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Chapter 14 - Blood
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Chapter 14 - Blood






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    Chapter 14 - Blood Chapter 14 - Blood Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14 Blood PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10 th edition , edited by S.C. Wache for Biol2064.01
    • You are responsible for the content of the following figures and topics: Fig. 14.1 – Blood. Fig. 14.2 - hematocrit or Percent packed RBC volume. Fig. 14.5 - Blood originates from red bone marrow. Fig. 14.3 - Blood cells. WBC develop into 3 branches. Fig. 14.14 - WBC can pass through the simple epithelia of vessels by diapedesis, RBC cannot. Fig. 14.16 - Blood composition. Read TB, p.527, on hemostasis. Fig. 14. 19, Tab. 14.10 - Damaged tissues trigger the extrinsic mechanism. Read TB, p.533, on antigens and antibodies of blood groups. Fig. 14.21, 14.22 – Key-and-Lock interaction of Antigens and Antibodies. Tab. 14.13 - Study the antibodies each blood type carries in their plasma. Tab. 14.14 - Permissible Donor Blood Types. Fig. 14.23 - incompatibility with the Rh antigen also called antigen D.
    • Blood Volume and Composition
      • Blood volume is 8% of body weight
      • Average adult has 5 liters of blood
      • Blood is 45% cells
        • This is also known as the hematocrit or percent packed cell volume
        • 99% are red blood cells, remainder white blood cells and blood platelets
        • The hematocrit is an indicator of anemia, polycythemia, and other conditions.
      • Blood is 55% plasma
        • water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, wastes
    • Fig. 14.3
    • Red Blood Cell Synthesis and Aging
      • Erythrocytes or RBC are synthesized in response to erythropoetin (kidney hormone)
      • The mature cells lack nuclei and are small, biconcave disks. They no longer can divide.
      • Cells consist 1/3 of hemoglobin (Hb) , the protein that carries oxygen in blood.
      • RBC lack mitochondria and produce ATP through glycolysis only
      Red Blood Cell Destruction
      • Damaged or worn cells rupture in the spleen or liver.
      • In the spleen or liver, macrophages phagocytize and destroy cells.
      • Hb is broken down into globin and heme which decomposes into biliverdin .
      • The heme group has a central iron element to which oxygen binds.
      • Biliverdin is converted to bilirubin and excreted in bile via the gallbladder .
      • Iron is carried on transferrin to the liver were it is stored as ferritin.
    • Fig. 14.8 Note that, in muscle, myoglobin (Mb) binds oxygen. Mb consists of only 1 protein chain. Note the 4 protein chains that make up 1 molecule of Hb.
    • Erythropoiesis – RBC production
      • Red blood cells (RBC) are called erythrocytes.
      • They are produced in red bone marrow.
      • Average life span is 120 days.
      • When oxygen concentrations in the blood are low , erythropoietin is released from the kidney .
      • Erythropoietin operates in a negative feedback mechanism to maintain RBC homeostasis .
      Required Dietary Factors
      • Vitamin B12 - required for DNA synthesis
          • - intrinsic factor necessary for absorption
      • Folic acid - required for DNA synthesis
      • Iron - required for hemoglobin synthesis
      • Vitamin C - increases absorption of iron
    • Fig. 14.6
    • Fig. 14.7 NORMAL BLOOD ANEMIC BLOOD ane·mia : a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume – see APLASTIC ANEMIA, HYPERCHROMIC ANEMIA, HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA, MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA, MICROCYTIC ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA; compare OLIGOCYTHEMIA
    • White Blood Cells
      • White Blood Cells (WBC) are called leukocytes .
      • They protect against disease.
      • Granulocytes: granular cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
      • Agranulocytes: lack cytoplasmic granules; monocytes, lymphocytes
      Blood Platelets
      • Thrombocytes
      • Arise from megakaryocytes in the red bone marrow
      • Platelets are small and lack a nucleus
      • Help repair broken blood vessels
      • Release serotonin
    • Neutrophils ( Fig. 14.9)
      • Granules stain light purple in acid-base combination stains
      • First white blood cells that arrive at place of infection
      • They constitute 54% to 62% of the leukocytes.
      • Older neutrophils are called segs (segments) or polymorph nuclear leukocytes due to nuclear appearance
      • Younger neutrophils are called bands
    • Eosinophils (Fig. 14.10)
      • Contain coarse deep red staining granules
      • Nucleus has two lobes
      • Active during moderate allergic reactions
      • Defend against parasitic worm infection
      • Constitute 1% to 3% of leukocytes
    • Basophils (Fig. 14.11)
      • Granules stain deep blue in basic stain
      • Nuclei have two lobes
      • Migrate to damaged tissue
      • Release histamine to promote inflammation and heparin to inhibit blood clotting
      • Constitute less than 1% of leukocytes
    • Agranulocytes (Figs. 14.12, 14.13)
      • Monocytes: largest cells; leave bloodstream and become macrophages; 3% to 9% of the leukocytes
      • Lymphocytes: T cells and B cells; important in immunity and antibody production; 35% to 33% of leukocytes
    • Movement of Leukocytes through Epithelia
      • Protect against infection: phagocytize bacteria; produce proteins that destroy foreign particles
      • Diapedesis: leukocytes can squeeze between cells and leave the circulation
      Fig. 14.14
    • Infection
    • Blood Plasma
      • 92% water, Plasma proteins, Gases and nutrients
      • nitrogen containing molecules other than proteins: amino acids, urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine
      • Plasma electrolytes : sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca ++) , magnesium (Mg ++ ), chloride (CL - ), bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate
      Plasma Proteins
      • Albumins : 60%; maintain osmotic pressure, bind and transport molecules
      • Globulins : 36%; alpha, beta, gamma-globulins
      • Fibrinogen : 4%; primary role in blood clotting
      Blood Gases and Nutrients
      • Blood gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide
      • Nutrients:
      • amino acids, simple sugars, nucleotides, lipids;
      • lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol transported as lipoproteins
      • (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL)
    • Fig. 14.16
    • Hemostasis – Platelet Plug Formation
      • Stoppage of bleeding to prevent blood loss
      • Blood vessel spasm: vasospasm due to smooth muscle contraction; direct stimulation of vessel wall and pain reflexes
      Blood Coagulation: Fibrinogen Fibrin
      • Complex cascade of events
      • Utilizes clotting factors
      • Vitamin K and calcium is necessary for clotting factors
      • Major event is conversion of soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to insoluble treads of fibrin
      Two ways to stop blood flow: hemostasis and coagulation
    • Fig. 14.17
    • Fig. 14.19
    • Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism
      • Triggered when blood contacts damaged blood vessel wall or tissue outside blood vessels; damaged tissue releases thromboplastin.
      • Thromboplastin activates clotting cascade involving reactions that require calcium and leading to the release of prothrombin.
      • Prothrombin is converted into thrombin.
      • Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
      • Fibrin threads stick to exposed damaged blood vessels.
      • Meshwork traps blood cells and platelets. This produces a blood clot .
      • The amount of prothrombin activator is proportional to the degree of tissue damage.
      • Blood clotting is self-initiating, a positive feedback system .
      Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism
      • All components found within blood , not outside the vessel !!!
      • Activation of Hageman Factor initiates intrinsic clotting
      • Cascade of activation in the presence of calcium produces prothrombin activator
      • Prothrombin and fibrin are formed as in the extrinsic pathway
    • Clot Physiology
      • Blood flow keeps thrombin concentration low, that is, as blood thickens and blood flow decreases, thus increases the risk of thrombus formation
      • Thrombus: a stationary clot abnormally forming in a vessel
      • Embolus : a dislodged clot carried by the bloodstream; Embolism occurs when the embolus blocks blood flow
      Fate of Blood Clots
      • When blood clots dry out and retract inward they pull torn vessel ends together. Serum is squeezed out.
      • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) repairs vessel walls.
      • Plasminogen is absorbed by fibrin. Plasminogen activator converts plasminogen to plasmin . Plasmin digests the clot .
      Prevention of Coagulation
      • Prostacyclin from endothelial cells inhibits platelet aggregation.
      • Antithrombin inactivates thrombin.
      • Heparin from basophils interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator.
      • Note: Plasminogen activator is used together with blood thinners after a stroke !
    • Antigens and Antibodies
      • Blood cell compatibility is based on clumping or agglutination
      • Transfusion reaction : a reaction between red blood cell antigens = agglutinogens and protein antibodies = agglutinins in the plasma leading to agglutination and hemolysis and blockage of blood flow !
      • Antigens include those of the ABO group and the Rh group
      ag·glu·ti·na·tion: a reaction in which particles (such as RBC or bacteria); that are suspended in a liquid, collect into clumps especially in response to antiserum added in a serological blood test, that is, as a serological response to a specific antibody. agglutination test: any of several tests based on the ability of a specific serum to cause agglutination of a suitable system and used in the diagnosis of infections, the identification of microorganisms, and in blood typing Agglutination is observed on a blood slide. Note- he·mo·ly·sis: lysis of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin.
    • Fig. 14.22 Donor RBCs: They carry the antigen A. The donor is Blood Type A. Patient Blood: The patient is blood type B and has naturally occurring antibodies called Anti-A. Patient blood after wrong transfusion: The patient blood agglutinates and hemolyses. The patient dies.
    • Fig. 14.21
      • ABO blood groups are based on RBC membrane antigens A and B.
      • Four possible combinations
        • Type A contains antigen A
        • Type B contains antigen B
        • Type AB contains antigens A and B
        • Type O contains no antigens
    • ABO Blood Group
      • Anti-A and anti-B antibodies are produced when an antigen is absent from the cell membrane
        • Type A plasma contains anti-B antibodies
        • Type B plasma contains anti-A antibodies
        • Type AB plasma contains anti-A and anti-B antibodies, universal recipient
        • Type O plasma contains no antibodies, universal donor
    • Rh Blood Group (Fig. 14.23)
      • Rh positive indicates presence of antigen D, one of the Rh antigens
      • Rh negative indicates absence of Antigen D
      • Rh antigens, like A and B antigens are inherited and present from birth
      • Anti-D antibodies are not produced until after an individual is sensitized to antigen D