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biology notes for 9A, used guided notes to help

biology notes for 9A, used guided notes to help

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  • 1. Chemicals In Organisms
  • 2. Macromolecules
    • Monomer: “Single” unit that makes up a polymer
    • Polymer : Organic(carbon present) molecules that have “many” units
    • Many organic polymers are SO LARGE they are called macromolecules(GIANT MOLECULES)
  • 3. Macromolecules
    • 4 Major MACROMOLECULES
    • 1.) CARBOHYDRATES
    • 2.) LIPIDS(FATS)
    • 3.) PROTIENS
    • 4.) NUCLEIC ACIDS ( We will look at this at a later time)
  • 4. Macromolecules
    • What happened when your body doesn’t get the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to maintain a balanced nutrition?
  • 5.  
  • 6. - Anorexia and bulimia are major eating disorders suffered in the world
  • 7. Normal RBC’s Iron deficiency
  • 8. Goiter : Iodine Deficiency Thyroid Enlargement
  • 9. Rickets: vitamin D deficiency
  • 10. Bodybuilding                                      
  • 11. CARBOHYDRATES
  • 12. Carbohydrates aka Sugar
    • Foods classified as carbs :
      • Bread, fruit, veggies, pasta, pop, candy, cereal, corn, wheat, rice
    • Composed of C, H, O (organic compounds)
    • Usually ends in “OSE”
    • Yields 4 Calories per gram
    • Typical Digestion Time: 2 hours
  • 13.
    • Answer questions on outline!
  • 14. Three Classes of Carbs
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  • 15. Monosaccharides
    • Simple sugar
    • Easily absorbed into the bloodstream
    • No digestion needed
      • EX: galactose, fructose, dextrose (man-made), and glucose( C 6 H 12 O 6 ),
  • 16. DISACCHARIDES
    • Polymers of carbs= ( 2 monosaccharides chemically bonded together )
      • EX: sucrose= fructose + glucose
      • maltose=glucose + glucose
      • lactose= glucose + galactose
  • 17. Where do these sugars come from?
    • Maltose = grains
    • Sucrose = table sugar
    • Lactose = milk
  • 18. POLYSACCHARIDE
    • Three or more monosaccharides joined together
  • 19. Examples of Polysaccharides
    • Starch : plant form of sugar storage, starts to breakdown in the mouth by amylase (in saliva)
      • Comes from corn, wheat, potato, and rice
    • Cellulose (fiber) helps to maintain strength of the cell wall. You can not digest this form.
    • Glycogen : animal form of storage sugar, found in skeletal muscles and liver. Helps regulate blood glucose levels.
  • 20. Combining and Breaking down Carbs
    • Dehydration Synthesis : when molecules are combined, a water molecule is removed in the process.
    • Hydrolysis: use of water molecule to separate or digest molecules. Di/Polysaccharide need to be digested or broken down to be absorbed.
  • 21.
    • dehydration synthesis animation
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyDnnD3fMaU
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOcffAxZwC0&NR=1
    • Draw a picture of what is happening during each of these processes.
  • 22. So what’s the deal with all the sugar!
    • How much sugar do you eat? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zu5vJHnJ2dE&feature=related
    • Sugar Detective http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-yn73ZK2f4&feature=related
    • Sugar Free Snacks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4wCj5l4Ow8&feature=related
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHBEziPjDag
  • 23. Carbs= monosaccharides Review mono and disaccharides http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2A1RvoMvKQM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gKkKO6BSB8&feature=fvsr
  • 24. Lipids(fats)
  • 25. Lipids
    • Example:
      • foods classified as lipids are oils, butter, salad dressing, peanut butter, mayo
  • 26. Lipids aka Fat
    • Composed of C, H, O
    • Yields 9 Calories per gram
    • Typical digestion Time= 6 hours
  • 27.
    • Do the problem on your hand out.
  • 28. Basic Structure of a lipid
    • FATTY ACID and GLYCEROL
    • FATTY ACID: insoluble portion of molecule
    • GLYCEROL: soluble portion of the molecule
  • 29. What does that look like in a molecular form?
  • 30. Types of Fats
    • Transfat : man-made hydrogenated fat, hard to semi-hard grey-white in appearance. Helps preserve shelf life of foods. Very bad for you. Tricks the body.
    • Triglycerides : two types
      • Saturated (solid) warm-blooded animals
      • Unsaturated (liquid) cold-blooded animals and in plants
        • Used for insulation and long term energy storage
  • 31. Types of Fats Continued
    • Phospholipids- cell membrane
    • Steroids: components of cell membrane, hormone precursor such as testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, progesterone, vitamin D, and cholesterol.
    • Waxes: protection and waterproofing for feathers and fur.
      • Es. Beeswax and earwax
  • 32. Proteins
  • 33. Proteins
    • Foods classified as protein:
      • Beef, poultry, veal, eggs, peanuts, soy and fish
    • Composed of C,H,O,N
    • Yields 4 Calories per gram
    • Typical digestion Time=3-4 hours
    • Monomer of proteins= AMINO ACIDS
  • 34.
    • Do the problem on the handout
  • 35. Proteins
    • AMINO ACIDS:
      • 20 different types of amino acids humans use
    • Essential A.A.:
      • Have to obtained through diet(10 of them)
  • 36. Proteins
    • When 2 amino acids bond together, they form a bond between the amino group of one A.A. and the carboxyl group of the other A.A.
    • This bond is called a peptide bond
    • A chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide
  • 37. Proteins r H 2 O released when 2 A.A. bond Dehydration synthesis PEPTIDE BOND FORMS FROM THIS REACTION = DIPEPTIDE (2 A.A. BONDED TOGETHER)
  • 38. Function of Proteins:
    • Suppor t:
      • Keratin in hair and nails
      • Collagen that make up ligament, tendons, and skin
    • Transportation :
      • channel and carrier proteins embedded in cell membrane
        • Ex. Hemoglobin on RBC for O2 transport
    • Defense :
      • antibodies
  • 39. Functions Continued
    • Hormones : regulation of homeostasis
      • Insulin; regulates glucose storage
      • Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
    • Enzymes : allows reactions to take place by lower the amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur and helps speed up reactions
      • Ex. Amylase in saliva helps breakdown sugars in the mouth.
  • 40.  
  • 41.
    • Think:
    • If you want to “feel” full and satisfied after eating, which of the food group(s) should you choose? Why?
  • 42. What is a Chemical Reaction
    • One or more substances changed into a new substance by the breaking or forming of chemical bonds
    • Reactant + Reactant Product
      • EXAMPLE:
      • Cake mix + eggs + oil = vanilla cake
      • when a cookie breaks down into soft pieces in your mouth, that is a chemical reaction releasing the nutrients from the cookie
  • 43. Draw this in your notes
  • 44. Reaction Speed
    • Chemical reactions take a very long time to occur
    • They all take place at different rates and speed.
    • Chemical reactions occur in our body daily
  • 45.
    • Our bodies need to use enzymes to make reactions happen easily and without a lot of heat!
  • 46. Reaction Speed
    • Chemical reactions can occur at a faster rate then they normally would
    • A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction
    • Enzymes are catalysts in the body that speed up chemical reactions
    • Enzymes are specific to the chemical reaction
    • Substrate is the substance that can be changed by the chemical reaction
  • 47. Add some illustrations to your notes after watching videos
    • Enzyme animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZD5xsOKres good explanation, regarding substrate and enzymes!
    • Simple graphics with inhibition http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FfOIgUTg2c&feature=related
  • 48. Reaction Speed
    • In a chemical reaction, the enzyme attaches to the specific substrate and helps speed up the reaction process
    • We use what is called the lock and Key method to demonstrate this process
  • 49. How can enzymes be changed or denatured?
    • Heat
    • pH
    • Chemicals
    • Viruses
    • Salinity (salt)
    • All these can change the active site of the enzyme, not allowing the substrate to bind and the reaction to take place.
  • 50.
    • Detailed Graphic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFbPHlhI13g&feature=related long, but good
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDEVBMldiY8&feature=related
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E90D4BmaVJM&feature=related
  • 51. Enzyme Feedback
    • Textbook Explanation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHDp4wJ1U0w
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DRWqBld7XU&feature=related
  • 52. So why are enzymes important?
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uSkLR50Ce7g&feature=fvw
  • 53. What is ATP?
    • ATP is composed of:
    • Adenine
    • 5 carbon sugar (ribose )
    • 3 phosphates groups
      • The phosphate groups in ATP is the reason why ATP can store or release energy.
  • 54. Function of ATP
    • ATP is important for a variety of functions, such as active transport, muscle contraction and protein synthesis.
    • Although ATP is used for transferring energy, it isn’t good storing large amounts of energy for extended periods of time.