Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians: Iowa Motor Truck Association Training Wednesday, Decemeber 2, 2009 Sponsored by: Iowa Biodiesel Board, National Biodiesel Board through funding by the Iowa Power Fund
Objectives: Instructor Training
Provide Iowa Motor Truck Association detailed training with the Biodiesel for Diesel Technician training program
Provide access to industry experts for more detailed questions and answers
Opportunity to provide feedback and input into the training materials.
Today’s Experts: Steve Howell Technical Director, National Biodiesel Board Jordan Thaeler Technical Projects Manager, National Biodiesel Board Rachel Burton Diesel Technician Program, National Biodiesel Board Dave Stehouwer DMS Consulting, retired Cummins Fuel Systems Randy Olson Executive Director, Iowa Biodiesel Board
Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians
At the end of today’s session, you will:
Answer general questions about biodiesel that you may be asked as a technician
Understand why customers want biodiesel
Understand the importance of fuel quality and the BQ-9000 program
Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit the shop
Basics of Petrodiesel
How is diesel made?
Crude petroleum oil is heated up to separate the complex mixture of hydrocarbons into usable products like diesel, gasoline and engine oils
Each petroleum derived product contains hundreds or thousands of compounds and is distinguished by its boiling point and physical properties
Today’s diesel fuel undergoes a hydro-treating process to reduce sulfur down to 500 or 15 ppm
Biodiesel Performance, Engine Durability and Field Studies
Biodiesel—A proven fuel
Biodiesel is perhaps the most well studied and documented alternative fuel in the world
Recent US interests started in 1990
ASTM Biodiesel Task Force Started in 1993
$100,000,000 in research and development
We may know more about biodiesel than we do about ultra low sulfur diesel!
Diesel Fuels and Alternatives: Some important terminology
Petrodiesel: Traditional petroleum derived diesel fuel meeting ASTM D975
Biodiesel: Mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from oils/fats meeting ASTM D6751
Biodiesel Blends: A blend of petrodiesel and biodiesel designated BX, XX = percent of biodiesel
Renewable or Green Diesel: generic category for any other new fuel for diesel engines for which there are no approved ASTM specifications
Beware of Biodiesel Imposters!
ASTM D6751 Definition Eliminates:
Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats
Hydro-treated Oils and Fats
Proprietary Veg Oil / Ethanol blends
Auto, engine, and fuel injection equipment makers only support D6751 biodiesel
Other fuels will need to get ASTM specs
Quality, Quality, Quality
B100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends
BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers
B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blends
See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information
Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users
See NBB document “Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20” for more information: http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Use_of_Biodiesel_Blends_above_%2020.pdf
Why care about biodiesel quality?
Off specification biodiesel can cause engine operability problems
Quality is critical to continue to grow the industry
There is NO room for off-specification fuel
Customers need to receive consistent quality from lot to lot, batch to batch
Must be on-spec for tax credit and to be legal fuel
In specification B100
Out of spec: High raw oil
Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc.
Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc.
Biodiesel and Engine Manufacturers
After the first passage of ASTM D6751 in 2001, even though engine manufacturers voted positive at ASTM most were not yet willing to put their name behind B20
National Biodiesel Board set forth on intensive effort to work with OEM’s to address any issues and concerns
B20 Fleet Evaluation Team Formed
B20 Fleet Evaluation Team
Develop fact based informed position on B20
Most major diesel engine and fuel injection companies participated in this process
B20 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Detailed identification of everything that can go wrong when using B20
Rank: Severity, Occurrence, Detection modes
Develop RIN: Risk Identification Number
Develop plan to address high RIN areas
B20 Fleet Evaluation Members
Case New Holland
Delphi Diesel Systems
Department of Defense
Engine Manufacturers Association
Ford Motor Co
National Biodiesel Board
National Renewable Energy Lab
Parker - Racor
Siemens Diesel Systems
B20 FMEA Results
Most potential ‘problems’ are eliminated if the B100 meets D6751 prior to blending
More info is needed on after-treatment
More info is needed on stability/shelf life
More info is needed from field (materials compatibility, un-anticipated issues)
Provide user advise to help trouble-free use
Biodiesel is the pure, or 100 percent, biodiesel fuel. It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel.
A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B20 blend is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent by volume petrodiesel ).
Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petrodiesel. Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends only from companies that have been registered under the BQ-9000 fuel quality program.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
Ensure the B20 blend meets properties for ASTM D 975, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils or the ASTM specification for B20 once it is approved.
Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used within six months.
Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. See the NREL Biodiesel Storage and Handling Guidelines for further information.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning properties. The use of B20 can dissolve sediments in the fuel system and result in the need to change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the petrodiesel.
Be aware of B20’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. When operating in winter climates, use winter blended diesel fuel. If B20 is to be used in winter months, make sure the B20 cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and time of year the fuel will be used.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine operation and maintenance manual. If using B20 in seasonal operations where fuel is not used within 6 months, consider storage enhancing additives or flushing with diesel fuel prior to storage.
These recommendations on use of B20 are preliminary and are not provided to extend or supplant warranty limitation provided by an individual engine or equipment supplier. Use of B20 blends is solely at the discretion and risk of the customer and any harm effect caused by the use of B20 are not the responsibility of the engine or equipment maker.
Post injection (in-cylinder) for active regeneration
Variable geometry turbocharger
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with cooler
Cummins fuel injection system
Varying load and speed
Cycle repeated for 1000 hr
Federal Test Procedure (FTP)
One cold start transient FTP test
Three hot start transient FTP test
One SET Ramped Modal Cycle
>70% of durability cycle at full load High Idle Low Idle Peak Torque Peak Power
Durability & Emission Results
Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability test.
Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported significant changes in performance of the engine.
Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation.
Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD.
The emission-grade B20 test resulted in ≈6% higher NOx (within expected range)
Fuel consumption was observed to be ≈3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD test (within expected range).
Overhead Components Top of cylinder head No sludge deposits Bottom of cylinder head Deposits comparable to #2D Intake Valves Exhaust Valves Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuel
Power Transfer Components During teardown, the crankshaft was found to be in very good condition, and results were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Component Comments Cranckshaft Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Cranckshaft Meets rebuild spec Lower & Upper Bearings Normal wear Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Connecting Rod Bushing Meets rebuild spec
Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders. Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust Side Cylinder 1 Top Piston Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1 Minor staining Component Comments Piston Normal light wear and deposits. Cylinder Liners Normal light wear. Top rings Normal uniform face wear. Top and bottom side look typical. Middle rings Normal face wear. Top and bottom sides OK, and light carboning. Oil rings Looked good. Very little wear.
Cooling and Lube Components There were no failures found on the cooling and lube components. The wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent with findings found on parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. Bottom (Oil) Piston Rings Cylinder 1 Top Cylinder 6 Bottom Component Comments Oil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Oil pressure regulator/bypass No issues Piston cooling nozzles No problems due to B20. Oil Pan Normal Oil suction tube Gasket showed good imprint of seal Turbo coolant/oil lines Normal
Air Handling Components Carbon deposit layer was generated on the passage and inside parts of the EGR valve , but thickness was very thin and condition was dry which is normal for this durability test. Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coating of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diffuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumulation. EGR gaskets, hoses, tubes, shield, mounting plate, crossover No issues found due to running with B20.
Aftertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Looked good. No face plugging. Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC after 1000 hr of operation, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel fuel for this type of test. Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and outlet section Looked good. Gaskets Looked good.
Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle No marks on needle surface or the edge. Plunger Needle – Top View Some slight staining. Stage 2 Plunger Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test. Plunger Orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits
Fuel System Components Rail and fuel lines Rail – No abnormal wear. End Fitting – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deterioration or cracks observed. Mechanical Dump Valve (MDV) No unusual wear, deterioration or sludge buildup observed on plungers, plunger seats or orifice. 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. Soft Lines No visible damage to any section of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indicating that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pitting damage on any of the surfaces.
A Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy-based biodiesel and ULSD.
During the durability testing, no biodiesel related failures occurred.
Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with B20 fuel.
A thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed.
There were no failures found on the engine components that were directly attributable to running biodiesel B20.
The wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with findings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests.
Costs are very high ($1.5 to 2.0 Million for a new oil)
Additive treat levels go up
Lube ash content increases
DPF (Diesel Particulate Filters) required for 2007 standards
Trap exhaust soot to meet particulate standard
Traps get plugged by lube ash
CJ-4 is first API Category to limit composition
Now the oils must give higher performance with lower ash
DPF’s Limit Lube Ash Ash Volatility Phosphorus Sulfur CJ-4 2007 API CI-4 2002 1.5-1.3% Range CDPF No After-Treatment 1.0% Range
Engine Durability Tests for CJ-4 Oil Demand Increased Performance Caterpillar C-13 Oil Consumption Blow-By and Piston Deposits Cummins ISB Slider Valve Train Wear and After-Treatment Mack T-12 Power Cylinder Wear and Oxidation Cummins ISM Power Cylinder, Valve Train Wear, Filter Life and Sludge Control
What do these tests mean for Biodiesel
All of these new tests to define oil quality run on 15 ppm S fuel that is carefully controlled
There were real questions about the effect of B20 on lube performance
How did NBB help to answer these questions?
Engine Lube Tests with B-20
Objective: To determine if there are any effects on lubricant performance from the use of B-20 fuel
Plan: Run standard engine tests with B-20 using reference oils to compare lube performance with # 2 diesel
Fuel: B-20 blended from PC-10 fuel and B-100 such that the blend meets D 7467
Summary: Engine Test Parameters
Examination of the control parameters for these engine tests:
All wear data within acceptance limits
No evidence of unique, higher wear type of soot
All controlled piston / ring deposits within acceptance limits
Low temperature viscometrics not an issue
Non rated engine parts appeared clean and free of sludge
General trend toward higher TAN
Without corresponding loss of TBN
Only Pb Corrosion and T 12 oxidation are worse than acceptance limits
Engine / Fuel / Lubricant are inter-related
Current lubricants protect the engines operating on B20 for most applications
Oil companies & OEM’s recommend a premium lubricant with on oil analysis program to protect your engines with B-20
Watch trends in TAN & TBN as well as used oil lead values
ASTM Biodiesel Specs Now Approved
Started ASTM process in 1993
After 15 years, biodiesel blends were approved by ASTM in 2008
D6751: Pure biodiesel blend stock
D975: On/off road diesel with up to 5% Biodiesel
D7467: On/off road diesel with biodiesel between 6% and 20%
Spec Grade B5 and lower (D975)
Made with ASTM grade B100
Is now just considered traditional diesel fuel falling under D975
All the same practices and procedures that apply for diesel fuel apply for B5 and lower
Lubricity attributes of small levels of biodiesel may enhance engine life, reduce lubricity related repairs and problems.
Spec Grade B6 to B20 (D7467)
Made with ASTM grade B100
Drop in replacement for petrodiesel
Millions of miles of trouble free use
B20 holds similar levels of water as petrodiesel
Take cold weather precautions like diesel
Good detergent—may clean out systems upon first use (filter change in 2% cases)
Use within 6 months
Going over B20 requires caution
But it can be done with proper pre-cautions
NBB recommends average user stay at B20
Cold flow issues are greater
Materials compatibility (hoses, gaskets)
Cleaning effect is more immediate
Engine oil may become diluted with fuel
Questions and Answers
New Diesel Emissions Technology and Biodiesel; Troubleshooting
Diesel Emission Reductions
Introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel in October 2006
EPA emissions standard for 2007:
Diesel particle filters (DPF)
Increased levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and higher fuel injection pressures
Full EPA emissions standard in 2010:
DPF, EGR, high pressure fuel injection
Exhaust catalysts for NOx reduction
NOx adsorber catalysts, unburned diesel fuel for operation
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) needed for SCR operation
Diesel Particle Filters
Exhaust flows through porous wall-flow elements
PM is trapped on the walls of the filter
When exhaust temperature is high enough, PM is burned off
In most cases, unburned diesel fuel is injected to accomplish this
Precious metal is loaded onto filter walls to lower the temperature required for regeneration
Regeneration at low temperatures/duty cycles
Plugging with incombustible materials like lube oil ash
NO x Controls
NO x Adsorber Catalyst/Lean NO x trap
Catalyst converts all NO x to NO 2 , adsorbent bed “traps” NO 2
When bed is saturated, exhaust forced rich
NO 2 is released and converted to N2
Bed also traps SO 2 , but doesn’t release it
Near sulfur free exhaust is needed
Higher temps, longer time needed to release sulfur
90%+ conversion is possible
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Used for industrial NO x control for years
Requires a supplemental “reductant”
Typically ammonia, derived from urea
“ Diesel Exhaust Fluid”
80-90% reduction efficiency
Generally sulfur tolerant
NO x adsorber catalyst (NAC) is also known as a lean-NO x trap (LNT) SCR NOx + NH3 Sensor Urea Injection
Cummins ISB 300
2002 Engine, 2004 Certification
Cooled EGR, VGT
Johnson Matthey CCRT
12 Liter DPF
Passively Regenerated System
Pre Catalyst (NO 2 Production)
Fuels: ULSD, B100, B20, B5
ReFUEL Test Facility
400 HP Dynamometer
Transient & Steady State Testing
Significant financial support for testing
B20 results in substantial PM reduction even with DPF (data for 2003 Cummins ISB with Johnson Matthey CCRT on HD FTP) B20 Testing
Reduction with DPF ranges from 20% to 70%, depending on basefuel, test cycle, and other factors
Reduction in sulfate emissions
Increased PM reactivity
Williams, et al., “Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance” SAE 2006-01-3280
No statistical difference in NOx Conversion with B20
NBB, the US Department of Energy, and the engine and vehicle manufacturers are expending significant resources to understand how biodiesel blends interact with new diesel emission controls
Detailed testing thus far indicates B20 and lower blends are compatible with both diesel and NOx after treatment
Provides benefits in some cases
B5 is now just part of normal D975 diesel fuel
Additional study is underway
Quantify long term benefits of biodiesel blends
Late in-cylinder injection may cause fuel dilution
NBB is encouraging OEM’s to publicly support B20
OEM’s and Biodiesel Support
Fuel Quality and ASTM specs are KEY
B5 across the board, especially now its in D975
Experience/familiarity of each OEM yields differing opinions for blends over B5
B20 vs. B100 is primarily gasket/hose issue
Customer base makes a big difference
When customers say they won’t buy new engines unless B20 is fully warranted, all of a sudden its OK!
NBB is actively working with most major OEM’s to achieve B20 support by all OEM’s
Fuel quality enforcement programs
ASTM Blend Standards passed last year
OEM Biodiesel Blends
Approve B5 :
Detroit Diesel, Isuzu, Kubota, Mack, Mercedes, Volkswagen, Volvo
Approve B20 or higher on at least some models:
A rctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equip., Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler (Dodge Ram & Sprinter - Fleets), Ford, General Motors (SEO for fleets), Hayes Diversified Technologies, John Deere, Navistar, Perkins, Toro
Case IH, Fairbanks Morse, New Holland, Tomcar
B20 vs. Diesel: In the shop
With in spec B20 and lower, the issues you can expect to see in your shop are the same as you will see with petrodiesel
Expect to see less lubricity related issues
Expect to see less problems with after-treatment
Filter related issues likely normal diesel issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel
Less black smoke from exhaust!
Sources for Filter Clogging: Petrodiesel and Biodiesel
Exposure to Air
Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture.
Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emptied.
It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank.
Will increase the oxidation of fuel.
Do not store fuels for long periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers.
Consider desiccant dryers.
Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.
Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.
Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.
This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.
The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
ULSD reaches water saturation at approximately 200-300 ppm. More settles to the bottom.
NREL B20 survey data: same water saturation level as petrodiesel. More settle to the bottom
B100 can hold more water, up to 1200 ppm
Still very small—0.12%, on the same order as gasoline can hold water. Un-dissolved water settles to the bottom like it does in petrodiesel tanks.
While higher than petrodiesel, biodiesel is not water loving (i.e. hygroscopic) like ethanol is. Most people do not understand this fact.
High Water Concentration
Icing of the filter
When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging in cold temps. A filter which has been plugged but is clean and new at room temperature indicates that icing is the likely cause.
Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures.
Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.
Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.
Not related to biodiesel use
High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.
When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.
When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid.
Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.
Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up.
Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black “asphaltene” petrodiesel type material collecting on the filter.
This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.
Petrodiesel does not have an oxidation specification, while B100 and B6 to B20 specs already do.
Biodiesel can also oxidize, but oxidized biodiesel manifests itself in acid numbers which are out of spec
The acid number for biodiesel will go out of spec before filter clogging occurs
The next filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material—an out of spec or ‘imposter’ biodiesel.
Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if not within spec
Monoglycerides do not turn back into a liquid at room temperature
Can be distinguished from diesel by its brownish, butterscotch pudding type of appearance
Un-reacted Biodiesel: Saturated Mono-glyceride
Microbial Growth – Exposure to air and water
Icing of Filter – Excess water in tank
Oxidation – Hot fuel return to fuel tank
Monoglyceride Build Up – Off specification
Paraffin Wax – Temperature at or below cloud point
Steps to Maintaining Fuel
Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment
Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space
Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks
Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.
Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
News Releases & Information Resources
Educational Videos Available
Technical Library & Resources
On-line Database & Spec Sheets
OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel
U.S. Diesel Vehicle List
Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies
Biodiesel merchandise, literature, signage, pump labels and more!
The Iowa Biodiesel Board and the National Biodiesel Board authorize the reproduction or use of this material for educational purposes National Biodiesel Board 605 Clark Ave • PO Box 104898 Jefferson City, MO 65110-4898 (800) 841-5849 Iowa Biodiesel Board 4554 114 th Street Urbandale, IA 50322-5410 (515) 727-0664