Hr 1 lecture 1

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Hr 1 lecture 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 IMMUNITY
  2. 2. <ul><li>11.1 Immune Response (2½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.2 Development of Immunity (1½) </li></ul><ul><li>11.3 Immune Disorder ( 1 ) </li></ul>CHAPTER 11 : IMMUNITY (5 hrs)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Describe what is meant by immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of antibody and state the classes of antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and compare humoral and cell mediated immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the roles of lymphoid organs in immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe various types of antigen and antibody reactions. </li></ul>11.1 : Immune Response (Objectives)
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen & antibody reactions </li></ul>11.1 : Immune Response
  5. 5. IMMUNITY <ul><li>Immunity = is a body defense against the many potentially dangerous viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system = the body system responsible for resisting disease. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense Disease <ul><li>Physical barrier that block the entry of antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Block the spread of antigen into the body </li></ul><ul><li>Specific defense system (immune system) </li></ul>Body Defense System
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sweat, mucus, saliva, gastric acid, tears </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>mucous membrane </li></ul>1 st line of defense
  8. 8. Cut of the skin causes:- <ul><li>Damaged cells release chemical signal </li></ul><ul><li>Attract phagocytic WBC to the infected tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Ingest antigen by phagocytosis </li></ul>Inflammatory response Heat Swelling Pain Redness 2 nd line of defense
  9. 9. Non-specific defense mechanisms Specific defense mechanisms (immune system) 1 st line of defense 2 nd line of defense 3 rd line of defense <ul><li>skin </li></ul><ul><li>mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>secretions of skin </li></ul><ul><li>& mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>phagocytic leukocyte </li></ul><ul><li>antimicrobial protein </li></ul><ul><li>inflammatory </li></ul><ul><li>response </li></ul><ul><li>natural killer cell </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul>Defense System
  10. 10. <ul><li>Ability of the body to recognize & protect itself against foreign substance that can cause disease </li></ul>Immunity <ul><li>Cell (eg: virus, bacteria)  pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble toxin, protein (eg: venom) </li></ul>Foreign substance ? 3 rd line of defense (Immune System)
  11. 11. LEVELS OF DEFENSE AGAINST INFECTION CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY HUMORAL IMMUNITY SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE PHAGOCYTOSIS INFLAMMATION FEVER NONSPECIFIC INTERNAL DEFENSES If barriers penetrated: MUCOUS MEMBRANES (respiratory & digestive tract) If nonspecific insufficient: NATURAL KILLER CELLS SKIN (physical) BARRIERS
  12. 12. <ul><li>Foreign substance that can provoke an immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the presence of foreign molecules (usually protein on the membrane surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Intruder  non-self </li></ul>Definition Antigen ( Anti body gen erators)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Only a certain parts of antigen can provoke immune response </li></ul><ul><li>These parts ~ antigenic determinants (epitope) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually 1 antigen has many epitopes </li></ul><ul><li>Different epitope binds with different antibody </li></ul>Antigenic determinants / Epitope
  14. 14. Blood Cell Leukocyte Platelet Granulocyte Agranulocyte Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Erythrocyte Lymphocyte Monocyte Macrophage Phagocytic Phagocytic differentiate Types of Blood Cells
  15. 15. <ul><li>Produced in bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Remain & mature in B one </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate & mature in T hymus </li></ul>Lymphocyte T cell B cell Lymphocytes
  16. 16. <ul><li>Mature B & T cells migrate to lymphoid organ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lymphoid Organ
  18. 18. <ul><li>Thymus </li></ul>Spleen Tonsil Lymph Node Bone Marrow Lymphoid Organs 1 2 3 4 5
  19. 19. <ul><li>Small, round organ </li></ul><ul><li>Found at intervals along lymphatic capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Filter lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophage remove & destroy antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocyte monitor presence of antigen & activate immune system </li></ul>Function 1. Lymph Nodes
  20. 20. <ul><li>Bi-lobed structure (lower neck region) </li></ul><ul><li>Size varies with age </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood ~ larger, adolescent ~ stop growing & reduce in size </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete thymosin for T cell maturation </li></ul>Function 2. Thymus
  21. 21. <ul><li>In adult, red bone marrow ~ skull, spinal column, femur </li></ul><ul><li>Produce stem cells ~ differentiates into different types of blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Site of blood cells synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Site of B cell maturation </li></ul>Function 3. Bone Marrow
  22. 22. <ul><li>Largest lymphoid organ </li></ul><ul><li>Curved-shaped (left side of stomach beneath diaphragm) </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White pulp - macrophage & lymphocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red pulp - RBC & macrophage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Remove & destroy antigen & worn-out blood cells </li></ul>Function 4. Spleen
  23. 24. <ul><li>Simplest lymphoid organ </li></ul><ul><li>Ring-like structure (around pharynx) </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelium surfaces invaginate  form crypts </li></ul><ul><li>Trap & remove pathogens that enter via nose & mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Protect respiratory system </li></ul>Function 5. Tonsils
  24. 25. <ul><li>When activated, B cell differentiate to form plasma cell </li></ul><ul><li>That secrete antibody </li></ul><ul><li>A specific protein, immunoglobulin (Ig) that can bind to specific antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by plasma cells </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the presence of antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Found in plasma </li></ul>Definition of antibody B cell
  25. 26. <ul><li>Y-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Has 4 polypeptide chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 heavy (H) chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 light (L) chains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Form antibody monomer </li></ul>Antibody ~ Structure
  26. 27. <ul><li>Each chain has 2 regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant (C) region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable (V) region – which binds to antigen </li></ul></ul>Antibody ~ Structure
  27. 28. <ul><li>5 classes ~ based on the differences of C region </li></ul>Ig M Ig A Ig D Ig G Ig E Classes of Antibody 1 2 3 4 5
  28. 29. <ul><li>5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>Largest, 5 monomer (pentamer) </li></ul><ul><li>Held together by a joining, J-chain </li></ul><ul><li>Most reactive </li></ul><ul><li>1 st antibody produced during first exposure to antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutinating antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Complement fixation </li></ul>Function 1. Ig M
  29. 30. <ul><li>10-15% </li></ul><ul><li>2 monomers (dimer) </li></ul><ul><li>Produced mainly by mucous membrane (secretory cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in saliva, mucus, sweat, GI tract, tears, milk (colostrum) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent attachment & entry of antigen to epithelial surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Protect mucosal surface </li></ul>Function 2. Ig A
  30. 31. <ul><li>Less than 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly found on the surface of B-cells (antigen receptor) </li></ul>Function <ul><li>Act as antigen receptor on B cell </li></ul><ul><li>Help to stimulate B cell to differentiate to plasma cell & memory B cell </li></ul><ul><li>Help to initiate development of humoral immunity </li></ul>3. Ig D
  31. 32. <ul><li>Most abundant (75 - 85%) </li></ul><ul><li>1 monomer, smallest </li></ul><ul><li>Can cross placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Long lasting (mostly memory cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide passive immunity (temporary protection) to fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Complement fixation </li></ul>Function 4. Ig G
  32. 33. <ul><li>0.002% (least produced) </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer (slightly larger than IgG) </li></ul><ul><li>Found on the surface of basophils & mast cell </li></ul><ul><li>Release histamine when triggered by antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for allergic reaction </li></ul>5. Ig E

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