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Hr 1   lecture 1
 

Hr 1 lecture 1

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    Hr 1   lecture 1 Hr 1 lecture 1 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
      • 11.1 Immune Response (2½)
      • 11.2 Development of Immunity (1½)
      • 11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 )
      CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
      • Describe what is meant by immunity.
      • Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of antibodies.
      • Explain and compare humoral and cell mediated immune response
      • Describe the roles of lymphoid organs in immunity.
      • Describe various types of antigen and antibody reactions.
      11.1 : Immune Response (Objectives)
      • What is:
        • Immunity ?
        • Antigen ?
        • Antibody ?
      • Structure of antibody
      • Classes of antibody
      • Immune response
      • Antigen & antibody reactions
      11.1 : Immune Response
    • IMMUNITY
      • Immunity = is a body defense against the many potentially dangerous viruses, bacteria and other pathogens.
      • Involves the immune system.
      • Immune system = the body system responsible for resisting disease.
    • 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense Disease
      • Physical barrier that block the entry of antigen
      • Block the spread of antigen into the body
      • Specific defense system (immune system)
      Body Defense System
      • Sweat, mucus, saliva, gastric acid, tears
      • Skin
      • mucous membrane
      1 st line of defense
    • Cut of the skin causes:-
      • Damaged cells release chemical signal
      • Attract phagocytic WBC to the infected tissue
      • Stimulates blood clotting
      • Ingest antigen by phagocytosis
      Inflammatory response Heat Swelling Pain Redness 2 nd line of defense
    • Non-specific defense mechanisms Specific defense mechanisms (immune system) 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense
      • skin
      • mucous membrane
      • secretions of skin
      • & mucous membrane
      • phagocytic leukocyte
      • antimicrobial protein
      • inflammatory
      • response
      • natural killer cell
      • Lymphocyte
      • Antibodies
      Defense System
      • Ability of the body to recognize & protect itself against foreign substance that can cause disease
      Immunity
      • Cell (eg: virus, bacteria)  pathogen
      • Soluble toxin, protein (eg: venom)
      Foreign substance ? 3 rd line of defense (Immune System)
    • LEVELS OF DEFENSE AGAINST INFECTION CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY HUMORAL IMMUNITY SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE PHAGOCYTOSIS INFLAMMATION FEVER NONSPECIFIC INTERNAL DEFENSES If barriers penetrated: MUCOUS MEMBRANES (respiratory & digestive tract) If nonspecific insufficient: NATURAL KILLER CELLS SKIN (physical) BARRIERS
      • Foreign substance that can provoke an immune response
      • Due to the presence of foreign molecules (usually protein on the membrane surface)
      • Intruder  non-self
      Definition Antigen ( Anti body gen erators)
      • Only a certain parts of antigen can provoke immune response
      • These parts ~ antigenic determinants (epitope)
      • Usually 1 antigen has many epitopes
      • Different epitope binds with different antibody
      Antigenic determinants / Epitope
    • Blood Cell Leukocyte Platelet Granulocyte Agranulocyte Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Erythrocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte Macrophage Phagocytic Phagocytic differentiate Types of Blood Cells
      • Produced in bone marrow
      • Remain & mature in B one
      • Migrate & mature in T hymus
      Lymphocyte T cell B cell Lymphocytes
      • Mature B & T cells migrate to lymphoid organ
    • Lymphoid Organ
      • Thymus
      Spleen Tonsil Lymph Node Bone Marrow Lymphoid Organs 1 2 3 4 5
      • Small, round organ
      • Found at intervals along lymphatic capillaries
      • Embedded in connective tissue
      • Filter lymph
      • Macrophage remove & destroy antigen
      • Lymphocyte monitor presence of antigen & activate immune system
      Function 1. Lymph Nodes
      • Bi-lobed structure (lower neck region)
      • Size varies with age
      • Childhood ~ larger, adolescent ~ stop growing & reduce in size
      • Secrete thymosin for T cell maturation
      Function 2. Thymus
      • In adult, red bone marrow ~ skull, spinal column, femur
      • Produce stem cells ~ differentiates into different types of blood cells
      • Site of blood cells synthesis
      • Site of B cell maturation
      Function 3. Bone Marrow
      • Largest lymphoid organ
      • Curved-shaped (left side of stomach beneath diaphragm)
      • Consist of :-
        • White pulp - macrophage & lymphocyte
        • Red pulp - RBC & macrophage
      • Blood reservoir
      • Remove & destroy antigen & worn-out blood cells
      Function 4. Spleen
    •  
      • Simplest lymphoid organ
      • Ring-like structure (around pharynx)
      • Epithelium surfaces invaginate  form crypts
      • Trap & remove pathogens that enter via nose & mouth
      • Protect respiratory system
      Function 5. Tonsils
      • When activated, B cell differentiate to form plasma cell
      • That secrete antibody
      • A specific protein, immunoglobulin (Ig) that can bind to specific antigen
      • Produced by plasma cells
      • Due to the presence of antigen
      • Found in plasma
      Definition of antibody B cell
      • Y-shaped
      • Has 4 polypeptide chains
        • 2 heavy (H) chains
        • 2 light (L) chains
      • Polypeptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds
      • Form antibody monomer
      Antibody ~ Structure
      • Each chain has 2 regions
        • Constant (C) region
        • Variable (V) region – which binds to antigen
      Antibody ~ Structure
      • 5 classes ~ based on the differences of C region
      Ig M Ig A Ig D Ig G Ig E Classes of Antibody 1 2 3 4 5
      • 5-10%
      • Largest, 5 monomer (pentamer)
      • Held together by a joining, J-chain
      • Most reactive
      • 1 st antibody produced during first exposure to antigen
      • Agglutinating antigen
      • Complement fixation
      Function 1. Ig M
      • 10-15%
      • 2 monomers (dimer)
      • Produced mainly by mucous membrane (secretory cells)
      • Found in saliva, mucus, sweat, GI tract, tears, milk (colostrum)
      • Prevent attachment & entry of antigen to epithelial surfaces
      • Protect mucosal surface
      Function 2. Ig A
      • Less than 1%
      • Monomer
      • Mainly found on the surface of B-cells (antigen receptor)
      Function
      • Act as antigen receptor on B cell
      • Help to stimulate B cell to differentiate to plasma cell & memory B cell
      • Help to initiate development of humoral immunity
      3. Ig D
      • Most abundant (75 - 85%)
      • 1 monomer, smallest
      • Can cross placenta
      • Long lasting (mostly memory cells)
      • Provide passive immunity (temporary protection) to fetus
      • Complement fixation
      Function 4. Ig G
      • 0.002% (least produced)
      • Monomer (slightly larger than IgG)
      • Found on the surface of basophils & mast cell
      • Release histamine when triggered by antigen
      • Promotes inflammation
      • Responsible for allergic reaction
      5. Ig E
    •