Biomass energy &
 public perception

    Dan van der Horst

d.vanderhorst@bham.ac.uk
The role of the public in the
  development of biomass energy
• As local community
• As silent supporter/opponent (MORI po...
Liquid Biofuels:
caught
between local
“Coalitions
of the Willing”
And a (global) coalition of concern
Public attitudes towards Renewable Energy
        (London Renewables, 2003)
• 80% in favour of RE
• Solar, wind are more p...
Why so passive
• „Rational‟ homo economicus is a myth; we
  undervalue future savings
• Upfront price is a barrier
• Lack ...
The „active‟ consumer; many possible roles in
co-construction, co-production, co-provision.




                          ...
Consumer perception
Of wood stoves
Domestic biomass energy
• „renewable‟ (moral value)
• „local‟ (moral value)
• „traditional‟ (incl stoves, fireplace)
• „ni...
Perceptions of biomass energy scenarios in
 Yorkshire & Humber (Upham et al., 2007)
• Scenarios developed through workshop...
Biomass plants in the UK; the issue of planning permission
Location           MW    Fuel/technology Planning permission, s...
Public opinion prior to planning of a
      new renewable energy facility
•    Technology is new so many people don‟t know...
Public opinion during the planning of a
    new renewable energy facility
•   Debate becomes emotional
•   Strong polarisa...
Public opinion after the building of a
    new renewable energy facility
(plant is now operational)
•    Those strongest o...
What is NIMBY?
Freudenberg & Pastor (1992) reviewed the literature
   and found 3 strands of thought:
1. Irrational fear /...
Wolsink‟s typology of opposition
(based on a study of protests against
   windfarms in the Netherlands)
1. No to wind farm...
Clear evidence that the risk communication strategy
      needs to be tailored to the local situation
company     Plant lo...
Cricklade planning process
• Ambient applies for planning permission –early 2000
• 439 letters of objection (1 in favour),...
Concerns raised by residents
•   Inappropriate location for a power plant (rural buffer zone);
•   Close proximity to loca...
Concerns raised by Biomass
   Lumbered on Our Town (BLOT)
• would set a precedent for further industrial development.
• co...
So BLOT focused on

• Main „proven‟ impacts (visual impacts, traffic)
• Main „legal‟ objections (planning designation)
• I...
Ambient‟s failure in risk
        communication in Cricklade
• Ambient were stuck with a fixed technology and site, so the...
Lessons for plant developers
•   Don‟t go “DAD” (decide, announce and defend)
•   Don‟t say “TINA” (there is no alternativ...
„Promising communities‟
• Where potential beneficiaries are influential (e.g. farmers
  in East Anglia)
• Where there is a...
Guidelines of the „Facility Siting Credo‟
       (Kunreuther et al., 1993).
Procedural steps
1. Institute a broad-based pa...
Richard Davies   Funding Support
Richard Davies   Funding Support
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Richard Davies Funding Support

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2008 West Midlands Bioenergy Conference
Harper Adams University College

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Richard Davies Funding Support

  1. 1. Biomass energy & public perception Dan van der Horst d.vanderhorst@bham.ac.uk
  2. 2. The role of the public in the development of biomass energy • As local community • As silent supporter/opponent (MORI polls, focus groups, voter) • As member of influential NGOs • As small investor? • As co-owner / partner in a short or local supply chain • As consumer
  3. 3. Liquid Biofuels: caught between local “Coalitions of the Willing”
  4. 4. And a (global) coalition of concern
  5. 5. Public attitudes towards Renewable Energy (London Renewables, 2003) • 80% in favour of RE • Solar, wind are more positively perceived than CHP, incineration or AD • But…support for specific technologies appears to be linked to knowledge • Market uptake is seen as the responsibility of… government (75%), energy companies (46%), local councils (43%); consumers only 8%! • Other studies also show that mainstream households feel disempowered with regards to energy efficiency or emissions reductions
  6. 6. Why so passive • „Rational‟ homo economicus is a myth; we undervalue future savings • Upfront price is a barrier • Lack of knowledge (of technology, of costs) • Perceptions of immature technologies and inexperienced installers • Who to trust? • Innovators/pioneers are very well informed, know about & believe in technology, often handy, often more money to spend, ideological motivation (not primarily driven by financial arguments)
  7. 7. The „active‟ consumer; many possible roles in co-construction, co-production, co-provision. 3 deployment models for microgeneration (Sauter & Watson, 2007)
  8. 8. Consumer perception Of wood stoves
  9. 9. Domestic biomass energy • „renewable‟ (moral value) • „local‟ (moral value) • „traditional‟ (incl stoves, fireplace) • „nice to have a fire‟ (aesthetics; cosiness) • „nice to make a fire‟ („recreational‟) • Use of own resources / pick your own • Energy independence (big utilities) • Energy security (Back-up for cold snaps, black- outs, price rises) • Cheap
  10. 10. Perceptions of biomass energy scenarios in Yorkshire & Humber (Upham et al., 2007) • Scenarios developed through workshops with stakeholders & members of the public • Image of biomass is still in the making; opinions yet to be „hardened‟ • „convergence‟ between stakeholders & public • Concerns with large-scale elec. only; with biomass imports; with climate change • Role of the local landscape, place-identity important; small-scale biomass can be positive in that respect. • Larger scale accepted in some agricultural landscapes
  11. 11. Biomass plants in the UK; the issue of planning permission Location MW Fuel/technology Planning permission, status Calne, Wiltshire 20 Straw, Lost, withdrawn (1994) combustion Ely, 31 Straw, Lost, appealed, won, Cambridgeshire combustion operational (2000) Newbridge, 15 Forestry waste, Lost, resubmitted, withdrawn? Wales fast pyrolysis (2001/2002) Cricklade, 5.5 willow/forestry, Lost, appealed, lost again Wiltshire gasification (2001) Winkleigh, 14 SRC/forestry, Lost, appealed, lost again Devon gasification (2005?)
  12. 12. Public opinion prior to planning of a new renewable energy facility • Technology is new so many people don‟t know about it • Many/most people will say „yes I support such a development because it‟s „green/ good for the environment‟. • A fairly large number of people will say „don‟t know‟ (somewhat sceptical „need to know more‟ / „wait and see‟ attitude) • Some are opposed in principle, e.g. because they don‟t believe in climate change, or have a specific view of tax spending.
  13. 13. Public opinion during the planning of a new renewable energy facility • Debate becomes emotional • Strong polarisation of views • Opponents list as many objections as possible, try to get organised and work the public opinion. • Opponents raise legitimacy and trust issues, say the company is only „in it for the money‟ • Proponents label opponents as „NIMBYs‟ and blame them of „scaremongering‟.
  14. 14. Public opinion after the building of a new renewable energy facility (plant is now operational) • Those strongest opposed during the proposal phase are most bothered by the nuisances • Most people (including those somewhat opposed during the proposal phase) find the nuisances more bearable than previously expected • When local people have gained a greater knowledge of the plant and the technology and this will also result in a more favourable opinion. • Over a period of time many people will start to identify the plant with their area and will become more defensive of the plant (who-ever questions the plant, questions their area)
  15. 15. What is NIMBY? Freudenberg & Pastor (1992) reviewed the literature and found 3 strands of thought: 1. Irrational fear /phobic response. Public are wrong and ignorant (Deficit model of public understanding). 2. Selfish response (seen as rational by economists), but also recognition that the proponents (selfish) interests of their own. 3. Prudent response; public are acting reasonably in distrusting scientists, have good ground for concern and are able to see the siting problem in wider terms than the planning experts (local knowledge, citizen knowledge)
  16. 16. Wolsink‟s typology of opposition (based on a study of protests against windfarms in the Netherlands) 1. No to wind farms anywhere (NIABY) 2. No to process (consultation, arrogance..;) 3. No to this project, pro-wind subject to certain criteria (change this & that) 4. Put it anywhere but here (true selfish NIMBY);
  17. 17. Clear evidence that the risk communication strategy needs to be tailored to the local situation company Plant location Tech spec. Planning outcome Ambient Cricklade, 5.5MW Rejected, appealed, Energy Wiltshire Gasification rejected Ambient Eye, Suffolk 5.5 MW Planning permission granted (1st time) Energy Gasification Borders Newbridge, 15MW Rejected, appealed, Biofuel Powys Pyrolysis rejected(?) Borders Carlisle, 20MW Planning permission granted (1st time) Biofuel Cumbria Pyrolysis Both had a consistent approach to local communities: Ambient were open & communicative if amateurish. Borders Biofuel adopted a silent & arrogant approach. Their results were identical…
  18. 18. Cricklade planning process • Ambient applies for planning permission –early 2000 • 439 letters of objection (1 in favour), protest petition signed by 861 people. • Protesters organised themselves (BLOT), commissioned their own research and elected a councillor (Cricklade Town) to fight the proposal. • North Wiltshire District Council rejects the planning permission stating objections of (a) visual impact on the amenity and character of the countryside and (b) inappropriate use of rural buffer zone -September 2000- • Ambient appeals December 2000 • Appeal is rejected in July 2001 stating mainly the major impact in rural buffer zone.
  19. 19. Concerns raised by residents • Inappropriate location for a power plant (rural buffer zone); • Close proximity to local residents; • Emission of greenhouse gases and water vapour; • Unpleasant odour; • Emission of light at night; • Vibration and noise from the power plant; • Fear of public health hazards; • Nuisance from traffic; • Increases in traffic movement and flow of high goods vehicles; • negative impacts on wildlife & ecosystems,; • Negative effect on the local weather system; • Undermining openness; • Visual impacts of the chimneys and other structures (storage „shed‟); • Negative effects on cultural heritage (incl. archaeology); • Few benefits to local community but they bear the soc./envir. costs; • Negative effect on tourism and business; • No compensation to local people; • Negative effect on property prices; • No significant employment opportunity for local people
  20. 20. Concerns raised by Biomass Lumbered on Our Town (BLOT) • would set a precedent for further industrial development. • contradict local designation policies, namely the Area of Special Archaeological Significance & Rural Buffer Zone; • huge increase of Heavy Goods Vehicles on trunk road; • chimneys of the plant are very tall, affect the view from afar; • 117 million litres water /y steamed into the atmosphere; • odour, dust, noise and emissions nuisances; • long term uncertainties about health impacts; • unquantifiable damage to meadows, flora, fauna and unique water systems south east of Cricklade; • not clear if there would be any compensation to those affected, if anything would go wrong in/with the plant; • negative effects on property prices in the area.
  21. 21. So BLOT focused on • Main „proven‟ impacts (visual impacts, traffic) • Main „legal‟ objections (planning designation) • Issues of high uncertainty (long term health & biodiversity impacts) • Main public concerns (potential emissions, impact on property prices, lack of compensation) Which of these arguments serve to increase public opposition „on the street‟ and which serve to win the argument in the planning process?
  22. 22. Ambient‟s failure in risk communication in Cricklade • Ambient were stuck with a fixed technology and site, so they had a there-is-no-alternative (TINA) approach to the planning process. • Ambient saw their plant as environmentally benign. They did not anticipate such ferocious local opposition and dismissed this initially as a NIMBY response. • They had no ready response to accusations such as „land in the buffer zone is cheap‟, or the „ES is not independent‟. • Ambient tried their best to communicate but were caught out in the first meeting (trust once lost, is very hard to recover). • In the end Ambient personnel and BLOT activists saw more face to face; Ambient admitted the site was poorly chosen, BLOT admitted that it was an environmentally benign plant planned in the wrong location (but by then BLOT knew that this was their winning argument).
  23. 23. Lessons for plant developers • Don‟t go “DAD” (decide, announce and defend) • Don‟t say “TINA” (there is no alternative) • Don‟t dismiss local protest as selfish NIMBY • Local beneficiaries (ownership of plant, providers of fuel, use of services e.g. heat) • Appropriate scale • „Proven‟ technology • Successful operational examples to show • Make the neighbourhood proud • Offer compensation? • Prior education („environmental citizenship‟) • Target „promising‟ communities?
  24. 24. „Promising communities‟ • Where potential beneficiaries are influential (e.g. farmers in East Anglia) • Where there is a concentration of green citizens? • Where there‟s a historic legacy of energy industry (e.g. ex-mining areas) • Where the marginal impact of the plant is small (e.g. adjacent to larger existing plants) • „soft‟ communities; where there likelihood of organised protest is low (more deprived/ working class? Not in commuterville where they don‟t care about the „local economy‟ & not in areas full of middleclass retirees with time on their hand). But is this a right thing to do??
  25. 25. Guidelines of the „Facility Siting Credo‟ (Kunreuther et al., 1993). Procedural steps 1. Institute a broad-based participatory process 2. Seek consensus 3. Work to develop trust 4. Seek acceptable sites through a volunteer process 5. Consider a competitive siting process 6. Set realistic timetables 7. Keep multiple options open at all times Desired outcomes 1. Achieve agreement that the status quo is unacceptable 2. Choose the solution that best addresses the problem 3. Guarantee that stringent safety standards will be met 4. Fully address all negative aspects of the facility 5. Make the host community better off 6. Use contingent agreements 7. Work for geographic fairness
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