Pure Plant Oil As Fuel - Elsbett Ltd.


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Biofuels Seminar
Joint Event with EnviroInnovate at the Birmingham City University Technology Innovation Centre
5th November 2008

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Pure Plant Oil As Fuel - Elsbett Ltd.

  1. 1. Pure Plant Oil Is this a superior biofuel? Ben Murphy / Jamie Onslow Elsbett AG and Verdant Fuel Ltd 5th November 2008
  2. 2. Principal criteria for Biofuels • Significant well-to-wheel CO2 reduction • Environmental sustainability • Social sustainability • Worthwhile volumes
  3. 3. How do the main biofuels measure up? Well-to-wheel CO2 savings Source: RFA May / June monthly report 2008
  4. 4. Most of the volume is in low CO2 performance feedstock Source: RFA May / June monthly report 2008
  5. 5. Environmental and social sustainability Environmental • Less than 30% of biofuels are meeting environmental standards. This may improve but the high proportion of soy feedstock creates the potential for destructive tropical land use change. • Long supply chains, especially from beyond Europe, will make environmental monitoring more difficult. Social • Social impacts are hard to judge but tropical cultivation associated with land use change has potential to create social concerns. • Soy oil yields per hectare are relatively low so larger areas are required for the same quantity of fuel.
  6. 6. Available volumes • Biofuels are similar to renewable power in that no single source can replace all our fossil fuel use. But diversification of different energy sources creates its own security. • Biofuel feedstocks are finite and cannot fully replace fossil fuels. Scarce biofuel feedstocks should be used in the most CO2 efficient way.
  7. 7. Biodiesel production Transesterification Extraction or Crushing Farming Modify the oil But Transesterification has a To suit the engine footprint of 470 grms CO2e per litre
  8. 8. VPO production Extraction or Farming Crushing Modify the engine to suit the plant oil • No chemical processing • The CO2e of the conversion is recovered • No additives within 70 litres of fuel
  9. 9. VPO – virgin plant oil Rapeseed Oil Fuel Standard V DIN 51 605 Unused pure plant oil Parameter Method Specification Unit DIN EN ISO Density (15°C) 900-930 kg/m3 121185 • Pure natural oil – no additives DIN EN ISO Flash point min. 220 °C 2719 DIN EN ISO Kin. viscosity(40°C) max. 36 mm2/s • Rapeseed is preferred 3104 Calorific value, lower DIN 51 900-2 min. 36000 kJ/kg Cetane number IP 498 min. 39 - • Sunflower, Jatropha are also good DIN EN ISO Carbon residue max. 0.40 %(m/m) 10370 Iodine value DIN EN 14111 95-125 g Iodine/100g • Soy oil causes engine damage long term DIN EN ISO Sulphur content max. 10 mg/kg 20884 Variable Properties • Recycled UCO (cooking oil) is not suitable Total contaminates DIN EN 12662 max. 24 mg/kg Acid value DIN EN 14104 max. 2 mg KOH/g Oxidation stability DIN EN 14112 min. 6 h • DIN 51605 is the minimum spec 110°C Phosphorus content DIN EN 14107 max. 12 mg/kg Earth alkali (Ca+Mg) E DIN EN 14538 max. 20 mg/kg DIN EN ISO Ash content max. 0.01 %(m/m) 6245 DIN EN ISO Water content max 750 mg/kg 12937
  10. 10. VPO - UK farm produced fuel CO2 savings Transport Extraction 2% Rapeoil 0.87 kgs CO2e/litre process Diesel 3.1 kgs CO2e/litre 17% Rapeoil 72% saving Farming fuel 5% • Assessed by leading carbon management experts Energy in NOx Fertiliser emissions • Based on real farm data and from pesticide Fertiliser production 46% 30%
  11. 11. How does VPO compare for CO2 savings? RFA monthly reports May/June • CO2 savings can be doubled by using VPO instead of rapeseed biodiesel • VPO offers larger volumes and more reliable supply than waste feedstocks
  12. 12. Blended Biodiesel or VPO? A truck running on biodiesel A truck running on VPO B5 • 40,000 litres of fuel with 90% • 40,000 litres of fuel = 2,000 litres of VPO = 36,000 litres biodiesel. • 36,000 litres of VPO saving 2.25 • 2,000 litres of biodiesel saving 1.25 Kg CO2e / litre = Kg CO2e / litre = 2.5 Mt CO2 81 Mt CO2 VPO is guaranteed to contain no palm oil or soy oil and no chemical additives.
  13. 13. Historical background to VPO •Plant oil diesel engines since 1973 Agriculture,and peanut oil Rudolf Diesel cars Passenger Construction and heavy plant Commercial vehicles • Several of tractors, earthmoving ••Approximately 2000cars worldwideequipment Hundreds thousand converted HGVs and vans The famous Elsbett engine • The modern diesel engine is developed for EN590 • 2 The systems • Gensets first small diesel engine • Over 100 million kms annually tank • Even boats unique one tank system • Elsbett’s and trainson new trucks • 1.4 litre,warranty Insured 3 cyl, Tdi • Rapid improvements in emissions limits and diesel engine performance are • Ultra-lowcompliant cars • CompareCO2 Elsbett Euro V this to today’s VW Polo Blue Motion based on EN590. • Running on Verdant fuel multifuel • The Elsbett engine was • Insured warranty for new cars • Many thousands of diesel engines converted to run on • OEM standards of reliability on a different fuel cannot be achieved without plant oil. years of operating experience and world class engine design expertise. • Elsbett continues to develop pioneering technology. 40 grms (net) / km
  14. 14. VW Polo with Elsbett Technology and VPO • Single tank technology no King Report compare with How does this electronic switching an electric car? ••For range Official TÜV emissions tests • Electric vehicle emissions depend on Euro IV ••For price EU homologated, power source ••For COyr insured warranty Full 3 2e CO2e 50 grms net / km • Range of 30grms / ••Whatmile range; multi-fuel km60080 grmswell-to-wheel to is the / km analysis of an electric car? • Price similar to Polo Blue Motion
  15. 15. VPO – Environmental impact • Rapeseed is not grown in tropical regions. It does not contribute to deforestation.
  16. 16. VPO – Environmental and social impact • Rapeseed is grown in rotation with cereals as part of the normal agricultural rotation • Typical rotation is 1 year in 4. • Rapeseed does require fertiliser but this is accounted for in the well-to-wheel CO2e impact • Rapeseed as a break crop helps to control weeds and restore cereal yields • Consecutive wheat cultivation loses about 10% yield per year. Yields can be maintained with more fertiliser which create more NOx emissions. • Approximately 80% of the plant remains in the soil and restores organic content. • In a sustainable rotation with cereals, rapeseed helps to maintain long term food yields.
  17. 17. VPO – the food vs fuel debate • Rapeseed is not an essential food. People do not starve for the lack of rapeseed oil. • Are we growing rapeseed where we could grow food? Rapeseed in sensible agricultural rotation helps maintain cereal food yields in the long term. • 1 litre of rapeseed also produces 2kg of animal feed which helps = food production. • Using rapeseed for fuel does not materially increase demand for other plant oils. Rapeseed is generally more expensive than other plant oils so these have already substituted for rapeseed where this is possible. + • In Europe, approximately 60% of rapeseed oil goes for biodiesel. Oil for food is not restricted by supply. Fried fish and chips or grilled fish, mashed potatoes and some transport fuel.
  18. 18. VPO engine performance • VPO has lower calorific value than diesel. Calorific value / litre • But the oxygen in the VPO molecule leads to better Diesel 35.7 MJ 100% combustion which compensates. VPO 34.3 MJ 96% • Independent tests between diesel Biodiesel 32.8 MJ 92% and VPO with Elsbett Technology show no statistically significant difference in fuel consumption. • Vehicle operators report no noticeable difference in engine performance.
  19. 19. VPO impact on emissions Emissions are a function of Elsbett Technology and VPO fuel • Independent emissions tests have been conducted by and other reputable institutes in Europe. • The tests show consistent results. VPO achieves: • Reduced HC emissions • Reduced CO emissions • Significant reduction in PM10 50% • Elsbett technology can manage NOx emissions within Euro V for trucks.
  20. 20. Available volumes of VPO • Current German VPO market is approx 650 million litres / yr • More than half the UK annual biodiesel market • 300 million litres / yr of rapeseed oil are used in UK biodiesel • This would save an extra 140,000 tonnes of CO2 if used as VPO • It would provide enough VPO for 150,000 cars or 8,000 HGVs VPO can make a significant contribution to UK targets The technology is available now But it requires a level playing field with biodiesel
  21. 21. Taxation regime for transport fuel UK tax on CO2 Why is VPO overtaxed and LPG undertaxed? 25 20 tax p/kg CO2 15 10 5 0 biodiesel LPG VPO ULS Diesel
  22. 22. How much is the net subsidy on VPO? VPO subsidy as a fuel: Full diesel tax = 50.35p plus VAT = 59.2p / litre VPO fuel tax = 30.35p plus VAT = 35.7p / litre Fuel subsidy = 23.5p / litre Rapeseed oil subsidy as food: Price per litre 1.17p per litre (Tesco 20 Sep 2008) Subsidy = VAT exemption = 20.5p / litre Tax penalty on VPO as a fuel vs food= 35.7p / litre The net subsidy on VPO as fuel = 3p / litre
  23. 23. VPO in summary • VPO has a high CO2 performance •Worthwhile quantities are available • VPO has a good environmental position • VPO avoids creating social concerns There is no incentive for the CO2 performance and the net subsidy is negligible.