Pervious concrete towards sustainable construction

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  • 1. PERVIOUS CONCRETE TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTIONABSTRACTThis paper summarises the research programme focused on the evaluate properties ofperformance in pervious concrete by using the coarse aggregate and recycled materials as acoarse aggregate replacement. The objective of this research is the use of pervious concrete forsustainable construction activities continues to rise due to its several environmental benefits. Anecologically friendly of pervious concrete can be taken a step further by recycling materials arepleasing in construction, in this report were considered in the experiments are recycled concrete,Biomass Aggregate (Palm Oil Clinker) and recycled rubber tyres into the mix design. Theresearcher uses recycled materials as an aggregate replaces is economical for construction andminimizes the need for disposal by reducing dumping at landfills, towards increase the greenconcrete product in civil engineering construction. An engineered pervious concrete used forcontrolling stormwater management. The physical and mechanical properties of perviousconcrete are briefly discussed.1.0 INTRODUCTION OF PERVIOUS CONCRETEPervious concrete can be another name as porous concrete or no fine aggregate. Bradley J.Putman et al (1) was reported that several numbers of alternative names for pervious concrete,such as concrete mixture comprised of Portland cement, controlled amounts of water, uniformlygraded aggregate, little or no sand and sometimes other additives. Beeldens et al (2) studied thecompressive, tensile and flexural strength of pervious concrete mixtures tends to be lower thanconventional due to the high void ratio and lack of fine aggregate. Tennis et al (3) report thatpervious concrete has been used for a surprising number application, which is low-volumepavements, parking lots, sidewalks and pathways, pavement edge drains, noise barriers and slope Page 1 of 23
  • 2. stabilization. Malhotra (4) reported many pavements are applied for pervious concrete in UnitedState. It also has been used as a structural material in Europe (i.e wall for two-story houses). Oneof the benefit from pervious concrete is the initial cost of pervious installation in pavement maybe slightly higher, pervious concrete in the long run due to its superior durability and strengthwas researched by Tennis et al (3) Figure 1: Flow Rate Test on Pervious Concrete2.0 HISTORY OF PERVIOUS CONCRETEPervious concrete had its earliest beginnings in Europe. Folwer (5) reported that the first knownuse was in 1852 on the Isle of Wight for 300 to 350mm thick walls for homes. Accordance withWikipedia, pervious concrete became popular again in the 1920’s as one of the main construction Page 2 of 23
  • 3. material for double storey homes in Scotland and England. Folwer (5) reported that before andafter World War II there was widespread use in residential construction in the UK and other partsof Europe. One British firm constructed over 250,000 homes using pervious concrete. In the mid-1960s and experimental road was constructed in England in which an 200mm conventionalconcrete pavement was overlaid with a 50mm bonded pervious concrete overlay. The firstreported use in the U.S. was in the early 1970s in Florida.3.0 COARSE AGGREGATEBhutta M.A. et al (6) studied the uses different size of aggregate in pervious concrete and theresulted different properties. They use a small size of aggregate (2.5-5mm) in pervious concrete,low total void ratio, high compressive strength, high flexural strength and low coefficient ofpermeability. Fowler (5) experimented pervious concrete uses a single size aggregate were lowstrength and very good permeability. Schaefer et al (8) reported that the single-sized coarseaggregate (No.4 sieve) and a water to cement ratio ranging from 0.27 to 0.43. The typical 28-daycompressive strength ranges from 5.6 to 21.0 MPa, with void ratios ranging from 14 to 31 %, andpermeability coefficient varies from 0.25 to 6.1 mm/s investigated by Schaefer et al (8).Neville and Brooks (7) investigated typical pervious concrete in compressive strength between1.4MPa and 14MPa, depending mainly on the density. They reported the shrinkage in perviousconcrete lower than normal concrete because the contraction is restrained by the large volume ofaggregate relative to the paste. The typical pervious concrete mix consists of 180–355 kg/m3 ofbinder material, 1420–1600 kg/m3 of coarse aggregate and water to cement ratio ranged from0.27 to 0.43. Yang and Jiang (9) suggested using appropriately selected aggregate, adding a fineaggregate and organic intensifiers, and optimizing the mix proportion to improve the strength andabrasion resistance of pervious concrete. Page 3 of 23
  • 4. Table 1: Pervious Concrete Properties from the Literature (Schaefer et al) 28-day Void Unit Flexural Permeability Compressive Reference Ratio Weight Strength Strength (%) (kg/m3) (mm/s) (MPa) (MPa) - United States 1602 to 1.03 to Tennis et al, 15 to 25 2.03 to 5.33 5.52 to 20.68 2002 3.79 2004 2.50 to Olek et al, 15 to 35 NA NA NA 3.90 2003 International Beeldens et 19 NA NA 26.00 4.40 al, 2003 1890 to 17.60 to 3.87 to Beeldens, 20 to 30 NA 2082 32.06 5.69 2001 Tamai and NA NA NA 19.00 NA Yoshida, 2003 4.18 to Kajio et al, 11 to 15 NA 0.25 to 3.70 NA 7.48 1998 11.00 to Park and Tia, 18 to 31 NA NA NA 25.00 2004 NA = Nil Figure 2: Effect of Different Curing Period on Compressive and Flexural Strengths due toConventional Pervious Concrete (CPC) and High Performance Pervious Concrete (HPPC) are resulted by Bhutta et al Page 4 of 23
  • 5. 3.1 Chemical AdmixturesThe used of high water reducing admixtures such as superplasticizers are to create flowingconcrete with very high slumps in the range of 175mm to 225mm and to produce high-strengthconcrete at water-cement ratios in the range 0.30 to 0.40 researched by Mindess and Young (10).Bhutta et al (8) studied uses superplasticizers (density 1.06g/cm3) and thickening (cohesive)agent (water-soluble cellulose based polymer powder, density 2.40g/cm3) as chemical admixturesin pervious concrete, the result is good/excellent in workability performance. Figure 2: Slump and Slump Flow of Conventional Pervious Concrete (CPC) and High Performance Pervious Concrete (HPPC) by Bhutta et al4.0 RECYCLED MATERIAL4.1 Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA)Suraya Hani et al (11) investigated the recycled aggregate used from crushed waste concretecubes. It is then compared with normal aggregate of crushed granite. The physical properties forboth of the aggregates are as illustrated in Table 1. This is because of loose paste existence in RAresearched by Tam V.W.Y (12). According to Chen H.J. et. al. (13) RCA has immense porositythat will result to higher water absorption of the aggregate. Page 5 of 23
  • 6. Table 2: Physical Properties of Aggregate (Suraya Hani et al) Aggregate Properties Natural Aggregate Recycled AggregateSpecific Gravity in SDD condition 2.48 2.39Aggregate Impact Value (%) 17.6 36.3Water Absorption (%) 0.83 3.34Berry et al (14) and Rizyi et al (15) experimented that increased percent of recycled concreteaggregate in pervious concrete both compressive strength and permeability generally decreased.Additionally, the quality of concrete with RCA depends on the quality of the recycled materialused. Salem and Burdette (16) studied that original concrete mixed with a large amount ofcement retains some binding abilities, particularly when the carbonated carbonated zone is notdeep. They suggested using a silica fume or fly ash as activated admixtures.Rizvi et al (15) experimented that increasing RCA content led to a decrease in compressivestrength, an increase in permeability, and an increase in void ratio. The density of RCA istypically lower compared to natural aggregate reported by ACI Committee 555 (17). This is aresult of RCA also consisting low density paste and high absorbent of water than naturalaggregate because the cement paste has a high affinity for water. ACI Committee 555 (17)reported that contaminants found in recycled concrete degrade its strength which is plaster, soil,wood, gypsum, asphalt, plastic or rubber.Etxeberria et al. (18) studied concrete made with recycled coarse aggregates obtained fromcrushed concrete. He found that good quality RCA will have properties similar to those thatdefine good quality natural aggregate. Since recycled aggregates are composed of originalaggregates and cement paste, which is typically weaker than the original aggregate, it is desiredto remove as much hardened cement paste as possible. Etxeberria et al. (18) found concrete madewith RCA is less workability than conventional concrete. He experimented that typically needs 5%more water than conventional concrete to obtain the same workability. Berry et al (14) resultedindicate that up to 50% substitution of course aggregate can be used in pervious concrete withoutcompromising strength and hydraulic conductivity significantly. Page 6 of 23
  • 7. Sriravindrarajah R. et al (19) generated the equations could be used for the mix design ofpervious concrete with either natural or recycle concrete aggregate.For natural aggregate: f n =70.2 e-0.066PFor recycled concrete aggregate: f r =22.2 e-0.052PWhere fn and fr are the 28 days compressive strength of natural and recycled pervious concrete,respectively and P is the porosity of the pervious concrete mix.The relationship between permeability (PC) and porosity (P) is not affected by the aggregate typeand given by PC = 1.93 e 0.0755P Figure 3: Density by Recycled Concrete Aggregate (Berry et al) Page 7 of 23
  • 8. Figure 4: Relationship Between Compressive Strength and Density of the Pervious Concrete Mix Design From the Literature and Berry (Berry at al) Figure 5: Relationship Between Hydraulic Conductivity and Density of the Pervious Concrete Mix Design from the Literature and Berry (Berry at al) Page 8 of 23
  • 9. Figure 6: Relationships among porosity, strength and permeability for pervious concrete. (Sriravindrarajah R et al)4.2 Biomass Aggregate - Palm Oil Clinker (POC)Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil and in the process produces a waste by-product, known as clinker. Abdullahi et al (20) reported the palm oil clinker is obtained from by-product of palm oil mill, the palm oil shell together with the husk, which has been squeezed, wereused as burning fires in the furnace. After burning for 4 hours at 400 C, porous lumps are formed.They investigated the properties of fine and coarse palm oil clinkers are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Properties of Fine and Coarse Palm Oil Clinkers (Abdullahi et al)Aggregate Properties Fine Palm Oil Clinker Coarse Palm Oil ClinkerSpecific Gravity 1.75 1.73Absorption-SDD (%) 14.29 5.39Bulk Density (kg/m3) 1122.10 793.14Voids in Aggregate (%) 35.75 54.06 Page 9 of 23
  • 10. Omar and Mohamed (21) studied the characteristics of palm oil clinker aggregate are lightweight,porous and irregular in shape, and thus having low values of bulk density and specific gravity.Kamaruddin (22) was found the clinker suitable to replace normal gravel aggregate in concretemixtures. Noor Mahomed (23) reported since palm oil clinker are abundant and have smallcommercial value in Malaysia, attempts have been made to utilize these materials as lightweightaggregate in the concrete construction industry. Arthur Chan (24) experimented the higherporosity achieved through the addition of POC aggregate contributes to reduction in density inpervious concrete. He was resulting compressive strength of pervious concrete reducedsignificantly and a constant decrease in flexural tensile strength and splitting tensile strength forthe increase of the POC aggregate content. Figure 7, 8 and 9 are shown the mechanical propertiesof POC aggregate in pervious concrete. Figure 7: Relationship between Porosity and POC Aggregate Content (Arthur Chan) Page 10 of 23
  • 11. Figure 8: Relationship between Compressive Strength and Curing Time (Arthur Chan) 4 3.5 3 Strength (MPa) 2.5 2 Tensile Strength 1.5 Flexural Strength 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 POC Aggregate Content (%)Figure 9: Relationship between Flexural and Tensile Strength and POC Aggregate Content (Arthur Chan) Page 11 of 23
  • 12. 4.3 Recycled Rubber TyresThiruvangodan (25) was reported the number of motorcar waste tyre generated annually in theMalaysia was estimated to be 8.2 million or approximately 57,391 tonnes. About 60% of thewaste tyres are disposed via unknown routes. Abrham (26) reported recycled tyres possessproperties that make them very suitable for use as an alternative to primary and secondaryaggregates in a number of different applications. Groom et al (27) investigated the numeroustechniques and technologies available for processing recycled tyres are enumerated below:- 1. Shredding and Chipping: This is mechanical shredding of the tires first in to bigger sizes and then into particles of 20 – 30 mm in size. 2. Crumbing: It is the processing of the tire into fine granular or powdered particles using mechanical or cryogenic processes. The steel and fabric component of the tires are also removed during this process.Cairns et al (28) was suggested that that the rougher the rubber aggregate used in concretemixtures the better the bonding developed between the particles and the surrounding matrix, andtherefore the higher the compressive strength achieved. Yunping Xi et al (29) suggested that an 8 %silica fume pretreatment on the surface of rubber particles could improve properties of rubberizedmortars. Cairns et al (28) suggested a much larger improvement in compressive strength (about57%) was obtained when rubber aggregates treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) were used.Kaloush K.E. et al (30) also noted that the compressive strength decreased as the rubber contentincreased. Abrham (26) reported recycled rubber tires into concrete significantly increased theslump and workability. The general density reduction was to be expected due to the low specificgravity of the rubber aggregates with respect to that of the natural aggregates.5.0 MECHANICAL PROPERTIESThe fresh properties of the pervious concrete mixtures were assessed according to BS EN 12350–2:2009: Testing fresh concrete – Part 2: Slump test and testing fresh concrete – Part 6: Density Page 12 of 23
  • 13. 5.1 Void Ratio TestJCI Test Method (Report on Eco-Concrete Committee for Void Ratio of Porous Concrete (draft))was employed to determine the total void ratio of porous concrete cylinders ( 10x 20 cm). Threespecimens for each type of porous concrete were tested to calculate the mean value. The totalvoid ratio was obtained by dividing the difference between the initial mass (M1) of the cylinderspecimen in the water and the final mass (M2) measured following air drying for 24 h with thespecimen volume (V), where as ρM is the density of water. The equation used to obtain total voidratio (A) is as follows:Farhayu (31) experimented the void ratio test are followed by JCI Test Method and Figure 10 areshow the flow chart of test method. Figure 11 is shown test equipment. Demould Speciment Measure the Volume of Specimens, V1 Saturate Speciment in Water for 24 H Measure the Mass in Water, M1 Measure the Volume of Specimens, M2 after Leaving Specimens to Stand for (20 C60%RH) Calculate the Total Void Ratio, A = 1 - [(M2-M1)/ρM/V]x100 Figure 10: Flow Chart of Void Ratio Test Method (Farhayu) Page 13 of 23
  • 14. Figure 11: Method of Void Ratio Test (a) Equipment (b) Weight Concrete In Water Experimented by FarhayuThe average void ratio of pervious concrete specimens (cubes and cylinders) was evaluatedusing an apparatus described in BS EN 12390–7:2009 and calculated bywhere, W1 is the weight of specimen submerged under water (kg), W2 the weight of specimen ata saturated surface dry conditions (kg), V the volume of specimen (m3), is the density of waterin (kg/m3).5.2 Permeability TestDarcy’s Law for laminar flow is not applicable to pervious concrete that is high porosity. Amethod of head permeability measurement was developed by Huang et al (32) for perviousasphalt mixture (similar to pervious concrete in permeability) was used to obtain the pseudo-coefficient of permeability of pervious concrete mixtures. Page 14 of 23
  • 15. Figure 12: Permeability Test Setup and Sample (Huang et al)Two pressure transducers installed at the top and bottom of the specimen give accurate readingsof the hydraulic head difference during the test. Automatic data acquisition makes continuousreading possible during a falling head test so that the test can be conducted even at very high flowrate, such as in pervious concrete. The specimen is placed in an aluminum cell. Between the celland the specimen is an anti-scratch rubber membrane that is clamped tightly at both ends of thecylindrical cell. A vacuum is applied between the membrane and the cell to facilitate theinstallation of the specimen. During the test, a confining pressure of up to 103.5 kPa is applied onthe membrane to prevent short-circuiting from the specimen’s side. The top reservoir tube has adiameter of 57 mm and a length of 914 mm. The cylindrical specimen has a diameter of 152 mmand a height of 76 mm. Huang et al (32) studied hydraulic head difference vs. time curveobtained from the two pressure transducers: H=a0 + a1t+ a2t2Where, a0, a1 and a2 are regression coefficients. Then, differentiate equation, Page 15 of 23
  • 16. Where 1 and 2 are regression coefficients for differential equation of head and time therefore,the discharge velocity is expressed as:where A1; A2; r1; r2 are the cross section areas and radius of upper cylindrical reservoir and thespecimen.The permeabilities of 95 mm diameter×150 mm long pervious concrete cylinders weredetermined using a falling head permeameter shown in Fig. 13, the details of which have beenextensively published by ACI522R (33), Neithalath (34) and Neithalath et al (35). Water wasallowed to pass through the specimen enclosed in a latex membrane, and the time (t) required forwater to fall from a head of h1 to h2 in the tube above the specimen was noted. Based on theareas of cross sections of specimen and the tube (A1 and A2 respectively), and the specimenlength L, the hydraulic conductivity K (in m/s) can be calculated according to Darcy’s law as:The hydraulic conductivity, K (in m/s) can be converted to intrinsic permeability (k) using thedensity (1000 kg/m3) and viscosity (10−3 Pa.s) of water, and the acceleration due to gravity(9.8m/s2). Page 16 of 23
  • 17. Figure 13: Falling head permeameter for permeability measurements of pervious concretes (Narayanan et al)Amanda et al (36) was studied there is no standardized method of measuring permeability forpervious concrete. A modification of the method outlined in ACI522R-06 was adopted to test thepermeability of each sample. A ‘permeameter’ has been constructed (as shown in Figure 14),which is composed of two parts; an encapsulating cylinder and flow pipe. An ultrasonic flowvelocity meter is located at the base of the flow-generating pipe, which measures the flow in m/swith the use of clamp-on sensors that employ ultrasonic frequency technology injected transit-time method. Page 17 of 23
  • 18. Figure 14: Preliminary Apparatus and Hand-Held Device Sensors (Amanda et al)5.3 Compressive Strength TestCompressive strength testing was performed at 7, 21, and 28-days according to ASTM C39. Thespecimen is cylinders of 100 mm (4 in.) in diameter and 200 mm (8 in.) in length.The compressive strength of cubic specimens BS EN 12390–3:20095.4 Flexural Strength TestAccording to ASTM C78, the flexural testing was performed at 28-day, the size of the beam is152x152x508mm and the loading rate is between 0.0142 and 0.020 MPa.According to the BS1881:Part118:1983, the preferred size of beam is 150x150x750mm but,when the maximum size of aggregate is less than 25mm 100x100x500mm beam may be used.The beams are tested on their side in relation to the as-cast position, in moist condition, at a rateof increase in stress in bottom fibre of between 0.02 and 0.10 MPs/s, the lower rate being for lowstrength concrete and the higher rate for high strength concrete. Page 18 of 23
  • 19. 6.0 SUSTAINABLE OF PERVIOUS CONCRETEAccording to the Aggregate Industries (40), EmeraldTM Series reported that pervious concrete aremade for sustainable concrete shown in Table 4. Table 4: LEED Credits for Emerald Series’ Pervious Concrete Emerald LEED Credits Environmental LEED SeriesTM Product Contributes Attributes Category Products To Pervious Improved run-off water Sustainable SS 6.1 Stormwater Concrete quality Sites Design – Quality Reduced water Control (1 Point) retention requirement SS 6.2 Stormwater Increased site Design – Quality sustainability Control (1 Point) SS: Sustainable SitesACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAny accomplishment requires the effort of many people and there is no exceptions. First andforemost, I have contributed a part of the Concrete Vision that is pervious concrete. My sinceregratitude goes to PM Dr Lee Yee Loon, lecture of the subject BFS 4063 Concrete Technologyfor performing the greatest opportunity in this project. Page 19 of 23
  • 20. References1. Bradley J. Putman, Andrew I. Neptune. (2011). Comparison Of Test Specimen Preparation Techniques For Pervious Concrete Pavements. Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 3480-3485.2. Beeldens, A., Van Gemert, D., et al. (2004). Pervious Concrete. Laboratory Versus Field Experience, Ninth Symposium on Concrete Pavements, Istanbul, Turkey.3. Tennis Paul D., Leming Michael L. and Akers David J. (2004). Pervious Concrete Pavements. EB302.02, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, and National Ready Mixed Concrete Association: Silver Spring.4. Malhotra, V.M. (1976). No-Fines Concrete – Its Properties and Applications. ACI Journal, November, page 628 to 644.5. Fowler, D. W. Aggregate For Pervious Concrete.6. Bhutta, M.A.R, Tsuruta K. and Mirza J. (2011). Evaluation of High-Performance Porous Concrete Properties, Construction and Building Materials, 31(2012), 67-73.7. Neville A. M. and Brooks J. J. (1987). Concrete Technology. England, United Kingdom: Longman Scientific & Technical. pg. 359-361.8. Schaefer V., Wang, K., Suleimam M. and Kevern, J. (2006). Mix Design Development for PerviousConcrete In Cold Weather Climates. Final Report, 2006-01: Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University.9. Yang, J. and Jiang G. (2002). Experimental Study on Properties of Pervious Concrete Pavement Materials. Cement and Concrete Research 33(2003)381.286.10. Mindess, S.; Young, J. F.; and Darwin, D. (2003) Concrete, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.11. Suraya Hani, A., Ismail, A.R. and Lee Y.L. (2010). Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Containing Micronised Biomass Silica, International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology Vol 1, No2, December 2010.12. Tam, V.W.Y., Tam, C.M., (2007) Assessment of Durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Produced by Two-Stage Mixing Approach, Journal Material Science, pp.3592- 3602.13. Chen,H.J.,Yen,T.,Chen,K.H.,(2003) Use of Building Rubbles as Recycled Aggregates. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 33, Issue 1, Jan. 2003, pp. 125-132. Page 20 of 23
  • 21. 14. Berry B.M., Suozzo M.J., Anderson I.A. and Dewoolkar M.M. (2012). Properties Of Pervious Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate. TRB 2012 Annual Meeting.15. Rizvi, R., Tighe, S., Henderson, V., Norris, J. (2010). Evaluating the Use of Recycled 4 Concrete Aggregate in Pervious Concrete Pavement, Transportation Research Record: 5 Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2164, Transportation Research Board of 6 the National Academies, Washington, D.C.16. Salem, R.M. and E.G. Burdette. (1998). Role of Chemical and Mineral Admixtures on Physical Properties and Frost Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete. ACI Materials Journal 95(5):558-6317. ACI Committee 555 (2001). Removal and Reuse of Hardened Concrete. ACI 12 Committee Report, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. pp 18 – 26.18. M. Etxeberria, E. Vázquez, A. Marí and M. Barra, Influence of amount of recycled coarse 32 aggregates and production process on properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Cem 33 Concr Res, 37 (2007), pp. 735–742.19. Sriravindrarah. R, Neo Wang, D.H. and Lai J.W. (2012). Mix Design for Pervious Recycled Aggregate Concrete, International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials ISSN 1976-0485 : eISSN 2234-1315.20. Abdullahi, M., Al-Mattarned, H.M.A. and Mohamed, B.S. (2009). Statistical Modeling of Lightweight Concrete Mixtures. European Journal of Scientific Reseach ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 31 No.1 (2009), pp.124-131.21. Omar, W. and Noor Mohamed, R (2001). Properties of Lieghtweight Concrete Using Palm Oil Clinker in Prestressed Concrete Beam. Proceeding of International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology. Shah Alam, Malaysia.22. Kamaruddin, R. (1991). Application of Bamboo and Oil Palm Clinker in Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beams. M.Sc. Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia,Malaysia.23. Noor Mahamed, R (2001). The Performance of the Prestressed Lightweight Concrete Beams using Palm Oil Clinker. M.Sc. Thesis, Unicersiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.24. Arthur Chan T.P (2010). Mechanical Properties of 10mm Aggregate Porous Concrete Using Palm Oil Clinker. Eng. Thesis, Unicersiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia. Page 21 of 23
  • 22. 25. Thiruvangodan, S.K. (2006). Waste Tyre Management in Malaysia. Phd, Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.26. Abrham, K.S. (2010). The Use of Recycled Rubber Tires as A Partial Replacement For Coarse Aggregate In Concrete Construction. M.Eng, Thesis, Addis Ababa University.27. Groom R.E., Hanna J.A. and Tutu O. (2005) New Products incorporating Tire Materials, Northern Ireland: Questor Centre.28. Cairns R., Kew H.Y. and Kenny M.J. (2004) The Use of Recycled Rubber Tires in Concrete Construction, Glasgow: The Onyx Environmental Trust.29. Yunping Xi, Yue Li, Zhaohui Xie, and Lee J.S.(2003) Utilization of Solid Wastes (Waste Glass and Rubber Particles) as Aggregates in Concrete, Colorado.30. Kaloush K.E, George B. W. and Han Z.(2004) Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete, Arizona: Arizona State University.31. Farhayu, A. (2010). Properties of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete, Eng, Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.32. Huang, B.,Wu H., Shu X, Burdette EG. (2010). Laboratory Evaluation of Permeability and Strength of Polymer-Modified Pervious Concrete. Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010): 818-823.33. ACI 522R-(2006), Pervious Concrete, American Concrete Institute Committee.34. Neithalath N., (2004). Development And Characterization of Acoustically Efficient Cementitious Materials, PhD thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.35. Neithalath N, Weiss J, Olek J. (2006). Characterizing Enhanced Porosity Concrete Using Electrical Impedance To Predict Acoustic And Hydraulic Performance. Cem Concr Res 2006;36: 2074–85.36. Amanda L.A., Mahsa H.D., Anto S. and Medhat S. (2010) Optimizing the Strength and Permeability of Pervious Concrete, 2010 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada Halifax, Nova Scotia.37. ASTM C78. (2002) Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third Point Loading). Annual Book of ASTM Standards 4.02. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.38. British Standards Institution (2009), Testing fresh concrete – Part 6: Density, BSI London, BS EN 12350-6; 2009. Page 22 of 23
  • 23. 39. British Standards Institution (2009), Testing hardened concrete – Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens, BSI London, BS EN 12390-3; 2009.40. Aggregate Industries (2010). Pervious Concrete. Emerald Series. Page 23 of 23