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  • 1
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    • 1. Tissue fluid
    • 2.
      • Exchange across the capillaries
      • Formation of tissue fluid
      • Lymph
      Tissue fluid
    • 3.
      • As blood flows through the capillaries some fluid passes out of capillaries
      • This is tissue fluid it is very similar to plasma but does not have large plasma protein molecules in it
      • This fluid bathes every cell in the body supplying them with glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and oxygen
      • (Tissue fluid also removes carbon dioxide an other waste material from cells)
      Tissue fluid - formation
    • 4.
      • As blood enters the narrow capillaries the build up of pressure forces water through the capillary walls into the cells.
      • Other substances move out by diffusion
      Tissue fluid - formation
    • 5. Tissue fluid – exchange with tissues
    • 6. Quick question – If you take out lots of water from a fluid but leave all the large plasma proteins in it, what happens to the water potential?
    • 7.
      • As fluid leaves the capillaries the blood has lost a lot of its water and so it is far more concentrated (its water potential becomes more negative / lower)
      • So water passes back into the capillary by osmosis
      • Waste products leave the cells and enter the capillaries by diffusion
      Tissue fluid - drainage
    • 8.  
    • 9.  
    • 10.  
    • 11.
      • Not all the fluid returns to the blood capillary
      • 10% enters a separate system of microscopic tubes called lymph capillaries
      • These are part of the lymph system
      • Lymph vessels have valves that let fluid enter but not leave them
      • The lymph capillaries join to form lymph vessels
      Tissue fluid - Lymph
    • 12.
      • Flow of liquid through the lymph system is very slow
      • It depends on movement of our muscles, the valves in the vessels.
      • Flow is in one direction only, from tissues back towards the bloodstream.
      Tissue fluid
    • 13.  
    • 14.  
    • 15.
      • So… fluid
      • In the Blood is called plasma
      • Surrounding the cells is called tissue fluid
      • In the lymphatic system is called lymph
      Tissue fluid
    • 16. Tissue fluid
    • 17.
      • Name the system to which the vessel labelled X belongs.
      • (ii) Describe the function of the vessels in this system. (2)
    • 18.
        • lymph / lymphatic;
        • drains excess tissue fluid (because not all re-enters capillaries) / prevents accumulation of fluid ; returns fluid to blood;
    • 19. Explain what causes the decrease in water potential at the arterial end of the capillary. Explain what causes the increase in water potential towards the venous end of the capillary.
    • 20.
      • loss of water ; (due to) hydrostatic pressure/blood pressure; explanation in terms of solute concentration / plasma proteins; 2 max
      • water enters; due to osmosis / more negative water potential (in capillary);
      • 2