AN INTRODUCTION TO BIOFUELS :
where are we and where are we going to?

               Melvyn F. Askew

            Founder...
Harper Adams University College.
Central Science Laboratory.
EU TARGETS FOR SUSTAINABLE,
SECURE AND AFFORDABLE SUPPLIES OF
             ENERGY

  20% reduction in primary energy
   c...
FIRST CONCLUSION:
Liquid biofuels cannot be considered on their
 own, in isolation from other energy sources
             ...
Current achievement of renewable energy
 (NB renewable not just biorenewable!!)

    Data here relate to EU in 2006.

   ...
Polluting gases


There are a range of gaseous emissions that
  create pollution and a further range of
  molecules that i...
REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE
         EMISSIONS
There are several options:
1.Stop doing it
2.Substitute something that crea...
REMEMBER UK WAS TARGETTING
  MASSIVE CO2 REDUCTIONS BY 2050:
60% OF THE 1990 VALUES FOR CO2 – BUT
   THAT IS LIKELY TO BEC...
Biofuel Vision for 2030.
Technology roadmap: vision for biofuels for
                2030+.
                   A European Vision.

     2005       ...
First Generation (Conventional) Biofuels.

Biofuel Type      Specific Names              Biomass               Production
...
A WORD ON BIOBUTANOL

More energy content than ethanol.
Mixes easily with gasoline.
Does not absorb significant amounts of...
Making first generation biofuels

Biodiesel :
fatty acid ( ie. vegetable oil or animal fat) +
  alcohol ( usually methyl a...
FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS : A
         CONCLUSION

 First generation biofuels tend to use
  existing technologies ( eg fe...
Second Generation Biofuels.

Biofuel Type              Specific Names              Biomass            Production
         ...
CRL’s direct-chip SRC harvester
Trees and Grassland.
Another conclusion: Second generation
              biofuels
 Second generation biofuels use new ( newer
  if FT) technol...
An important digression!!

 In terms of reducing energy, the use of
  biofuels is the lowest option after heat et
  ceter...
Back to reducing the fuel demand for
              vehicles
Current Uses:
Optimising Use of Bio-Resources.
Reduced speed = Reduced fuel consumption
Finished Product – eco one
Finished Product – eco one
                                            Rape Seed Oil
mp & Crop origin PU
                 ...
Biofuels : where now??
Remember The Gallagher Review of the
Indirect Effects of Biofuel Production
Food versus Fuel


The key causal areas:
 USA and maize production for bioethanol
  has changed land use in South America...
THE FUTURE FOR BIOFUELS


-In due course, second generation liquid
  biofuels will be widely introduced.
-Much potential f...
In conclusion


 Biofuels can offer options for reducing
  CO2 pollution.
 Current emphasis is on first generation
  bio...
Melvyn Askew: Introduction To Biofuels
Melvyn Askew: Introduction To Biofuels
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Melvyn Askew: Introduction To Biofuels

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Biofuels Seminar
Joint Event with EnviroInnovate at the Birmingham City University Technology Innovation Centre
5th November 2008

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Melvyn Askew: Introduction To Biofuels

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO BIOFUELS : where are we and where are we going to? Melvyn F. Askew Founder of Census-Bio Visiting Professor at Harper Adams University College Fellow of Central Science Laboratory Visiting Professor, INF, Poznan, Poland
  2. 2. Harper Adams University College.
  3. 3. Central Science Laboratory.
  4. 4. EU TARGETS FOR SUSTAINABLE, SECURE AND AFFORDABLE SUPPLIES OF ENERGY  20% reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020  20% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020 ( Based upon 1990)  20% renewable energy in overall energy mix by 2020.  10% min biofuels for vehicles by 2020
  5. 5. FIRST CONCLUSION: Liquid biofuels cannot be considered on their own, in isolation from other energy sources and uses.
  6. 6. Current achievement of renewable energy (NB renewable not just biorenewable!!) Data here relate to EU in 2006.  All renewables = 7% cf 12% as 2010 target.  Biofuels = 1.4% cf 5.75% target for 2010.  Electricity = 15% cf 21% target for 2010.  Heating and cooling = 9% but no formal  targets in EU.  The above are EU figures based on information from DG Res.
  7. 7. Polluting gases There are a range of gaseous emissions that create pollution and a further range of molecules that impact on ozone, with adverse knock on effects on environment. Of the former the key elements are NOx; Methane; Carbon Dioxide. Basically UK is doing quite well in all areas EXCEPT CO2 and that is continuing to increase.
  8. 8. REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS There are several options: 1.Stop doing it 2.Substitute something that creates more of a carbon balance eg biorenewables 3.Think laterally and join up policies and aims 4.Produce alternatives with equal performance AND IT MAY NOT BE THE END PRODUCT WHICH PRODUCES MOST EMISSIONS!!
  9. 9. REMEMBER UK WAS TARGETTING MASSIVE CO2 REDUCTIONS BY 2050: 60% OF THE 1990 VALUES FOR CO2 – BUT THAT IS LIKELY TO BECOME 80%
  10. 10. Biofuel Vision for 2030.
  11. 11. Technology roadmap: vision for biofuels for 2030+. A European Vision. 2005 2010/2020 2030 and 2030+ 1st Generation, 2nd Generation, Integrated biorefineries e.g. biodiesel e.g. bioethanol and sunfuel
  12. 12. First Generation (Conventional) Biofuels. Biofuel Type Specific Names Biomass Production Feedstock Process Bioethanol Conventional bioethanol Sugar beet, grains Hydrolysis & fermentation Vegetable Oil Pure plant oil (PPO) Oil crops (e.g. rape Cold pressing/ seed) extraction Biodiesel Biodiesel from energy crops Rape seed methyl ester Oil crops (e.g. rape Cold pressing/ (RME), fatty acid seed) extraction & methyl/ethyl ester transesterification (FAME/FAEE) Biodiesel Biodiesel from waste Waste/cooking/ FAME/FAEE frying oil/animal fat Biogas Upgraded biogas (Wet) biomass Bio-ETBE Bioethanol
  13. 13. A WORD ON BIOBUTANOL More energy content than ethanol. Mixes easily with gasoline. Does not absorb significant amounts of water. Requires lower investment per tonne of capacity provided pipeline distribution is used
  14. 14. Making first generation biofuels Biodiesel : fatty acid ( ie. vegetable oil or animal fat) + alcohol ( usually methyl alcohol) + a pinch of a catalyst like caustic soda = first generation biodiesel + glycerol. Bioethanol ( replaces gasoline) = fermented sugars or starches eg from maize or sugar beet/cane or wheat.
  15. 15. FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS : A CONCLUSION  First generation biofuels tend to use existing technologies ( eg fermentation of sugars or esterification of oils ) to transform current crops , especially food crops, into gasoline and diesel replacements.  This may cause a food versus fuel conflict.
  16. 16. Second Generation Biofuels. Biofuel Type Specific Names Biomass Production Feedstock Process Bioethanol Cellulosic bioethanol Lignocellulosic Advanced hydrolysis material & fermentation Synthetic Biofuels Biomass-to-liquids (BTL): Lignocellulosic Gasification & material synthesis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel Synthetic (bio)diesel Biomethanol Heavier (mixed) alcohols Biodimethylether (Bio-DME) Biodiesel Hydro-treated biodiesel Vegetable oils & Hydro-treatment animal fat Biogas SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas) Lignocellulosic Gasification & material synthesis Biohydrogen Lignocellulosic Gasification & material synthesis or biological process
  17. 17. CRL’s direct-chip SRC harvester
  18. 18. Trees and Grassland.
  19. 19. Another conclusion: Second generation biofuels  Second generation biofuels use new ( newer if FT) technologies that are not yet always fully proven.  Second generation biofuels tend to be based upon wood or similar wastes containing large amounts of ligno-cellulosic and hemi-cellulosic molecules.  Second generation biofuel feedstocks may conflict with market demands for heating biofuels but there is no food conflict.
  20. 20. An important digression!!  In terms of reducing energy, the use of biofuels is the lowest option after heat et cetera.  In terms of government investment, the reduction of energy caused by investment in good insulation is by far the ‘best buy’.  Cooling is becoming increasingly important for energy and for insulation demands.  Anaerobic digestion of wastes and avoidance of landfill is usually overlooked.
  21. 21. Back to reducing the fuel demand for vehicles
  22. 22. Current Uses:
  23. 23. Optimising Use of Bio-Resources.
  24. 24. Reduced speed = Reduced fuel consumption
  25. 25. Finished Product – eco one
  26. 26. Finished Product – eco one Rape Seed Oil mp & Crop origin PU Ethanol from Sugar Beat Potato Starch CNSL & Kenaf
  27. 27. Biofuels : where now??
  28. 28. Remember The Gallagher Review of the Indirect Effects of Biofuel Production
  29. 29. Food versus Fuel The key causal areas:  USA and maize production for bioethanol has changed land use in South America. This has INCREASED CO2 production on a net basis relative to use of fossil oils.  Use of tropical oils eg palm for biodiesel manufacture has increased forest degradation and clearance with adverse net CO2 effects.
  30. 30. THE FUTURE FOR BIOFUELS -In due course, second generation liquid biofuels will be widely introduced. -Much potential for bioheat/energy ( nb cooling too). -Biogas should not be overlooked but has been in the past in UK -Waste oils are not necessarily best as car fuels – think of marine engines and think of solvents too. NB vehicle warranty!!
  31. 31. In conclusion  Biofuels can offer options for reducing CO2 pollution.  Current emphasis is on first generation biofuels but second generation will be more important and fit in with feedstock wastes/supplies more easily.  Heat and power are better buys for national investment that biofuels alone.  National policies are not integrated adequately
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