<ul><li>Aims of the session: </li></ul><ul><li>Take measurements of leaves + see if xerophytes have a different pattern of...
Plant adaptations to habitats Plants in different habitats possess different adaptations: Mesophytes :   plants adapted to...
Hydrophyte: Leaf undersurface of the tree fern. Extremely high number of stomata per unit in a species living in tropic cl...
XEROPHYTES
<ul><li>Stomata sunken in pits creates local humidity/decreases exposure to air currents;  </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of h...
Xerophytes possess some or all of these adaptations to prevent excessive water loss cont. <ul><li>Stomata on inside of rol...
Xerophyte adaptations summary: Adaptation How it works Example thick  cuticle stops uncontrolled evaporation through leaf ...
All Cacti are xerophytes
Left and right  Epidermis of the cactus  Rhipsalis dissimilis .  Left:  View of the epidermis surface. The crater-shaped d...
Transverse Section Through a Xerophytic Plant leaf
XEROPHYTE SPECIES STUDY: MARRAM GRASS
Marram grass possesses:  rolled   leaves ,  leaf   hairs  and   sunken   stomata . These adaptations make it resistant to ...
 
 
 
 
 
BYB3 June 2001 Question 8 part c
BYB3 June 2001 Question 8 part c ANSWERS
BYB3 Jan 2002 Question 6 part c
BYB3 Jan 2002 Question 6 part c ANSWERS
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BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. <ul><li>Aims of the session: </li></ul><ul><li>Take measurements of leaves + see if xerophytes have a different pattern of mass loss </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about the adaptations xerophytes have </li></ul><ul><li>See what type of question they can ask about xerophytes (and be able to answer it) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Plant adaptations to habitats Plants in different habitats possess different adaptations: Mesophytes : plants adapted to a habitat with adequate water Xerophytes : plants adapted to a dry habitat Halophytes : plants adapted to a salty habitat Hydrophytes : plants adapted to a freshwater habitat
  3. 3. Hydrophyte: Leaf undersurface of the tree fern. Extremely high number of stomata per unit in a species living in tropic cloud forests where is is very moist.
  4. 4. XEROPHYTES
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stomata sunken in pits creates local humidity/decreases exposure to air currents; </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of hairs creates local humidity next to leaf/decreases exposure to air currents by reducing flow around stomata; </li></ul><ul><li>Thick waxy cuticle makes more waterproof impermeable to water; </li></ul>Xerophytes possess some or all of these adaptations to prevent excessive water loss
  6. 6. Xerophytes possess some or all of these adaptations to prevent excessive water loss cont. <ul><li>Stomata on inside of rolled leaf creates local humidity/decreases exposure to air currents because water vapour evaporates into air space rather than atmosphere e.g. British Marram grass </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer stomata decreases transpiration as this is where water is lost; </li></ul>
  7. 7. Xerophyte adaptations summary: Adaptation How it works Example thick cuticle stops uncontrolled evaporation through leaf cells   small leaf surface area less surface area for evaporation conifer needles, cactus spines low stomata density smaller surface area for diffusion   sunken stomata maintains humid air around stomata marram grass, cacti stomatal hairs (trichores) maintains humid air around stomata marram grass, couch grass rolled leaves maintains humid air around stomata marram grass, extensive roots maximise water uptake cacti
  8. 8. All Cacti are xerophytes
  9. 9. Left and right Epidermis of the cactus Rhipsalis dissimilis . Left: View of the epidermis surface. The crater-shaped depressions with a guard cell each at their base can be seen. Right: X-section through the epidermis & underlying tissues. The guard cells are countersunk, the cuticle is thickened. These are classic xerophyte adaptations.
  10. 10. Transverse Section Through a Xerophytic Plant leaf
  11. 11. XEROPHYTE SPECIES STUDY: MARRAM GRASS
  12. 12. Marram grass possesses: rolled leaves , leaf hairs and sunken stomata . These adaptations make it resistant to dry conditions and of course sand-dunes which drain very quickly retain very little water.
  13. 18. BYB3 June 2001 Question 8 part c
  14. 19. BYB3 June 2001 Question 8 part c ANSWERS
  15. 20. BYB3 Jan 2002 Question 6 part c
  16. 21. BYB3 Jan 2002 Question 6 part c ANSWERS

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