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  • 1. CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
  • 2.
    • 11.1 Immune Response (2½)
    • 11.2 Development of Immunity (1½)
    • 11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 )
    CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
  • 3.
    • Describe what is meant by immunity.
    • Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of antibodies.
    • Explain and compare humoral and cell mediated immune response
    • Describe the roles of lymphoid organs in immunity.
    • Describe various types of antigen and antibody reactions.
    11.1 : Immune Response (Objectives)
  • 4.
    • What is:
      • Immunity ?
      • Antigen ?
      • Antibody ?
    • Structure of antibody
    • Classes of antibody
    • Immune response
    • Antigen & antibody reactions
    11.1 : Immune Response
  • 5. IMMUNITY
    • Immunity = is a body defense against the many potentially dangerous viruses, bacteria and other pathogens.
    • Involves the immune system.
    • Immune system = the body system responsible for resisting disease.
  • 6. 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense Disease
    • Physical barrier that block the entry of antigen
    • Block the spread of antigen into the body
    • Specific defense system (immune system)
    Body Defense System
  • 7.
    • Sweat, mucus, saliva, gastric acid, tears
    • Skin
    • mucous membrane
    1 st line of defense
  • 8. Cut of the skin causes:-
    • Damaged cells release chemical signal
    • Attract phagocytic WBC to the infected tissue
    • Stimulates blood clotting
    • Ingest antigen by phagocytosis
    Inflammatory response Heat Swelling Pain Redness 2 nd line of defense
  • 9. Non-specific defense mechanisms Specific defense mechanisms (immune system) 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense
    • skin
    • mucous membrane
    • secretions of skin
    • & mucous membrane
    • phagocytic leukocyte
    • antimicrobial protein
    • inflammatory
    • response
    • natural killer cell
    • Lymphocyte
    • Antibodies
    Defense System
  • 10.
    • Ability of the body to recognize & protect itself against foreign substance that can cause disease
    Immunity
    • Cell (eg: virus, bacteria)  pathogen
    • Soluble toxin, protein (eg: venom)
    Foreign substance ? 3 rd line of defense (Immune System)
  • 11. LEVELS OF DEFENSE AGAINST INFECTION CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY HUMORAL IMMUNITY SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE PHAGOCYTOSIS INFLAMMATION FEVER NONSPECIFIC INTERNAL DEFENSES If barriers penetrated: MUCOUS MEMBRANES (respiratory & digestive tract) If nonspecific insufficient: NATURAL KILLER CELLS SKIN (physical) BARRIERS
  • 12.
    • Foreign substance that can provoke an immune response
    • Due to the presence of foreign molecules (usually protein on the membrane surface)
    • Intruder  non-self
    Definition Antigen ( Anti body gen erators)
  • 13.
    • Only a certain parts of antigen can provoke immune response
    • These parts ~ antigenic determinants (epitope)
    • Usually 1 antigen has many epitopes
    • Different epitope binds with different antibody
    Antigenic determinants / Epitope
  • 14. Blood Cell Leukocyte Platelet Granulocyte Agranulocyte Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Erythrocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte Macrophage Phagocytic Phagocytic differentiate Types of Blood Cells
  • 15.
    • Produced in bone marrow
    • Remain & mature in B one
    • Migrate & mature in T hymus
    Lymphocyte T cell B cell Lymphocytes
  • 16.
    • Mature B & T cells migrate to lymphoid organ
  • 17. Lymphoid Organ
  • 18.
    • Thymus
    Spleen Tonsil Lymph Node Bone Marrow Lymphoid Organs 1 2 3 4 5
  • 19.
    • Small, round organ
    • Found at intervals along lymphatic capillaries
    • Embedded in connective tissue
    • Filter lymph
    • Macrophage remove & destroy antigen
    • Lymphocyte monitor presence of antigen & activate immune system
    Function 1. Lymph Nodes
  • 20.
    • Bi-lobed structure (lower neck region)
    • Size varies with age
    • Childhood ~ larger, adolescent ~ stop growing & reduce in size
    • Secrete thymosin for T cell maturation
    Function 2. Thymus
  • 21.
    • In adult, red bone marrow ~ skull, spinal column, femur
    • Produce stem cells ~ differentiates into different types of blood cells
    • Site of blood cells synthesis
    • Site of B cell maturation
    Function 3. Bone Marrow
  • 22.
    • Largest lymphoid organ
    • Curved-shaped (left side of stomach beneath diaphragm)
    • Consist of :-
      • White pulp - macrophage & lymphocyte
      • Red pulp - RBC & macrophage
    • Blood reservoir
    • Remove & destroy antigen & worn-out blood cells
    Function 4. Spleen
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Simplest lymphoid organ
    • Ring-like structure (around pharynx)
    • Epithelium surfaces invaginate  form crypts
    • Trap & remove pathogens that enter via nose & mouth
    • Protect respiratory system
    Function 5. Tonsils
  • 25.
    • When activated, B cell differentiate to form plasma cell
    • That secrete antibody
    • A specific protein, immunoglobulin (Ig) that can bind to specific antigen
    • Produced by plasma cells
    • Due to the presence of antigen
    • Found in plasma
    Definition of antibody B cell
  • 26.
    • Y-shaped
    • Has 4 polypeptide chains
      • 2 heavy (H) chains
      • 2 light (L) chains
    • Polypeptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds
    • Form antibody monomer
    Antibody ~ Structure
  • 27.
    • Each chain has 2 regions
      • Constant (C) region
      • Variable (V) region – which binds to antigen
    Antibody ~ Structure
  • 28.
    • 5 classes ~ based on the differences of C region
    Ig M Ig A Ig D Ig G Ig E Classes of Antibody 1 2 3 4 5
  • 29.
    • 5-10%
    • Largest, 5 monomer (pentamer)
    • Held together by a joining, J-chain
    • Most reactive
    • 1 st antibody produced during first exposure to antigen
    • Agglutinating antigen
    • Complement fixation
    Function 1. Ig M
  • 30.
    • 10-15%
    • 2 monomers (dimer)
    • Produced mainly by mucous membrane (secretory cells)
    • Found in saliva, mucus, sweat, GI tract, tears, milk (colostrum)
    • Prevent attachment & entry of antigen to epithelial surfaces
    • Protect mucosal surface
    Function 2. Ig A
  • 31.
    • Less than 1%
    • Monomer
    • Mainly found on the surface of B-cells (antigen receptor)
    Function
    • Act as antigen receptor on B cell
    • Help to stimulate B cell to differentiate to plasma cell & memory B cell
    • Help to initiate development of humoral immunity
    3. Ig D
  • 32.
    • Most abundant (75 - 85%)
    • 1 monomer, smallest
    • Can cross placenta
    • Long lasting (mostly memory cells)
    • Provide passive immunity (temporary protection) to fetus
    • Complement fixation
    Function 4. Ig G
  • 33.
    • 0.002% (least produced)
    • Monomer (slightly larger than IgG)
    • Found on the surface of basophils & mast cell
    • Release histamine when triggered by antigen
    • Promotes inflammation
    • Responsible for allergic reaction
    5. Ig E
  • 34.