T M 14  E T I K A  M E D I S (3)
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  • Keywords: cattle; clone; debate; embryo; ethics; human; media; nuclear transfer; sheep; stem cells Summary The birth of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, caused extensive media and public interest and continuing debate. In the light of this debate it is necessary to clarify what the event actually implies. First, scientifically it shows that in mammals it is possible to re-set the genetic programming that occurs during development. Secondly, it facilitates the exact reproduction of valuable transgenic animals or of elite lines e.g. of cattle. The main ethical implications however – the ones that excited the public and the media – relate to possible applications in the reproduction of humans. Leaving aside the safety issues – which remain very significant – the strong consensus is that it would be unethical to deliberately create a child in someone else's genetic image. However, the use of cloning to generate stem cells to treat certain degenerative diseases is a potential application that many find acceptable.
  • Keywords: animal rights; experimentation; mammal; moral agency; reduction; refinement; replacement; suffering; testing; welfare Summary Discussion is focussed on vertebrates, especially mammals. Differences between ourselves and such animals are a matter for debate but we certainly cannot claim that other animals do not suffer. Indeed, there has been growing awareness of animal welfare issues for several centuries. Despite this we continue to use vertebrates in many ways including biomedical research and safety testing of new drugs (required by law). Many advances in bio/medicine over the past 500 years could not have been made without using animals. In the UK all ‘procedures’ carried out on vertebrates are licensed by the Home Office, balancing carefully the possibility of suffering against potential benefits. Over 80% of the vertebrates used are rats and mice, specially bred for laboratory work. However, scientists also continue to attempt to refine experiments to decrease suffering, to reduce the number of animals used and to use where possible, appropriate replacements for animal experiments.

Transcript

  • 1. Part IV : Ethical Issues in Biomedical Science
  • 2. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 3. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 4. Keywords: cattle; clone; debate; embryo; ethics; human; media; nuclear transfer; sheep; stem cells Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 5. The birth of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, caused extensive media and public interest and continuing debate. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 6. In the light of this debate it is necessary to clarify what the event actually implies. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 7. First, scientifically it shows that in mammals it is possible to re-set the genetic programming that occurs during development. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 8. Secondly, it facilitates the exact reproduction of valuable transgenic animals or of elite lines e.g. of cattle. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 9. The main ethical implications however – the ones that excited the public and the media – relate to possible applications in the reproduction of humans. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 10. Leaving aside the safety issues – which remain very significant – the strong consensus is that it would be unethical to deliberately create a child in someone else's genetic image. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 11. However, the use of cloning to generate stem cells to treat certain degenerative diseases is a potential application that many find acceptable. Chapter 16 Cloning of Animals and Humans
  • 12. Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 13. Keywords: animal rights; experimentation; mammal; moral agency; reduction; refinement; replacement; suffering; testing; welfare Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 14.
    • Discussion is focussed on vertebrates, especially mammals.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 15.
    • Differences between ourselves and such animals are a matter for debate but we certainly cannot claim that other animals do not suffer.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 16.
    • Indeed, there has been growing awareness of animal welfare issues for several centuries.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 17.
    • Despite this we continue to use vertebrates in many ways including biomedical research and safety testing of new drugs (required by law).
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 18.
    • Many advances in bio/medicine over the past 500 years could not have been made without using animals.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 19.
    • In the UK all ‘procedures’ carried out on vertebrates are licensed by the Home Office, balancing carefully the possibility of suffering against potential benefits.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 20.
    • Over 80% of the vertebrates used are rats and mice, specially bred for laboratory work.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research
  • 21.
    • However, scientists also continue to attempt to refine experiments to decrease suffering, to reduce the number of animals used and to use where possible, appropriate replacements for animal experiments.
    Chapter 18 Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research