <ul><li>The cell cycle is controlled by proteins and enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with other cells causes cell to stop dividing. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell stop dividing when they lose contact with other cells </li></ul>
  40. 41. Cancer <ul><li>Uncontrolled cell growth resulting in tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Metastasis: Cells break lose and travel through the circulatory system spreading throughout the body. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Causes of Cancer <ul><li>Environmental factors that damage genes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun, air and water pollution, viruses </li></ul></ul>