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Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
Hr 4   development of immunity
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Hr 4 development of immunity

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  • 1. CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
  • 2.
    • 11.1 Immune Response (2½)
    • 11.2 Development of Immunity (1½)
    • 11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 )
    CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
  • 3.
    • Describe and explain the primary and secondary immune responses to antigen.
    • Explain the concept of self and non-self recognition and its application in organ transplant, grafting and blood transfusion.
    11.2 : Development of Immunity (Objectives)
  • 4. Active Natural Artificial Passive Immunity Natural Artificial
    • Antibody from:
    • pregnant mom to fetus
    • Nursing mother to infant
    • Antibody from
    • Injected antibody from animal / people to another people
    • Exposed naturally to antigen
    • By immunization or vaccination
    Types of Immunity
  • 5.
    • Passive immunity
    • Obtain antibody from outside
    • Effect : immediate but short-lived
    • Active immunity
    • Produce own antibody due to entrance of antigen
    • Effect : longer time but long-lived
    • Has immunological memory
    Vaccination
  • 6.
    • For active immunity, it develops within 2 stages:-
    Primary immune response Secondary immune response Immunity
    • 1 st exposure to the antigen
    • 2 nd exposure to the same antigen
    Development of Immunity
  • 7. Primary & Secondary Immune Responses
  • 8.
    • Has a longer lag period (where no antibody is produced)
    • Due to the time needed for the specific B cell to:
    Become activated Proliferate (producing clone) Differentiate (plasma cell & memory cell)
    • Plasma cell secrete antibody (mainly Ig M)
    • Amount of antibody is relatively low
    • After a short time, amount of antibody decrease
    Primary Immune Response 1 2 3
  • 9.
    • Has a very short lag period (due to the presence of memory B cells ~ immunological memory)
    • Production of antibody is :-
    faster higher amount more prolonged (remain longer)
    • Antibody level tends to remain high for longer period
    • Plasma cell secrete antibody (mainly Ig G)
    Secondary Immune Response 1 2 3
  • 10.
    • Obtained by vaccination / immunization
    • Obtained by injecting small amount of vaccine into the body
    • Which trigger immune response
    • Effect :- produce antibody against injected antigen
    • Vaccine is inactivated toxins or weakened / dead pathogen
    • Which trigger immune system to produce antibody,
    • but can no longer cause disease
    Artificial Active Immunity
  • 11. Vaccination
  • 12. Vaccination
    • BCG (tuberculosis)
    • After birth / 13 yrs
    • Hepatitis B
    • After birth / 1 mth / 6 mths
    • Triple Antigen (DPT)
    • Diphteria (sore throat)
    • Pertusis (whooping cough)
    • Tetanus
    • 3 / 4 / 5 mths
    • Polio
    • 3 / 4 / 5 mths
    • MMR
    • Measles
    • Mumps
    • Rubella
    • 4 yrs
  • 13.
    • a.k.a Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)
    • Is known as self antigen
    • Each person has a unique MHC (except identical twins)
    • That differentiate our own cells with other person
    MHC Class I Class II
    • found on all cells (except RBC)
    • found on cells involved in immune response (macrophage, B cell)
    MHC
  • 14.
    • Our immune system can recognize foreign cells & own body cells
    • Due to presence of MHC
    • Self antigen  does not provoke immune response
    • Non-self antigen  trigger immune response
    • Non-self includes:-
      • Antigen
      • Cells from other individuals / organisms
    Self & Non-self Concept
  • 15. Concept of Self & Non-self Recognition Antigen receptors are tested for self-reactivity Lymphocytes carrying receptors that can bind to molecules already present in the body are inactivated or destroyed by apoptosis Only lymphocytes that recognize foreign molecules continue to develop Helps to recognize self from non-self (self-tolerance) Failure to recognise self antigen leads to autoimmune diseases
  • 16. Skin Grafting Blood transfusion Organ transplant Self & Non-self Concept 1 2 3
  • 17.
    • Transfer of blood from 1 person to another
    • Blood group must be determined before it can be transferred
    • By using ABO blood group system
    • Blood group can be determined by antigen found on red blood cell (RBC) membrane
    Blood Transfusion
  • 18. Antibody B Has antigen A Blood A Blood B Blood AB Blood O Has antigen B Has antigen A & B No antigen Antibody A No antibody Antibody A & B Blood Transfusion
  • 19.
    • If the antigen & complementary antibody is present in the blood, agglutination occurs
    • Blood O  universal donor
    • Because it has no antigen on the surface  does not trigger immune response
    • Blood AB  universal recipient
    • Because it has no antibody (for blood)  does not cause agglutination
    Blood Transfusion
  • 20. Blood Transfusion Why is it easier to transfer blood compared to transfer organ ?? RECALL that RBC doesn’t have MHC Type of antigen present  A & B
  • 21. Blood Transfusion
  • 22. Skin Grafting
  • 23.
    • Replacement of damaged tissue / organs with a healthy one
    • 3 kinds of transplant
    Autografts Isografts Allografts Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant 1 2 3
  • 24.
    • Tissue (skin) grafted from 1 area to another on the same person
    • Same MHC  no rejection
    1. Autografts
  • 25.
    • A graft between genetically identical individuals
    • Identical twins
    • Same MHC  no rejection
    2. Isografts
  • 26.
    • A graft from 1 individual to a genetically different individual of the same species
    • Different MHC  may cause rejection
    • To minimize rejection, tissue typing is done
    • Find a close match for both tissue donor & recipient’s MHC (at least 75% match)
    • In the absence of identical twins, siblings usually provide the closest tissue-type match.
    3. Allografts
  • 27.
    • MHC causes rejection of tissue graft & organ transplant
    • To reduce rejection, chemicals are needed to suppress the immune response (immunosupressant ~ cyclosporine)
    • But, it causes the recipient to be more susceptible to infection during treatment
    Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant
  • 28.
    • Involve major organs (heart, renal, liver, lung)
    • Determine ABO blood typing
    • Determine tissue typing (MHC matching)
    Organ Transplant
  • 29.
    • Selective drugs, that suppress helper T cell activation without crippling nonspecific defense or T-independent humoral responses, can improve the success of organ transplant.
    Skin Grafting & Organ Transplant

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