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Hr 2   immune response
 

Hr 2 immune response

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    Hr 2   immune response Hr 2 immune response Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
      • 11.1 Immune Response (2½)
      • 11.2 Development of Immunity (1½)
      • 11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 )
      CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
      • Describe what is meant by immunity.
      • Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of antibodies.
      • Explain and compare humoral and cell mediated immune response
      • Describe the roles of lymphoid organs in immunity.
      • Describe various types of antigen and antibody reactions.
      11.1 : Immune Response (Objectives)
      • What is:
        • Immunity ?
        • Antigen ?
        • Antibody ?
      • Structure of antibody
      • Classes of antibody
      • Immune response
      • Antigen & antibody reactions
      11.1 : Immune Response
    • Cell mediated Humoral Immune Response
      • Involve mainly B cell
      • Produce antibody in plasma (body fluid ~ humor)
      • With the help of T H cell
      • Involve mainly T cell
      Immune response
      • Our cells has a special glycoprotein on the plasma membrane  MHC
      MHC Class I Class II
      • found on all cells (except RBC)
      • found on cells involved in immune response (macrophage, B cell)
      Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
    • a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for class I MHC-Antigen complex Classes of T cells Lymphocyte T T4 / CD4 cell Cytotoxic T cell (T C ) Suppressor T cell (T S ) T8 / CD8 cell Helper T cell (T H )
      • Macrophage ingest & destroy the antigen by phagocytosis
      • Fragment of antigen is displayed on the cell surface together with a class II MHC
      • To form a class II MHC-antigen complex
      • These cells  Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)
      1. Humoral Immune Response
    • Antigen Presenting Cell
      • T H with a specific receptor bind to the complex
      • Macrophage secrete Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
      • Which activates T H to secrete Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
      • Which stimulate the activated T H to proliferate & differentiate to form 2 clones:-
      Activated T H clone Memory T H clone 1 2 1. Humoral Immune Response
      • Divide rapidly to form many T H which has identical MHC-antigen receptor (clone)
      Proliferate Differentiate
      • Form different types of T H (activated T H & memory T H )
      1. Humoral Immune Response
    • 1. Humoral Immune Response
    • 1. Humoral Immune Response
      • When B lymphocyte binds to a specific antigen, it becomes activated (with the help of T H )
      • These activation causes B cells to proliferate & differentiate to form:
        • Plasma / effector cells
        • Memory B cells
      • Plasma cells secrete the same antibody that can bind to the invading antigen to form antibody-antigen complex
      • Antibody-antigen complex does not destroy the antigen but only prepare them for further process
      1. Humoral Immune Response
      • Effective to protect against free antigen found outside the host cells
      • Antigen receptor on B cell can only bind directly to antigen
      1. Humoral Immune Response
      • Involve mainly T cell
      • Effective against antigen found inside the host cells, cancer cell & transplant
      • Receptor on T cell can bind to MHC-antigen complex
      2. Cell Mediated Immune Response
    • a.k.a killer T cell Has receptor for class II MHC-Antigen complex Has receptor for class I MHC-Antigen complex Classes of T cells Lymphocyte T T4 / CD4 cell Cytotoxic T cell (T C ) Suppressor T cell (T S ) T8 / CD8 cell Helper T cell (T H )
      • Also involve macrophage & T H cell
      • *refer humoral immune response
      2. Cell Mediated Immune Response
      • Antigen infect cells with class I MHC
      • Fragment of antigen is displayed on the cell surface together with class I MHC molecule
      • Forming a class I MHC-antigen complex
      • Tc with a specific receptor binds to the complex on infected cell
      • When activated T H secrete IL-2
      Cell Mediated Immune Response
    • Cell Mediated Immune Response
      • IL-2 stimulates T C to proliferate & differentiate to form 2 clones:-
      • Stimulate TC to release perforin
      • Which form pores in the infected cell’s membrane
      • Causes it to lyse
      • Activated T C clone circulate & kill other infected cells
      Activated T C clone Memory T C clone Cell Mediated Immune Response 1 2
    • Cell Mediated Immune Response
    •  
    • Cell Mediated Immune Response
      • 3 possibilities :
      • Ingested by macrophage
      • Infect cells (not involved in immune response)
      • Bind with B cell with a specific receptors
      1. Cell Mediated Immune Response
      • B & T cells has a unique receptor on the cell surface
      • Receptors bind to a specific antigen
      • Each cell has the same receptors  can only bind to the same epitope
      • B cell recognize antigen & bind to antigen (antigen receptor
      • T cells cannot bind to free antigen
      • T cell can only recognise & act on the processed antigen displayed on APC
      Lymphocytes
    • Humoral Immune Response
    •  
    •  
      • Engulf & destroy antigen by phagocytosis
      • Display fragments of antigen & class II MHC
      • Secrete IL-1
      • Which activates T H cell to secrete IL-2
      Role of Macrophage
      • Bind with class II MHC – antigen complex
      • Secrete IL-2
      • Which stimulates proliferation & differentiation of :
        • Itself (activated T H & memory T H )
        • T C (activated T C & memory T C )
        • B cells (plasma cell & memory B cell)
      Role of T H cell
      • Bind to free antigen
      • With the presence of IL-2, B cell proliferate & differentiate into
        • Plasma cell : secrete antibody
        • Memory B cell
      Role of B cell
      • Display fragments of antigen & class I MHC
      • To warn other cells, intruder is present
      Role of infected cell
      • Bind to class I MHC – antigen complex
      • With the presence of IL-2, T C cell proliferate & differentiate into
        • Activated TC cell : secrete perforin to lyse antigen
        • Memory TC cell
      Role of T C cell
      • Regulatory cell
      • Release lymphokine
      • That suppress / slow down the activity of B & T cells
      • When antigen has been successfully destroyed
      • Important to prevent unnecessary immune response
      • Help prevent autoimmune reaction
      Role of T S cell
      • If exposed to the same antigen:-
      • Proliferate faster to form clone
      • Differentiate faster to form activated cells & memory cells
      Role of memory cell (all types)
      • Antibody binds to antigen to form Antigen-antibody complex
      Antigen-antibody Interaction Neutralization Agglutination Precipitation Complement fixation Antigen-Antibody Interaction
      • Simplest mechanism
      • Virus / bacterial toxin have receptors that is needed to infect our cells
      • Antibodies block these receptors  cannot infect our cell ~ inactive
      • Antibody is called antitoxin
      Neutralization
      • Antibody : usually involves Ig M
      • Antigen : foreign cell
      • Ig M is large  can bind to many antigen at a time
      • Form cross-linkage to form a large complex  clump
      • This process is called agglutination
      • Antibody is called aglutinin
      • Basic test for blood typing
      • Antibody bounded to antigen ~ stimulate macrophage to conduct phagocytosis
      Agglutination
      • Antigen : soluble (in form of molecules, not cell)
      • Antibody bind to antigen
      • Form cross-linkage to form large complex  become insoluble & settle out of the solution (precipitate)
      • Antibody is called precipitin
      Precipitation
      • Antibodies bind to antigen  antigen-antibody complex
      • Stimulate plasma protein (complement) to bind to the antigen-antibody complex
      • Complement protein form a membrane attack complex (MAC)
      • Causing formation of pore on the target cell’s membrane
      • Cell lyse
      • Antibody is called lysin
      Complement Fixation
    • Complement Fixation
    • Antigen-Antibody Interaction