Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science
Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans  Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
Keywords: cattle; clone; debate; embryo; ethics; human; media; nuclear transfer; sheep; stem cells Chapter 16 Cloning of A...
The birth of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, caused extensive media and public interest...
In the light of this debate it is necessary to clarify what the event actually implies. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and ...
First, scientifically it shows that in mammals it is possible to re-set the genetic programming that occurs during develop...
Secondly, it facilitates the exact reproduction of valuable transgenic animals or of elite lines e.g. of cattle. Chapter 1...
The main ethical implications however – the ones that excited the public and the media – relate to possible applications i...
Leaving aside the safety issues – which remain very significant – the strong consensus is that it would be unethical to de...
However, the use of cloning to generate stem cells to treat certain degenerative diseases is a potential application that ...
Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
Keywords: animal rights; experimentation; mammal; moral agency; reduction; refinement; replacement; suffering; testing; we...
<ul><li>Discussion is focussed on vertebrates, especially mammals. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedic...
<ul><li>Differences between ourselves and such animals are a matter for debate but we certainly cannot claim that other an...
<ul><li>Indeed, there has been growing awareness of animal welfare issues for several centuries. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Anim...
<ul><li>Despite this we continue to use vertebrates in many ways including biomedical research and safety testing of new d...
<ul><li>Many advances in bio/medicine over the past 500 years could not have been made without using animals. </li></ul>Ch...
<ul><li>In the UK all ‘procedures’ carried out on vertebrates are licensed by the Home Office, balancing carefully the pos...
<ul><li>Over 80% of the vertebrates used are rats and mice, specially bred for laboratory work. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Anima...
<ul><li>However, scientists also continue to attempt to refine experiments to decrease suffering, to reduce the number of ...
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  • Keywords: cattle; clone; debate; embryo; ethics; human; media; nuclear transfer; sheep; stem cells Summary The birth of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, caused extensive media and public interest and continuing debate. In the light of this debate it is necessary to clarify what the event actually implies. First, scientifically it shows that in mammals it is possible to re-set the genetic programming that occurs during development. Secondly, it facilitates the exact reproduction of valuable transgenic animals or of elite lines e.g. of cattle. The main ethical implications however – the ones that excited the public and the media – relate to possible applications in the reproduction of humans. Leaving aside the safety issues – which remain very significant – the strong consensus is that it would be unethical to deliberately create a child in someone else&apos;s genetic image. However, the use of cloning to generate stem cells to treat certain degenerative diseases is a potential application that many find acceptable.
  • Keywords: animal rights; experimentation; mammal; moral agency; reduction; refinement; replacement; suffering; testing; welfare Summary Discussion is focussed on vertebrates, especially mammals. Differences between ourselves and such animals are a matter for debate but we certainly cannot claim that other animals do not suffer. Indeed, there has been growing awareness of animal welfare issues for several centuries. Despite this we continue to use vertebrates in many ways including biomedical research and safety testing of new drugs (required by law). Many advances in bio/medicine over the past 500 years could not have been made without using animals. In the UK all ‘procedures’ carried out on vertebrates are licensed by the Home Office, balancing carefully the possibility of suffering against potential benefits. Over 80% of the vertebrates used are rats and mice, specially bred for laboratory work. However, scientists also continue to attempt to refine experiments to decrease suffering, to reduce the number of animals used and to use where possible, appropriate replacements for animal experiments.
  • T M 14 E T I K A M E D I S (3)

    1. 1. Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science
    2. 2. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    3. 3. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    4. 4. Keywords: cattle; clone; debate; embryo; ethics; human; media; nuclear transfer; sheep; stem cells Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    5. 5. The birth of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, caused extensive media and public interest and continuing debate. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    6. 6. In the light of this debate it is necessary to clarify what the event actually implies. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    7. 7. First, scientifically it shows that in mammals it is possible to re-set the genetic programming that occurs during development. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    8. 8. Secondly, it facilitates the exact reproduction of valuable transgenic animals or of elite lines e.g. of cattle. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    9. 9. The main ethical implications however – the ones that excited the public and the media – relate to possible applications in the reproduction of humans. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    10. 10. Leaving aside the safety issues – which remain very significant – the strong consensus is that it would be unethical to deliberately create a child in someone else's genetic image. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    11. 11. However, the use of cloning to generate stem cells to treat certain degenerative diseases is a potential application that many find acceptable. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
    12. 12. Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    13. 13. Keywords: animal rights; experimentation; mammal; moral agency; reduction; refinement; replacement; suffering; testing; welfare Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    14. 14. <ul><li>Discussion is focussed on vertebrates, especially mammals. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    15. 15. <ul><li>Differences between ourselves and such animals are a matter for debate but we certainly cannot claim that other animals do not suffer. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    16. 16. <ul><li>Indeed, there has been growing awareness of animal welfare issues for several centuries. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    17. 17. <ul><li>Despite this we continue to use vertebrates in many ways including biomedical research and safety testing of new drugs (required by law). </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    18. 18. <ul><li>Many advances in bio/medicine over the past 500 years could not have been made without using animals. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    19. 19. <ul><li>In the UK all ‘procedures’ carried out on vertebrates are licensed by the Home Office, balancing carefully the possibility of suffering against potential benefits. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    20. 20. <ul><li>Over 80% of the vertebrates used are rats and mice, specially bred for laboratory work. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
    21. 21. <ul><li>However, scientists also continue to attempt to refine experiments to decrease suffering, to reduce the number of animals used and to use where possible, appropriate replacements for animal experiments. </li></ul>Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
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