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Biocombustíveis na Argentina
 

Biocombustíveis na Argentina

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    Biocombustíveis na Argentina Biocombustíveis na Argentina Presentation Transcript

    • “Biofuels in Argentina” Carlos Apesteguía Catalysis Science and Engineering Research Group (GICIC) INCAPE, Santa Fe - Argentina Next Generation Biofuels and bio-based Chemicals, Trieste, April 2009
    • ARGENTINA: southernmost country in the world
    • ARGENTINA: southernmost country in the world Soybean area Where are we? AREA: 2,760,000 km2 South America POPULATION: 40 millions 30 million hectares for growing food (11% of RELIGION: mostly catholic LANGUAGE: Spanish territory) GDP(PPP): hectares: forestcapita 90 million US$ 13,400 per SANTA FE: GDP(nominal): US $6,500 per capita 100 million hectares: pastures 133,007 km2 8 %/year ECONOMIChectares: unsuitable 55 million GROWTH: 3 million ILLITERACY: 3% 1.5 million hectares: protected people UNEMPLOYMENT: 8 % LIFE EXPECTANCY: 74 years Argentina produces food for 300 million people Argentina produces food for 300 million people (population is 40 millions) (population is 40 millions)
    • ENERGY MATRIX OF ARGENTINA Participationfuels 87 % fossil Natural Mineral in the use of 6-9 % renewable sources gas Carbon transportation Others 17% 1% 3% fuels Naphta Natural 17% Gas Oil Diesel 45% 41% 66% Wood 1% Vegetable Hydraulic residues 6% 1% Nuclear 2% Source: Secretary of Energy (Argentina)
    • What is ARGENTINA doing in biofuels? Production for domestic market: …will absorb: 600,000 tons biodiesel/year 8 % of soybean 160,000 tons bioethanol/year 3 % of corn national outputs
    • in ARGENTINA, biofuels from what? Biodiesel from vegetable oil Biodiesel from vegetable oil soybean algae algae rapeseed ? rapeseed ? jatropha ? jatropha ? Biogas from Bioethanol from residues sugar cane corn corn algae sugar beet ?
    • BIODIESEL IN ARGENTINA rapeseed rapeseed algae soybean
    • BIODIESEL FROM SOYBEAN Soybean composition: 20 % oil, 40 % proteins, 35 % Soybean composition: 20 % oil 40 % proteins, 35 % oil, carbohydrates and 5 % ashes carbohydrates and 5 % ashes Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of Argentina is the 3rd largest world producer of soybean soybean NO PRODUCTION: NO PRODUCTION: COMSUMPTION USA - 86 million tons COMSUMPTION Population: 300 millions USA - 86 million tons OF SOYBEAN Brazil - 59 million tons 186 millions OF SOYBEAN Brazil - 59 million tons PRODUCTS IN Argentina - 47 million tons 40 millions PRODUCTS IN Argentina - 47 million tons ARGENTINA China - 17 million tons ARGENTINA China - 17 million tons India - 8 million tons India - 8 million tons Paraguay - 6 million tons Paraguay - 6 million tons SOYBEAN IS SOYBEAN IS Argentina is the largest world exporter of soyoil THE FIRST THE FIRST CHOICE FOR Argentina – 5.7 million tons CHOICE FOR BIODIESEL Brazil – 2.3 million tons BIODIESEL USA – 0.6 million tons
    • Soybean growth in Argentina 1970 – 1971 1995 – 1996 2006 – 2007 59 thousand tons 47.5 million tons 12.4 million tons Source:– Dirección de Agricultura – SAGPyA
    • SOYBEAN Location and size of Location and size of vegetable oil milling vegetable oil milling facilities facilities Main location of Main location of biodiesel plants is biodiesel plants is on Paraná river on Paraná river (ships depart from (ships depart from here to EU or US) here to EU or US) More than 30 plants > 200 million tons/year 100-200 million tons/year 50-100 million tons/year < 50 million tons/year
    • Biodiesel production worldwide in 2008 Production (thousands tons) Europe 5.500 USA 1.500 Argentina 1.200 Brazil 900 Rest of the 900 world ----------- Total 10.000 Argentina accounts for more than 10 % percent of the biodiesel produced in the world
    • Argentina's external sales of biodiesel totaled to 1,104,783 tons in 2008 (319,093 tons in 2007) Sales of approximately 1,500 million dollars in 2008 Source: Argentine Camera of Renewable Energies
    • From June 2008, the soybean price dropped about 40 %
    • SOYBEAN RECENTLY INAUGURATED RECENTLY INAUGURATED BIODIESEL PLANTS BIODIESEL PLANTS RENOVA 240,000 tons/year ECOFUEL 200,000 tons/year (twin plant underway) Opportunity for small businesses: Farmers account for about 75 % of diesel consumption Micro-refineries Sell-local principle Low shipping costs DIFEROIL 35,000 tons/year
    • BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE Algae composition: 5-50 % lipids, 40-60% proteins, fibers, % lipids 40-60% proteins, fibers, Algae composition: 5-50 lipids, minerals, carbohydrates minerals, carbohydrates Biodiesel from algae Biodiesel from algae ADVANTAGES over soybean: ADVANTAGES over soybean: No soil depredation Algae capture 4 times more CO2 during photosynthesis Extremely rapid growth rates Higher yields: 250 1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters Times 1 hectare of algae = 100,000 oil liters higher algae oil costs 50 % less than soyoil
    • ALGAE New locations of algae biodiesel New locations of algae biodiesel algae Project of plants are on Paraná river plants are on Paraná river biodiesel plant: Biocombustibles del Chubut (private and state capitals) • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for • Purpose: B20 to use in buses for personnel transportation to nearby mines personnel transportation to nearby mines • Production: 5,000 tons/year • Production: 5,000 tons/year Main location of algae farms is the Main location of algae farms is the coast of Argentine Patagonia coast of Argentine Patagonia (Province of Chubut) (Province of Chubut)
    • OIL FOX S.A: ALGAE OIL FOX S.A: Start up: 200 hectares (2000 Start up: 200 hectares (2000 RECENT conservatories) RECENT conservatories) PROJECTS FOR Investment cost is 4 times as high as PROJECTS FOR Investment cost is 4 times as high as ALGAE a biodiesel plant but less expensive ALGAE a biodiesel plant but less expensive BIODIESEL than land + oil mill BIODIESEL than land + oil mill PLANTS PLANTS Fresh and seawater algae Fresh and seawater algae Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to Future: 240,000 tons biodiesel/year to be exported to the EU be exported to the EU 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue 2 kg of algae = 1 oil liter + residue sold as dietary supplement + biogas sold as dietary supplement + biogas
    • BIODIESEL FROM RAPESEED Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina Rapeseed is almost unknown in Argentina Last year production: 10,000 tons Last year production: 10,000 tons Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions) Spanish group bought 50,000 hectares (US$ 40 millions) ADVANTAGES over soybean: Higher yields Entre 1 hectare of soybean = 400 oil liters Ríos San Luis 1 hectare of rapeseed = 1,200 oil liters Buenos Aires rapeseed oil content = 40-45 % La Paula, Córdoba. Rapeseed farm
    • BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA Project portfolio INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECNOLOGIA AGROPECUARIA Vegetable resources with energy application The project is initially focused on Jatropha valorization: Agronomical management of Jatropha fields Molecular genetic improvement Jatropha curcas L. Ecofisiology of J. curcas L. Micro propagations development Oil quality and biodiesel analysis
    • JATROPHA Highly suitable Suitable
    • JATROPHA Jatropha local April 2008 Jatropha macrocarpa Salta 2008
    • BIOETHANOL IN ARGENTINA sugar cane sugar beet lignocellulose maize SUGAR FEEDSTOCKS STARCHY FEEDSTOCKS CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS
    • BIOETHANOL FROM SUGAR CANE Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter Argentina is the world's 8th largest sugar exporter Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign: Record sugar output in 2007´s campaign: production of 2.44 million tons production of 2.44 million tons (20 million tons of sugar cane) (20 million tons of sugar cane) Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel): Production of bioethanol for domestic market (fuel): Suitable 160,000 tons/year in 2010 160,000 tons/year in 2010 areas for sugar cane Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane Present production of bioethanol from sugar cane production: 180,000 tons in 2006 production: 180,000 tons in 2006 exports: 40 % exports: 40 %
    • SUGAR CANE TRADITIONAL PROCESS TRADITIONAL PROCESS From sugar cane molasses: As a by- From sugar cane molasses: As a by- product of sugar production product of sugar production 11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane 11 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS SINCE 2006, NEW PROCESS Directly from sugar cane juices: No Directly from sugar cane juices: No sugar production sugar production 85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane 85 liters of ethanol/ton sugar cane Ingenio La Florida, Los Ingenio La Florida, Los Balcanes S.A., Tucumán Balcanes S.A., Tucumán Production capacity: Production capacity: 80,000 tons/year 80,000 tons tons/year Electricity Electricity
    • 400 liters ethanol/ton Maize Maize ALTERNATIVES TO 41% bioethanol, 29% animal food, 30% CO2 MEET BIOFUEL Cost of feedstock: ACT IN 2010: US$ 445/ton ethanol Cost of 100,000 ton Sugar Cane versus plant: US$ 50 millions Sugar Cane 200 liters ethanol/ton Lignocellulose Lignocellulose Cost of 100,000 ton plant: US$ 300 millions Profitable in 10-15 years Enzymes: basic research 85 liters/ton (genetic engineering) Cost of feedstock: US$ 223/ton ethanol Efficient photosynthesis Sugar Beet Sugar Beet Experimental crops Easy to extract sugar with genetically Sevenfold advantage in manipulated seeds energy (energy yielded vs. energy to produce it) compared to corn
    • BIOGAS IN ARGENTINA Organic residues Manure Corn (“cow power”)
    • Corn biogas to replace natural gas? BIOGAS FROM Biogas Biogas CORN Corn Fermentation Corn Fermentation Fertilizer Fertilizer Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3// year of natural gas Argentina imports 7,000-9,000 million m3 year of natural gas Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year Argentina produces 19 million tons of corn/year Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%) Argentina consumes 4 million tons of corn/year (20%) Plan Maizar 2017: Plan Maizar 2017: Biogas project to replace imports Biogas project to replace imports 5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas 5 million tons of corn or sorghum/year to produce biogas Corn biogas yield Corn biogas yield 1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas 1 hectare of corn (whole plant) = 7,000-10,000 m3 biogas Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel Production of biogas from corn versus biodiesel energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel energetically 10 times more efficient than biodiesel
    • In Santa Fe: Professors of our Chem. Eng. School Professors of our Chem. Eng. School developed a biodigestor for biogas developed a biodigestor for biogas OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Organic residues Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month Self-supply: 30 kg of biogas/month Rural or isolated areas Rural or isolated areas Small communities (schools) Small communities (schools) Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby Residue: used as fertilizer in nearby farms farms BIOREACTOR
    • INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP IN SANTA FE ICS-UNIDO / INCAPE
    • Acknowledgements • Prof. Isabel Di Cosimo Thank you !