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  • Welcome to the Biodiesel for Diesel Technician Training Session designed specifically for community colleges in Iowa. The training you will receive today is sponsored by the Iowa Biodiesel Board and the National Biodiesel Board through funding by the Iowa Power Fund.
  • At the end of today’s session of Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians, you will be able to answer general questions about biodiesel that you may be asked as a diesel technician, you will understand why customers might want biodiesel vs. conventional diesel fuel or other alternative fuels, you will understand the importance of fuel quality and the BQ9000 quality program, and you’ll also be able to better discern between issues of normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out of spec biodiesel when they hit your shop. There’s been a tremendous amount of research and technical information on biodiesel over the last 15 years, and this 3-hour session will help you to understand at least a portion of all that research that has gone into making this fuel what it is today.
  • Before we can talk about biodiesel, it’s important to understand the basics of what petroleum-based diesel is, where it comes from and why it provides the properties necessary to run well in a diesel engine. A basic understanding of petroleum-based diesel fuel will help in understanding the basics of biodiesel and how it can represent an excellent substitute or blending stock for petroleum-based diesel fuel.
  • Diesel fuel is made from crude petroleum oils. As you know, crude petroleum oils are a commodity traded around the world, much of it coming from the middle east. Crude oil is heated to separate the complex mixture of hydrocarbons that make up crude oil into usable products, such as diesel, gasoline and engine oils. Each petroleum product derived contains thousands of compounds, and is really separated or distinguished by its boiling point, and its physical characteristics or properties. Today’s diesel fuel undergoes another process, called hydrotreating, which reduces the sulfur from around 500 ppm down to 15 ppm or less, and in the future almost all diesel fuel will likely be 15 ppm, whether its off-road or on-road fuel.
  • This picture depicts a schematic of the crude oil refining process. It’s a simplified version, and it identifies the various products that come out of the crude oil. You can see that the products on the right side of the slide, are essentially separated out by the number of carbons that they have in their molecular structure—anywhere from four down to above 80 carbons in molecular structure of products that come from crude oil. The fewer the carbons, the lighter the material, and the lower the temperature at which it will boil off of a distillation column. The lighter fractions, in the natural gas range, usually have 4 carbons or fewer. These would be methane, ethane, propane, or butane. There are slightly heavier fractions in the gasoline range, with around 8 carbons. Heavier yet, in the kerosene range with around 12 carbons. Kerosene or No. 1 Diesel fuel have 12 carbons or thereabouts. Then you get into the gas oil, or diesel fuels, with around 16-20 carbons, then approximately double that in the lubricating oil with 36 carbons, and then you get into residual fuels and residual bunker fuels and asphalt, which is even heavier than that, and eventually solid carbon, or coke. So that is essentially a simplified version of how gasoline and diesel fuel are made. It comes in as a mixture of compounds in crude oil and that mixture is separated by heating it up according to its boiling temperature.
  • You can see the typical refinery products and the boiling range they have on this slide. Anywhere from LPG (or propane), gasoline, kerosene, No 2 Diesel, you see the temperature at which those products boil off, and each one of these, especially in the heavier fuels (the lube oils, residuals, diesel fuels, gasoline) contain literally hundreds of compounds which boil off at different ranges, and that range you see on this chart.
  • This slide gives the molecular structure of the some fuels, in addition the number of carbons. The comparison of the parent fuel structure to the alternative fuels is very important, as you’ll see later on in the presentation. You will see that methane has one carbon, surrounded by hydrogens; propane has three carbons. You see methanol as the alcohol over to the right with one carbon, and ethanol, as an alcohol with two carbons. Below those are Iso Octane, which has 8 carbons in a branched structure, which will become important. This makes an ideal gasoline and Iso Octane has an octane number of 100. Then you see an standard diesel fuel, cetane, which is a long straight chain molecule with no branching and 20 carbons. Cetane has a cetane number of 100. You can see that gasoline is a much shorter, and more branched compound, whereas diesel fuel is much longer and more straight chain hydrocarbon. You can also see some examples of aromatics. These compounds are known carcinogens in diesel fuel but are not present in biodiesel. The aromatics all share a similar 6 carbon ring, known as benzene.
  • When you summarize the composition of the petroleum-based diesel fuel, about 20-35% of the finished fuel are these aromatic compounds, those cyclic compounds like benzene, xylene, toluene. About 60-80% are the straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons, generally with 8 to 24 hyrdocarbons, and then there are some cyclic compounds, or polycyclic aromatic compounds and sulfur compounds. Those are generally smaller in nature, but they are there nonetheless. Petroleum-based diesel fuel does not contain any oxygen, which is a big difference between petroleum diesel fuel and biodiesel, which you’ll see later.
  • The physical properties of constituents of petroleum-based diesel fuel allow it to deliver important properties which are necessary to run well in a diesel engine. Auto-ignition, or the ability of the fuel to auto-ignite when compressed (since diesel engines work on compression and don’t have a spark plug or spark igniting operation) is important and is provided by the cetane number. The natural composition of diesel fuel allows it to have a fairly high cetane number and a good property for auto-ignition. The BTU content of the fuel is determined by the length of the carbon chain. In general, the longer the carbon chain, the higher the BTU content. The BTU content delivers its fuel economy and its power. This is why diesel fuel has quite a bit more BTU content and power than gasoline, since it has more carbon. The next important property is viscosity, or the thickness of the fuel. If the fuel is too thick, or too thin, it won’t work well, so the viscosity is important, and the natural properties of conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel put it in a viscosity range which works well for conventional engines. The Cloud Point, or the temperature at which the fuel gels, is an important property, and this is a challenge for both diesel fuel and biodiesel. It is a natural outcome of the composition of the fuel. Lubricity is an important property which relates to component wear, and the sulfur in conventional diesel fuel used to bring lubricity to the fuel. Now, that’s a bit more challenged as the sulfur is going lower. The next important property is sulfur. It brings lubricity, and also antimicrobial properties. I think we are all familiar with sulfur’s medicinal properties for reducing infections (i.e. bacteria or micro-organisms). It has a similar aspect as a component of diesel fuel. The last few—cleanliness which relates to dirt, water, and metals in the fuel, stability relates to shelf life and filter blocking issues, and the composition of the fuel is related to its emissions. So diesel fuel brings these important properties to the table by its very nature and by the specifications which the diesel fuel must meet.
  • ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials International, is the standard-setting body for the United States. It goes through a consensus voting process, where on one side there are users, consumers, general interest, and a balance of that with the producers of the fuel, so you can’t get one body outvoting the other body. The best engineers and chemists from the engine companies, the fuel system integrators, users, petroleum companies, biodiesel companies, consultants and regulators go to the ASTM and vote on these ASTM properties. One negative vote can fail a ballot, and that negative vote can only be overridden by a supermajority to pass a ballot. The ASTM process is very time-consuming, and very thorough, and that’s why the ASTM specifications are viewed as some of the best in the world.
  • The ASTM specification for diesel fuel is ASTM D975. ASTM D975 specifications serve to ensure the important parameters we talked about earlier, along with some other important properties which are too in-depth for a short training session of this nature. These important properties are either predetermined by the nature of the compounds that make up the fuel, or they are identified in the specification itself. There is a significant amount of variability in the diesel fuel which meets D975. You can have a variety of cetane numbers, you can have a variety of lubricity, you can have a variety of BTU content, you can have a variety of cold-flow properties; and even though there is a significant amount of variability, this has its usefulness because this maximizes the availability of fuel that will be able to perform in your engine at the lowest cost to the user.
  • This is an actual copy of the ASTM D975 specification. We won’t go through it in detail. You can see the different grades between No. 1 and No. 2 fuels. No. 1 fuel in general has a slightly lower flash point, it has a slightly lower distillation range, a slightly lower viscosity with other properties being very similar to No. 2 fuels. As you can see, the low sulfur grade has 15 ppm, the high sulfur grade has 500 ppm. Also it is worth noting that 5% biodiesel (B5) is included in D975 for diesel fuel. You could be using biodiesel already when you fill up at the pump!
  • So that gives you a backdrop of diesel fuel—how it’s made, what its specifications are, and what its important properties are. When you look at commercial alternative fuels, there are a variety of commercial alternative fuels out there. Some need a totally new engine design, such as propane, natural gas, or methanol. They have different properties, and therefore need a different design than a gasoline or diesel engine in order to work well, because of those different physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Some of the alternative fuels can be used in existing engines with some redesign or minor modifications. Some good examples of that would be 85% ethanol (E85), which needs a slight engine redesign; or B100 which may need different hoses or gaskets. For these fuels different engine components may need to be used, but essentially the same engine block and compression ratio can be utilized. There are some commercial alternative fuels can be blended with traditional fuel and used in existing engines with little or no modification required. These are being classified as “drop in” fuels. Some good examples of these are 10% ethanol (E10), 20% and lower biodiesel (B20 and lower).
  • In order for these commercial alternative fuels to be a good fit for existing engine technology, it must be similar for the important parameters of the fuel that the engine was designed for. Hopefully, the new fuels will bring some improvement in the parameters compared to the conventional fuels, and in general that new commercial fuel needs to bring some other beneficial attributes to the table that people believe is important—whether that is a social benefit in terms of emissions or greenhouse gases, a physical or chemical benefit to the fuel, such as a higher cetane value, higher lubricity or lower sulfur level, or better biodegradability, or an economic benefit by being cheaper than the conventional fuel, or a low cost option for meeting a regulation or a piece of legislation, or because it creates a manufacturing jobs here in the US. For the alternative fuels to fit into existing technologies, it must bring some or all of the those things to the table.
  • So what is biodiesel? It is not your hillbilly in Kentucky with a still (that’s ethanol, not biodiesel). It’s not pouring Mazola into your engine (that’s raw vegetable oil which has a much higher viscosity and will cause a variety of engine problems). It IS “Bio-Willie”. I’m sure you’ve heard of Willie Nelson and Neil Young (pictured), and what they do is biodiesel, as long as its not from marijuana oil….at least until marijuana is legalized!
  • One thing that should be emphasized throughout this training, is the difference between ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is NOT biodiesel. Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol. It is only intended for spark-ignited or gasoline applications since ethanol has good octane, but poor cetane and zero lubricity. A term that some people are using in the industry regarding ethanol is “drink the best and burn the rest”!. Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines due to its poor lubricity and lack of blending with diesel fuel. So—ethanol is NOT biodiesel. When you are thinking about biodiesel, put ethanol out of your mind. This is one of the points we would like to bring across with this training.
  • So how do you make biodiesel? Here is a quick depiction of the biodiesel process. In order to make biodiesel, you must first start off with a vegetable oil or an animal fat. You combine that with methanol in the presence of a catalyst. A chemical reaction occurs and the vegetable oil or animal fat is transformed into biodiesel and glycerin. Glycerin is a useful byproduct from the biodiesel process and is sold into the food and cosmetic markets. Basically, you take 100 pounds of oil or fat with 10 pounds of methanol. You react that and you get 100 pounds of biodiesel and 10 pounds of glycerin back out.
  • Some of the raw materials you can use are listed on this slide. Basically any oil or fat can be used. Soybean oil is the most common oil in the US, so most of the biodiesel produced here is made from soybean oil. But you can use corn oil, canola, cottonseed of sunflower oil. You can use the animal fats—beef fat, pork lard or chicken fat. Or you can use used frying oils—the french fry oils from McDonald’s and Hardee’s. The alcohol is methanol. Its possible to use other alcohols as the reactant like ethanol, but they are all more expensive so virtually all producers use methanol. The catalyst is usually sodium hydroxide.
  • Here is a simple depiction of what happens on a molecular structure with biodiesel. This becomes important when you compare it to how diesel fuel is made and what the biodiesel molecule looks like compared to a diesel molecule. We take the tryglyceride, or the oil or fat, which has a glycerin connected to three of the fatty acid chains. You react that with three parts of methanol. The methanol comes in and attaches itself to each one of those straight-chain fatty acids, and takes the place of glycerin. So you end up with three biodiesel molecules (the methanol actually becomes chemically attached to the fatty acid chain), and one molecule of glycerin. That is essentially the biodiesel reaction in a nutshell. When you start to hear about biodiesel “going bad” is it because there is a premature separation of the fatty acids from the triglyceride molecule (usually from heat or harsh conditions). So you are left with these free fatty acids and a glyceride molecule with only one or two fatty acids attached.
  • If you look at the chemical structure of a standard cetane, or diesel, it is 20 carbons long in a long straight chain, but it has no oxygen. you see the cetane molecule depicted there. The biodiesel molecule looks very similar to the cetane molecule—it has 16 or 18 carbons in a long chain, but has some oxygen at the end, which makes it an ester, or methyl ester is the chemical compound name. So you can see the structure of the biodiesel molecule is very similar to the structure of a diesel molecule, cetane, and that is why biodiesel makes such a good diesel fuel, because chemically in many ways it is very similar to conventional diesel fuel.
  • One of the interesting things about biodiesel, is that when Mother Nature produces oils and fats, whether it’s corn oil, soybean oil or a beef tallow or an animal fat, it is produced with a very narrow range of composition. Primarily it is 16 carbons or 18 carbons long, and very few with less than 14, and very few with more than 20 carbons. There is much less variation in biodiesel than there is in petroleum-based diesel for most of the properties important to diesel engines. The BTU, the viscosity, the lubricity, the sulfur, the emissions have very little variability with biodiesel, whereas you can see some pretty substantial variation with conventional diesel fuel. Due to the nature of biodiesel, being derived from natural fats and oils, and the way that biodiesel is processed (which is a simple chemical reaction), versus petroleum diesel fuel which is heated and separated by their boiling range and comprised of 100’s or 1000’s of different compounds, biodiesel produces much less variation for most of the properties. Some of the biodiesel properties can vary as much the petroleum products do, primarily based on whether you have a saturated or unsaturated fat. This can make a difference in the cetane number and the cloud point. Normally, the more saturated the fat, the higher the cetane number. Saturated fats from beef tallow can produce some extremely high cetane numbers. Also the cloud point takes on properties similar to the oil, so the saturated oils also have a higher cloud point, even to the point of being solid at room temperature for some of the very highly saturated compounds.
  • Due to the physical nature of biodiesel and how it is processed, biodiesel delivers important diesel fuel properties. Auto-ignition: Since biodiesel looks very much like the cetane molecule biodiesel has a very high cetane number. Average diesel fuel is about 42-44 cetane number, so most diesel does not have near as good cetane as that 20-chain cetane molecule. The average cetane number from biodiesel produced from oils and fats is over 50. So there is a substantial increase, and it makes for a cleaner burning fuel compared to conventional fuel. The BTU content—since you’ve got the long straight chain and a high energy content fuel, it’s similar to No. 1 fuels, a little bit less than No. 2. It’s about 5-8% BTU’s less per gallon than most No. 2 fuel out there, but similar to No. 1, so the impact of blending biodiesel with diesel would be similar to blending kerosene in with No. 2 fuels. The viscosity—the values for biodiesel are in a similar range to diesel fuel, which is an extremely important point. The main reason why you need to take the oil or fat and turn it into a biodiesel is because the oil or fat has a viscosity, or thickness, about 10 times that of diesel fuel. When you make it into the biodiesel, you take that large triglyceride molecule and separate it into its three components through the biodiesel process. You make a fuel that has a similar viscosity range to conventional diesel fuel. The Cloud Point—current biodiesel is higher than most No. 2 fuels, even from the unsaturated oils and fats (we’ll talk more about that later). That’s a current disadvantage for biodiesel compared to No. 2, at least in cold weather. In warm weather of course, no big deal. Lubricity—significant advantage for biodiesel. It’s naturally high in lubricity. The long chain fatty acid nature and that ester group, or oxygen at the end, brings lubricity to the fuel that is not possible with conventional diesel or hydrocarbon only fuels. So just 2% biodiesel can bring back the lubricity of existing diesel fuel. Sulfur content—since oils and fats have no sulfur to begin with, the biodiesel produced from them has no sulfur, so it’s naturally less than 15 ppm. Biodiesel already is an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel without any further processing or going through the harsh hydrotreating that diesel fuel has to go through. From a cleanliness standpoint, the specs for the ASTM biodiesel are the same as for petroleum diesel fuel, so it provides similar cleanliness, better in some cases. Stability—there are specifications for stability set to provide a six-month minimum shelf life for biodiesel. Emissions—due to its nature as a long straight chain cetane molecule, no aromatic compounds, no polycyclic aromatics and has oxygen which helps it to burn cleaner, so you see significantly less emissions for particulate matter, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide than conventional diesel fuel by itself.
  • In addition to biodiesel providing some very important diesel-type properties, there has been a significant amount of effort over the last 15 years to identify the important specifications which will help to maintain biodiesel as an excellent fuel for diesel engines. We’ve learned over the years the important specs beyond just those physical properties to make sure biodiesel will work well in a diesel engine. First and foremost, is a complete reaction. The vegetable oil must go completely to the biodiesel and glycerine, and then you need to remove the glycerine. That is ensured through the total and free glycerine specifications in the spec. If you don’t do that well, it will cause injector coking, filter plugging, and sediment formation and will shorten the shelf life of the fuel. So it is very important to go to complete reaction, and to remove the glycerine. Of course glycerine is a sugar, and we all know what sugar does in your engine. The alcohol needs to be removed. This is ensured either through a high flashpoint or direct measurement of the methanol in the specification. Excess alcohol is used to make the reaction go to completion, so any alcohol that isn’t chemically attached to the biodiesel molecule must be removed. If this isn’t done, premature injection failure may occur since alcohols have no lubricity. It is also a safety concern, since alcohol has a very low flashpoint. There must be an absence of free fatty acids. This is ensured through the acid value specification, which is one of the specs that is different than conventional diesel. The free fatty acids are the natural degradation products of oils and fats. If they are present in the fuel, it can cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation. Finally, the catalyst must be removed. This is ensured through the sulfated ash test in the spec. If this is not done, it can cause injector deposits or filter plugging. All of these important properties have been learned over the past 15 years, some through the school of hard knocks, and with that ASTM has passed the specification for the pure biodiesel prior to blending, ASTM D6751.
  • You can see the values here, and you can compare this back to the diesel spec. Most of the properties are very similar to diesel fuel, and we’ve added some that are biodiesel specific to make sure that the biodiesel reaction has gone to completion, to make sure that it has been processed properly. Just to give you a feel for how intense this process is—this process began in 1993, and went through over a dozen ballots, and the first approved specification was released by ASTM in 2001. The specs have also gone through several improvements and updates since that time. So you can see that it is a very intense process, and a significant amount of the effort spent over the last 15 years has been to hone in on these specifications and make sure that they provide a successful experience for the diesel user. This is a very, very important point as other new fuels coming down the pike have not been through this agonizing process—they haven’t run the gauntlet that biodiesel has!
  • The specifications don’t mean a lot unless people are meeting those specifications, so the industry developed an excellent fuel quality program called BQ-9000. It’s modeled after the ISO 9000 Fuel Quality efforts, and it is a voluntary system, a quality system for North American companies. It incorporates the ASTM specifications, and uses a series of audits to insure that the company has a good quality management system put into place, and that the companies producing biodiesel meet the ASTM specs.
  • The objectives of the BQ-9000 program are to promote the success and public acceptance of biodiesel and insure that biodiesel is produced and maintained to the ASTM spec D6751.
  • There are three possible certifications under the BQ-9000. There is a BQ-9000 producer, a BQ-9000 marketer, and a BQ-9000 accredited laboratory for the lab analysis portion. D6751 is absolutely critical. It’s important to meet the specification, and if you buy from a BQ-9000 company, you can be assured that the fuel coming out of a BQ-9000 company will meet the ASTM spec. This is a really significant development in the biodiesel market, and has really helped to emphasize fuel quality and provide the users and the engine companies the confidence to support the fuel.
  • With all that in place and as general background—where is the industry at today? The US biodiesel industry has increased substantially, from almost zero volume in the 1999 to 2000 time period, to over 700 million gallons of pure biodiesel produced in the US. Most of this fuel was blended with diesel fuel and used in blends of B20 and lower. Diesel fuel pool was around 60 billion gallons in 2007.
  • Here are the current production locations. In the US, there are over 170 production plants actually producing the fuel now. The BQ-9000 producers are the light blue dots, and you can see that those production locations are spread throughout the entire country, so biodiesel is not just a phenomenon in Illinois and Iowa, but is a phenomenon all over the country. That is because it can be produced from a variety of oils and fats, from used cooking oils, to cottonseed oil in Texas, to soybean oil in Iowa and Illinois, to various oils in Florida and California, in Washington state, and the upper Northeast. You can see the spread of biodiesel plants throughout the country. This is also part of the reason that biodiesel is catching on—because it is something that just about every state in the nation can play a part in not only using the fuel but in producing the fuel.
  • Here are the size of those plants, the number of plants in each size category. The average plant size is about 15.5 million gallons per year, and the total production capacity is almost 2.7 billion gallons per year. The industry is not running at that capacity right now, but if the industry were running full out, it could produce over 2.6 billion gallons of fuel per year.
  • There are another 29 plants that are under construction around the country, and several others that are expanding.
  • Here’s a chart of the plants that are under construction and expanding. There are 40 plants total in that category. The average plant size is getting larger—21 million gallon vs a little over 15 from the existing plants. That capacity under construction would add about another 850 million gallons per year.
  • We’ve now established that biodiesel can bring similar physical and chemical properties to the table, we’ve established that there is an industry, but in order to help you answer questions that may be asked of you as a diesel technician, now we’re going to go into a little bit more about why biodiesel is being seen as such a positive alternative fuel in the marketplace.
  • Biodiesel is currently being used in a variety of markets. One of the reasons why so many people are using biodiesel is because it can be used in some many applications. Essentially, anywhere diesel is used, a biodiesel blend can also be used, from on highway users, to regulated fleets, the federal and state government, utility companies, military, home heating applications where heating oil is used, marine applications. It can be used in the agricultural applications and offroad uses. Dump trucks, road graders, underground mines, and tractors. Each individual market uses it potentially for a different reason or attribute of the fuel which we will go into in a bit more detail now. For home heating applications diesel fuel has a different specification – D396. This specification also allows up to 5% biodiesel.
  • Here are some of the improvements in diesel properties. We mentioned earlier that for an alternative fuel to become commercial it would be nice if it had some beneficial properties compared to the parent fuel. That is certainly the case with biodiesel. Biodiesel has a high cetane number, over 50, compared to the average petroleum diesel fuel of around 44, and that allows for a smoother and more complete burn. So that can be a significant benefit, and a benefit which in some cases can be worth money. The high flash point for biodiesel makes it much safer than either conventional diesel fuel, and even more so compared to other alternative fuels such as natural gas or propane. The flash point is over 200 degrees farenheit, which puts it in the non-hazardous shipping category. Biodiesel has virtually zero sulfur, so it already meets the 15 ppm sulfur limits, and adding biodiesel to conventional fuel will lower its sulfur, so some companies are looking at blending biodiesel in with diesel fuel that has 17 or 18 ppm to bring it back into specification, which could be potentially big money to a large refiner. Biodiesel has zero aromatics (the benzenes, the toluenes, the xylene) that are thought to cause cancer, so the emissions from biodiesel are significantly less toxic and cancer-causing than conventional diesel fuel. Biodiesel has 11% oxygen, which provides superior lubricity and reduces black smoke (particulates). Another beneficial property is that it will blend with petroleum-based diesel fuel in any percentage, and once blended will not separate or go back out of solution, which is a significant advantage because it makes biodiesel easy to use and there is no concern about it separating back out, even in the presence of water.
  • This slide shows an in-cylinder, single cylinder engine where an injection event is shown, and you can tell when the burn starts to occur, that in the B100, which is the highest cetane starts to burn a little faster, the 40% biodiesel a little slower, then the pure ultra low sulfur diesel fuel a little bit slower yet. This illustrates the impact of cetane number and what its benefits are. It starts combustion earlier. The cetane value, along with the oxygen in the biodiesel, provides emissions reductions.
  • Here is a chart of the emissions profiles for biodiesel in a B2 or B20 blend as well as pure biodiesel (B100). You can see a substantial reduction in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Oxides of Nitrogen (Nox) is either up or down a little bit, depending on which engine you use, and which testing protocol for B20. When you get to B100, we see a slight Nox increase across the board, but at the B20 level, it is more dependent upon engine technology and how the engine is running.
  • You can see that you get higher percent reductions at the lower blends. With B20, for instance, you get a 20% reduction in hydrocarbons, but with B100, you only get 67%. If it were a straight linear characteristic, you would expect 100% reduction in unburned hydrocarbons, which is not the case. With carbon monoxide, it is 12% at B20 and 48% with B100, which you would expect to be 60% if it were a 1:1 comparison. You get bigger bang for the emissions buck by using a biodiesel blend as opposed to the pure fuel. Although, if you were standing right behind the engine, B100 will be the biggest reduction from that standpoint. The results from this study are from 1998.
  • Here is a chart that shows all the exhaust emissions that come out the back of a diesel engine. It was part of the $2.2 million EPA Health Effects testing that biodiesel has gone through—the only alternative fuel to have completed EPA’s Tier 1 and Tier 2 health effects testing. You can see that diesel fuel has a variety of compounds, which are all hydrocarbons that are 12-24 carbons long, that come out the back of a diesel engine. You can see a variety of heavy hydrocarbons, which is why diesel exhaust stings your eyes, why it is hard to breathe, and some of these compounds are thought to cause cancer, which is why you see diesel exhaust being problematic. You can see the B20 blend, which is a significant reduction in all those compounds. And at the B100 level, you can see a virtual elimination of all those heavy hydrocarbons. The red bars you see there are just unburned biodiesel, which we know to be biodegradeable and non-toxic. So you can see why biodiesel is gaining interest, especially in areas like school buses, where toxic emissions are at a premium. This is an excellent way to take a diesel engine and reduce the impact of its pollution coming out the back of the engine, without making any expensive engine modifications.
  • Here you see the chart on lubricity. The diesel equipment companies recommend that the lubricity using this HFRR (high frequency recriprocating rig) test should be below 450. So the wear scar when this test is run should be a low wear scar, which is a good thing. The actual ASTM spec for that, which was recently set, is actually at 520. This chart shows that, as you add more biodiesel, you significantly increase the lubricity from a value of 575 to below 400 with a little less than 1% biodiesel. An interesting phenomenon is that if you add more biodiesel, you don’t get any additional lubricity benefits. So biodiesel has the property whereby just adding small amounts of biodiesel can provide the lubricity you need. In this case, 2% biodiesel had 66% more lubricity than the No. 2 fuel. This No. 2 fuel would be out of spec with today’s diesel fuel spec. So even in low concentrations, biodiesel can bring back the lubricity of fuel. One of the great attributes of biodiesel is it’s a fuel, so if you add more biodiesel, you’re not concerned about overdosing issues, whereas if you use a lubricity additive there is the possibility of overdosing and causing injector coking to happen. You could potentially create a problem by solving a different one. But with biodiesel, that is not an issue. You won’t get any more lubricity benefit, but you won’t have any overdosing issues either. So biodiesel has some significant physical and chemical property benefits compared to conventional diesel fuel, so that is one reason why people are interested in biodiesel.
  • We are all too familiar with this sight, and it seems that all of us are experiencing this, so more domestically produced fuel may help to alleviate this particular situation as well.
  • There are a whole variety of other reasons why people are interested in biodiesel, one of which is energy security. Biodiesel is domestically produced, so it increases domestic fuel production capacity. You are actually adding more fuels to the market place. We need more fuels, where are those new fuels going to come from—we’re not building new petroleum refineries in the US, but we certainly are building more biodiesel plants. Even some folks who are putting renewable feedstock through the existing refineries, which is perhaps not a bad thing, but this is not increasing the amount of fuel being produced, in fact, are probably decreasing it. So biodiesel increases our fuel capacity in the US, which is a good thing. It helps to reduce our imports, and reduce our dependence on foreign oil sources, and I think we all understand how important that is in today’s world. The US industry goal, as a whole, is to be able to produce 5% of the onroad fuel by 2015, which would be about 1.85 billion gallons per year. It would be met in various blend levels. That is about double today’s production, so the industry hopes to be able to get to about 5% across the board displacement in the not too distant future. 5% may not seem like much, but it is equivalent to about ¼ of all the diesel fuel that we refine from the Persian Gulf crude oil, or about all of the amount that we import from Iraq. So it really is a substantial amount, and when we are talking billions of gallons, we’re talking a lot of fuel.
  • We are all familiar with the fact that we are importing more oil. This is a chart from the Department of Energy identifying where the gap is in production, and you can see that the gap with heavy trucks just keeps getting larger, and our domestic oil production is not getting any larger. So we need to provide alternative ways to produce fuel, and biodiesel is certainly one of those alternatives to conventional diesel fuel.
  • We can all relate to the bail-outs that have happened on Wall Street recently.
  • In addition to providing energy security, biodiesel creates jobs. It creates domestic manufacturing jobs, which are on the decline overall. It is estimated that in 2007 there were over 21,000 jobs created by the biodiesel industry, adding $4.1 billion to the gross domestic product, and $26 billion overall to the US economy, which created over 38,000 new jobs in all sectors of the economy. This is another reason why people—mainly politicians—are interested. It not only provides domestic energy security, but it also provides good manufacturing jobs at the same time. This is why biodiesel ended up in the renewable fuel standard, a piece of legislation that requires one billion gallons of biodiesel by 2012. That is equivalent to B5 in about 2/3 of all the onroad diesel fuel. When you look at that, biodiesel will be a low-cost option to meet that renewable fuel standard. It is a simple, easy option where you purchase the fuel, put it into diesel fuel, and away you go. This is one of the reasons why you see some of the larger petroleum companies now embracing biodiesel, because it is the low-cost option to meet the renewable fuel standard.
  • Another major reason why people are looking to use biodiesel is its impact on global warming. Biodiesel has what we call a closed carbon cycle. The CO2 used to grow the oil plant or animal is put back into the air when you burn the fuel. The USDA and Department of Energy have completed independent research showing an overall 78% lifecycle decrease in CO2 when using biodiesel compared to petroleum based diesel fuel. Along with that, biodiesel brings a positive balance to the equation. The energy balance tells you how much energy you get out of the fuel vs. what it took to grow and harvest and make it. In the case of biodiesel, it’s much better than other fuels, because biodiesel only takes the oil portion of the plant, not the entire plant. The oil portion is the high BTU content portion, which is why we have a high BTU content fuel. Biodiesel give over three times as much energy out of the fuel as it took to make it in the first place. This is an extremely positive number. In addition, when you look at the Compression Ignition Platform, or the diesel platform, that’s about 30% more efficient than the Spark Ignition Platform, so when you combine those all together, biodiesel makes perhaps one of the beneficial fuels for helping decrease our impact on global warming.
  • Combine that along with the fact that, when you produce biodiesel, you are mostly producing food, and you get some fuel out of it as a side benefit. A lot of people don’t clearly understand that as they incorrectly compare biodiesel to ethanol. Biodiesel starts off with an oil or a fat, and oils or fats are a minor byproduct of producing food for humans and animals. Soybeans, for instance, are 80% high protein feed, and only 20% oil. Much different than Ethanol, you don’t take the whole soybean and make biodiesel out of that; you take the soybean, you crush it and separate it out. Eighty percent of it goes into the feed market, and the 20% that’s the oil left over is what we start with for biodiesel. And all of the 20% is not used for biodiesel, it is used for a variety of other purposes as well. Of course, hogs, chicken and cattle are not grown for their fat content. We grow them for meat so that we can have steaks, pork chops and chicken legs. And people don’t fry more french fries in order to get the use oils from McDonald’s and Hardee’s to make biodiesel! None of these sources are grown for the oil, the oil is just a natural byproduct of producing food. So biodiesel from these existing sources can really help support feeding and fueling the world’s population, with feed being the biggest portion of the agricultural products that biodiesel is associated with. When you combine that with the fact that, production for crops for food on existing land may double in the next 15 years, so instead of 40 bushels per acre of soybeans you may be able to get 80 bushels per acre, which will double the amount of byproduct oil that comes out naturally. This will be a natural source for more biodiesel while not taking up any more land. So it’s very beneficial from a feed AND fuel standpoint.
  • While it’s beneficial from a feed and fuel standpoint, biodiesel volumes are also limiting because of that very reason. People don’t grow soybeans for oil, they don’t grow cattle for fat, so at some point if the biodiesel volumes go up we won’t have any more oil to use for the biodiesel plant. People are now looking at other crops which produce oil on purpose. One of those leading crops is algae. It’s potential to produce a tremendous amount of algae oil on a relatively small area of non agriculture based soil, so we could see a tremendous amount of oil from algae. Again, soybeans are not grown for the oil, they’re grown for the meal. We only get about 48 gallons of oil per acre from soybeans, whereas an acre of land in the desert with algae could potentially reap 10,000 gallons. A lot of real promise looking in the future. Algae is a few years away now, but certainly the path forward is utilizing traditional existing crops, and parlaying that into higher volumes in the future. This is another key reason why people are interested is that the future in the five to ten year time frame looks pretty promising.
  • There is a tremendous amount of research and data on biodiesel and biodiesel blends in conventional diesel engines. Biodiesel is a proven fuel, and is perhaps the most well studied alternative fuel in the world. There were studies on biodiesel conducted in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s after the OPEC crisis, but interest in alternative fuels decreased when oil hit $10/barrel. Recent interests began in earnest in the US in 1990, and the ASTM Biodiesel Task Force was formed in 1993. Since then, over $100 million has been spent on biodiesel research and development—although much of it has been behind the scenes and is not well known by the average person on the street. The truth is, we may know more about biodiesel than we do about the new ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. It’s a challenge to try and summarize all this data, but that’s what we will attempt to do over the next hour.
  • As we look at the experience with biodiesel over the last 19 or so years, its important to understand some terminology. Petrodiesel is the term being used for conventional diesel fuel derived from crude petroleum oils. It meets the ASTM standard D975. Biodiesel, or B100, is the mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from oils and fats. When one says biodiesel, it should always represent the pure fuel or B100. B100 meets ASTM standard D6751. Biodiesel blends are the correct term for any blend of pure biodiesel with petrodiesel. They are designated with a ‘B’ followed by a number—the ‘XX’—which represents how much biodiesel is in the blend. B20 means 20% biodiesel and 80% petrodiesel for instance. B5 represents 5% biodiesel with 95% petrodiesel. Renewable Diesel or Green Diesel is a generic category for all the other new diesel fuels. It can be anything from raw vegetable oil to turkey guts derived diesel fuel to animal fats blended with crude oil and sent through a traditional petroleum refinery. There are no separate ASTM specifications for any of these new products as they are just now beginning to get their ASTM specifications.
  • The ASTM definition for pure biodiesel, ASTM D6751, was set by the ASTM members (OEM’s, petroleum, biodiesel, regulators) to limit it to the product that has been so well studied over the last 20 years. It eliminates things which have been called biodiesel in the past and which you may see in older literature. Coal slurries, raw vegetable oils and fats, non-esterified oils, hydrotreated oils/fats, proprietary blends of vegetable oil and ethanol with an emulsifier to hold them together, etc. While some of these other materials may be renewable, and they may be diesel fuels, they are not biodiesel and can not claim to have the same properties and benefits that biodiesel has. This was critical to securing the support of the engine and fuel system companies for biodiesel, and it took a significant amount of testing and research to secure that standard. It took 8 years and many, many ballots to get ASTM D6751 to pass, and it continues to go through improvements and upgrades. Any of the other new fuels will have to go through that same process to get their ASTM specifications. You should always be careful that the fuel being used is really biodiesel and meets specifications.
  • Quality and meeting the specifications are critical. The biodiesel must meet the specifications or a variety of problems or issues can occur. Buying from BQ-9000 companies helps to insure you are getting an ASTM spec fuel. The National Biodiesel Board recommends that most users stick to B20 and lower blends, as that is where most of the research data is. Blends over B20 can be used, but requires additional precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users. The NBB web site contains some good information for you to reference.
  • It seems obvious that you would want to care about quality. Over the past 20 years fuel not meeting spec have been well documented to cause problems—that is why we have specifications. There is no room for off-specification biodiesel and in fact, biodiesel must meet D6751 in order to get the current federal tax credit and to be a legal fuel.
  • To show what can happen with off-spec fuel, a study was performed to quantify the negative impacts it may have. Here is a 55 gallon drum that stored a B20 blend made with in-spec biodiesel. A small metal coupon was suspended in the fuel, which is the wire you can see dangling from the horizontal rod across the drum. Everything is nice and clean, no issues with the in-spec B20.
  • Here is an example of what can happen with out of spec fuel. This particular batch had a high amount of raw vegetable oil. The occurrence of this in the market is relatively rare, and a good thing too!
  • Here is a picture of an actual B100 tank at a military base. In this particular case, the biodiesel was not properly processed—it had high catalyst concentration and high levels of incomplete reaction products (saturated mono-glycerides, soaps).
  • This is another example of out of specification biodiesel, or what those in the industry call ‘imposter’ biodiesel. Fuel that is sold as biodiesel but is either not biodiesel at all or doesn’t come anywhere near meeting the specification. This is certainly not something you would want in your diesel tank or your engine….talk about high cholesterol!
  • Even after the B100 specifications at ASTM were actually passed in 2001, after 8 years of intense research and balloting, some engine manufacturers were still not willing to recommend B20 to their customers. The NBB began an intensive effort to address any issues and concerns that OEM’s might have and formed a ‘B20 Fleet Evaluation Team’ with the major OEM’s in the 2003 timeframe.
  • The B20 Fleet Evaluation Team was to develop a fact based informed position on B20. Members from most of the major diesel fuel and fuel injection equipment companies agreed to participate on the effort. The first order of business was to use typical industry tools used to evaluate issues and risks and apply them to the use of biodiesel. A Failure Mode and Effects Analysis—FMEA for short—was conducted for B20. This is a useful means to identify things that can go wrong with a product and how to prevent them from going wrong. Usually an FMEA is done with an engine part or component, but in this case the group applied the FMEA to using B20 in an existing engine. A prestigious group of engineers from the OEM’s detailed everything they could think of that might go wrong when fueling an existing diesel engine with B20, ranked each item based on the severity of the issue, how often it might occur, and how easy it is to detect the issue. Based on those rankings, a Risk Identification number was generated and a plan to address high RIN areas was developed
  • Here is a listing of the companies and entities who participated in the B20 Fleet Evaluation Team. A virtual who’s who of diesel engines in the US and even some from overseas.
  • Interestingly enough, and to the surprise of some of the OEM’s in the group, the FMEA completed in 2005 pointed out that if the biodiesel met the ASTM specifications for B100, most of the ‘problems’ identified were eliminated. If the fuel met specs, most of the concerns with B20 evaporated. This served to validate the ASTM specifications, which was a key finding. The effort also identified several areas where additional study or information is needed as you can see from the slide….more information is needed on biodiesel’s impact on after-treatment systems, more on stability/shelf life, more data from the field—especially with materials compatibility and any issues that have surfaced that the FMEA didn’t identify, providing the user some advise to help insure trouble free use of B20 blends. Each of these issues has since been addressed, either through additional testing or through updates of the ASTM specifications.
  • One of the pieces of follow-up was to provide the users guidance on what to do to have a successful B20 experience. This guidance is what the OEM and fuel system companies of the B20 Fleet Evaluation Team came up with as guidance to consumers using B20. It was presented by John Deere at the National Biodiesel Conference and Expo in 2006 and adopted by the National Biodiesel Board. It is still in use today and millions of customers who follow this guidance have had successful trouble free experience with B20. Each bullet should be read in its entirety.
  • Each bullet should be read in its entirety
  • Each bullet should be read in its entirety
  • Each bullet should be read in its entirety. As you can see….no rocket science here. Meet the specifications, buy from quality companies, take the precautions that are normally done with diesel fuel, be prepared to change fuel filters upon initial use if needed, monitor for leaks.
  • So from a performance perspective, meeting the specifications and taking a few simple precautions with B20 provides trouble free use. So, the $1,000 question is, “are companies meeting the specifications?” The NBB, in cooperation with the OEM’s, set out to answer this question. To do so, they enlisted the help of the US Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. NREL was chosen because they do research on all alternative fuels and are independent of either the OEM’s or of the biodiesel industry and they are one of the highest respected and competent fuels laboratories in the world. Results from NREL are extremely credible among the scientific community, and are completely independent and non-biased.
  • The survey taken in 2004 indicated about 85% of the biodiesel in the market was meeting the ASTM specification. A good number, higher than most engine companies thought it would be, but the NBB goal is to get to 100% in spec fuel all the time so still some room for improvement. At this point, the industry was still pretty small, with only about 25 million gallons per year of production.
  • In 2006, the industry saw a huge increase in production. Volumes grew from 25 million to over 250 million gallons per year—a 10 fold increase. This was largely from the tax incentives that were approved for biodiesel in 2005, and the beginning of some state mandates like Minnesota. Many new companies entered the market during that time, and the 2006 results showed a big decrease in the amount of fuel meeting ASTM specifications. This survey was not related to volume, so 60% of the samples being out of spec does not mean 60% of the fuel was out of spec as several large companies making in-spec fuel sold quite a bit during that time frame. That many samples out of spec was un-acceptable to both the biodiesel industry and the OEM’s. The NBB voted in a new fuel quality policy that encouraged fuel regulators to shut down companies producing out of spec biodiesel, and the BQ-9000 program was promoted heavily.
  • In 2008, NREL conducted another B100 fuel quality survey. This time care was taken to marry the samples to fuel volumes while still being independent and un-biased. Volumes had almost tripled to 700 million gallons per year by this time, up from 250 million in 2006. Lets see how the industry did with this jump in production.
  • The results were impressive. Quality was back up to over 90% of total volume being in-spec. Still not to the NBB goal of 100%, but much better. BQ-9000 companies represented about 70% of the overall volume in the market and the survey demonstrated that the BQ-9000 program was working as those companies consistently produced in-spec biodiesel. BQ-9000 companies produced in spec fuel whether large or small. At this same time, over 45 states have now adopted D6751 as the legal fuel specification and have the ability to shut down companies not producing fuel to ASTM specs. This provided an added incentive for companies to meet the specs, in addition to the threat of not getting the tax credits if the biodiesel is out of spec. For companies that are not BQ-9000 companies, the larger ones seemed to produce in spec fuel more often than the smaller ones. This is probably because the labs in smaller companies may be testing for as many of the specification parameters on every batch.
  • The industry has made great strides in fuel quality, and certainly fuel quality and meeting specification helps ensure performance. However, the proof is in the pudding, so let’s look at some examples of field durability studies that have been conducted on biodiesel over the last 7-10 years.
  • There have been a tremendous amount of detailed studies that have been published and performed on B20 usage in the United States over the last 7-10 years. The US Postal Service, the St. Louis bus system, the Denver Regional bus system, Las Vegas Valley Water District, Clark County School District in Nevada, everywhere from Connecticut to New Hampshire, to North Carolina, to Cedar Rapids, IA etc, etc. The list is impressive indeed. In addition to having use in a variety of different types of equipment, you’ll see that this list also contains a variety of different climatic conditions, both hot desert, cold winters and steamy hot summers in humid parts of the country.
  • In addition to all of those documented studies, many of which can be found through searches of the Society of Automotive Engineers papers, or through simple searches on the internet, there have been a variety of other useful summary documents which have been prepared and are available, which review biodiesel performance and use in the field. One such document is the biodiesel handling and use guidelines prepared by the Department of Energy, which covers a variety of experience with both B100 as well as biodiesel blends. It goes over engine performance, diesel emissions, materials compatibility, and all sorts of other useful data from all of the field experience which has been generated with biodiesel.
  • The Transportation Research Board has also published a summary document from biodiesel use in transit fleets in which over forty different fleet experiences were summarized in this comprehensive document which is available on the internet.
  • Additional information has been documented on biodiesel’s use in cold weather. Of course, cold weather we know can cloud and gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel, and users with B20 with No. 2 usually see a slight increase of the cold flow properties, about 2-10 degrees F colder than with normal diesel fuel. Similar precautions can be employed for petroleum diesel that are needed for biodiesel blends. Blends with No. 1 fuel use fuel heaters or parking indoors, or use a cold flow improvement additive.
  • While the short nature of our training program doesn’t allow us to go through the detailed results for individual fleet system, they certainly are available for your review. To summarize these, users with B20 show similar fuel economy as with conventional diesel fuel. Some users see a slight increase, some see a slight decrease, but usually it’s well within the range of normal variability of fuel economy. They see similar maintenance costs as with conventional diesel fuel. Initially, most users see some filter clogging when the system is being cleaned, although this is somewhat dependent on the condition of the fueling system and whether diesel fuel has left significant deposits over time. We do see users with some cold weather filter clogging, which is usually due to either inadequate blending or handling, or knowledge of the fuel. The normal type of diesel issues with filter clogging were water related issues, microbial contamination associated with conventional diesel fuel. We saw some poor quality of biodiesel or imposter biodiesels that caused some cold weather filter clogging. So some small incidents of cold weather filter clogging, but all can be handled by using the established guidelines to allow trouble free use. In general, studies showed a very positive driver and user experience. Most users note the decrease in smell, the decrease in smoke. A lot of technicians have noted that their eyes don’t sting anymore, their lungs don’t burn when smelling biodiesel exhaust. It doesn’t dry out skin if spilled like conventional diesel does. There was a lot of positive driver, user and technician experience with B20.
  • From the field experience, you can see that with fuel meeting the specifications, and a few simple precautions, users have a good experience with B20—maybe changing fuel filters initially, maybe a few more cold weather issues, but all of which can be handled by following the appropriate the guidelines. So we will review some of the lab experience related to biodiesel performance, and some examples of some pretty significant work that’s been done in cooperation with the engine companies, in terms of lab durability studies, both with engine durabilities and with engine oil impacts. The first of these will be with engine oil impacts.
  • One of the reasons for that is some of the durability runs that had been done on B20 in existing engines. It’s fairly typical for an engine company to run durability runs with diesel fuel to make sure the engines they put out are going to perform well in the field over time. They do that with an accelerated program plan, and in this case, Cummins ran a 1000 hour durability on B20, with the objective to operate the engine for 1000 hours using B20 fuel and do a comprehensive analysis of the engine that had operated on the fuel with the same type of conditions that they would use for No. 2 diesel fuel. You see the test plan here, looking at 1000 hour test plan, 125 hours of initial break-in, measuring emissions, and then running the engine for another 875 hours for a total 1000 hours. Then they run the emissions again to see how the emissions of the engine might have changed throughout its useful life. Most of the time, the engine is run on an accelerated high load durability cycle to stress the engine out again, stressing the engine as much as possible to gain maximum potential negative effects, should there be any on the engine.
  • The test engine used was a Cummins prototype 2007 ISL engine, six cylinder, 8.9 liter with 330 brake horsepower at 1150 ft lb of torque at 1300 rpm. It was outfitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst and a diesel particulate filter. That filter used the in-cylinder post injection for active regeneration. It had variable geometry turbocharging, exhaust gas recirculation with an inner cooler, and the Cummins proprietary fuel injection system. So it really had the latest bells and whistles on a prototype engine with both EGR and a diesel particulate filter. There were no NOx controls on this particular engine.
  • The test cycle that was used had about 70% of the durability cycles at full load, so it accelerates through high load in a transient cycle, it varies the load and speed, and then it repeats those cycles anywhere from peak torque power to high idle to low idle to peak torque, and goes through that cycle over 1000 hours. The emissions testing that was done was according to the Federal Test Procedure. One cold start transient FTP test and then three hot starts, and then one set of Ramped Modal Cycle.
  • The results for that engine are shown on this slide. Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 was used during the test. The test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, no reported significant changes in performance of the engine. The engine performance was essentially the same when it was tested at 125 hours and at 1000 hours after the accumulated durability operation. The emissions results indicated that the hydrocarbon, CO and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and the ULSD in this particular test. We do see PM, CO and hydrocarbon levels on non particulate trapped engines, but with the particulate trap, the B20 didn’t provide that much more than the ULSD alone did. On the emissions also, the B20 was slightly higher in NOx, but is within the range that we expected to see for this particular test cycle and this particular engine. We may see lower NOx, in other applications or if a chassis dyno was used rather than an engine dynomometer. The fuel consumption was observed to be about 3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD, which was within the expected range. That is about the expected range of the BTU content of the biodiesel.
  • Here are some pictures of the components. We see the top cylinder heads had no sludge deposits. Deposits were comparable on the bottom of the cylinder head between diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel. Both the intake and exhaust valves were typical for this type of test run on conventional No. 2 diesel.
  • For the power transfer components, the crank shaft was in very good condition, with the results comparable to No. 2 diesel fuel, and at least in this particular case, no adverse impacts on any of the engine oil related areas. All of the components from the crank shaft gear to the cam bearing to the bushings, fuel pump gears, connecting rods, etc all looked normal and meet the traditional rebuild specs that we would expect for this engine operating that long.
  • The power cylinder components—the crosshatch was still visible on all six cylinders, the ring grooves similar, the top of the pistons similar.
  • Everything looked normal, and the same situation with the cooling and the lube components. No issues, no problems, just all around a clean bill of health.
  • The same with the air handling components. There was a little bit of soot in some areas, but in the areas where there was soot, we would expect that with normal diesel fuel as well. So nothing out of the ordinary.
  • The aftertreatment components—this was something that was of interest, because one of the questions was whether or not it would have an impact on aftertreatment, and in this particular test, the diesel oxidation catalyst looked good. There were some blockages found, but that’s normal for what we’d expect with diesel fuel. On the diesel particulate filter, and this was one of the runs with the diesel particulate filter after 1000 hours of operation, that looked good. And the gaskets looked good, as well as the inlet and outlet section.
  • Here you see some pictures of injectors, plungers, etc. No issues to note there.
  • The other fuels system components had no issues noted there either.
  • In summary with this engine, it was a Cummins 2007 prototype with a particulate trap that was in-cylinder post injection for control with EGR and variable turbo charging, was operated successfully. No biodiesel related failures, engine performance with the same, emissions were the same. A thorough engine teardown analyzed pretty much all the parts that we could look at, and there were no failures related to B20, and the wear and deposits were consistent with what we’d see with diesel fuel. So a good bill of health, and really show that the ASTM specs and for biodiesel meeting those specs, even in this new prototype engine, is going to perform well for users in the fuel system.
  • Each time the EPA introduced a new emissions level, the new engine hardware required an higher performance from the oil, and new, more expensive engine tests were added.
  • As performance levels went up, more additives were added to the oils. With the addition of exhaust aftertreatment (Diesel Particulate Filters) the ash content of the lube was seen to plug the filters. For the first time, a new oil category has chemical and physical limits in addition to engine performance limits.
  • Limits are placed on Ash, Sulfur, and Phosphorus to protect traps from plugging and catalyst poisoning. Volatility limits help control consumption.
  • The API CJ-4 Engine Test and Performance Criteria which are a variety of tests that are run with engine oils to make sure that engine oils will work well. OEM’s identify performance needs and develop special tests to stress the oil in that way. The key tests are shown here, although there are several more. Each engine oil that puts an API sticker on their label goes through the whole battery of tests in order to license the API symbol on their product. This full round of tests for conventional oil costs over $1.5 million dollars.
  • Some tests had shown that Biodiesel when partially burned in a combustion chamber could generate extra fatty acids which get into the lube oil. The Engine Manufacturers Association determined the three different runs that would be most advantageous to determine the impact of a different fuel on the engine, and those were selected to be the Cummins ISB engine, which focuses on valve-train wear, the Caterpillar C13 engine, which focuses on oil consumption and iron piston deposits, and the Mack T-12, which covers liner wear, ring wear, bearing corrosion, oxidation, oil consumption and gives some information on soot viscosity increase and on load temperature pumping at high soot levels.
  • The National Biodiesel Board cooperated with engine manufacturers association to sponsor a testing program that cost around $400,000, to determine if there were any effects on the lubricant performance if B20 was used as the fuel instead of conventional diesel fuel. The plan was to take the standard engine oil tests that are used to qualify engine oils and run those tests with B20, using the reference oils, and then compare the lube performance of those performance with what would be expected with No. 2 diesel. So the fuel was a B20 blended from a particular type of fuel that had known performance, and a B100 meeting D6751.
  • So how did these tests come out? We don’t have time in our short period today to go over all the in depth results, but by way of summary, the control parameters in each one of these endurance tests, which were designed to stress the engine and the engine oil as much as possible, were examined. The examination showed that all wear data were within acceptable limits, all control piston and ring deposits were within acceptable limits, and a really good overall performance of the engine oil with B20 in all three of these type of tests. The only issues that we saw were with lead corrosion and T 12 oxidation, which were slightly worse in the Mack T-12 than what we’d expect to see with diesel fuel. The lead corrosion apparently results because the fatty acids are not as easily neutralized as mineral acids derived from fuel sulfur. The apparent oxidation likely comes from fuel dilution which in the case of B20 adds esters to the oil which are shown as “oxidation” by the InfraRed measurement method. This has not caused problems in the field, but was something we noted with the tests. Some of the engine companies are not worried by this at all, while others are still thinking it over to determine if they will recommend any changes or modifications with B20 blends. The non rated parts of the engine appeared clean and free from sludge which could be an indication that the oxidation was more of a manifestation of the test than of problems in the engine.
  • The bottom line here is that no special oils are needed. Both Oil companies and OEM’s recommend starting out with a conservative drain interval when switching to a B-20 fuel. The “severe duty” drain recommendation is a good place to start. Then trend your used oil analysis with special attention to TAN and TBN as well as wear metals (keeping an eye on used oil lead.) Set the drain interval for your duty cycle at a place where the TAN stays below the TBN and where the Pb is low.
  • All of this information has been instrumental in approving the ASTM specs for biodiesel and as you know, ASTM started the biodiesel efforts in 1993, and finally, after 15 years of work, ASTM approved the finished blended fuel specs for biodiesel just last year, which was exceptionally important for the industry, and showed the amount of research and development that has gone into this fuel. D6751 is the approved blend stock for diesel fuel. It was first approved in 2001, and all the work since 2001 that you just heard about has gone into approving the finished blended fuel specs. And now, the current situation with approved specifications for biodiesel is that D975 is the approved specification for on/off road diesel fuels containing up to 5% biodiesel. The biodiesel must meet D6751 prior to blending, and up to 5% biodiesel is now just considered conventional diesel fuel meeting the conventional diesel fuels specs. There are no changes to the parameters, there are no changes to the test methods, and up to 5% is just treated like conventional diesel fuel. For blends between 6 and 20% biodiesel, that now has its own separate and distinct ASTM spec, D7467, which is essentially the D975 parameters with some additions for fuel stability and some additions for acid number, and a slight elevation of the T90 to account for the slightly higher boiling temperature for biodiesel (the higher flashpoint). This is work that has been 15 years in the making, and hundreds of millions of dollars to get biodiesel to the point where it is today.
  • For Spec grade B5 and lower, it is conventional diesel fuel now. All the same practices and procedures that apply to diesel fuel also apply to B5 and lower. The lubricity attributes of small levels of biodiesel may enhance the engine life, reduce the lubricity related repairs and problems, so spec grade B5 and lower is just considered conventional diesel. Do all the same things that you do with conventional diesel fuel.
  • Spec Grade B6 to B20 falls under Spec D7467 has to be made with ASTM B100, and that’s a drop-in replacement for petroleum based diesel. We’ve had millions of miles of trouble free use. B20 holds similar levels of water as the petroleum based diesel does; take the same cold weather precautions that you do with diesel fuel. It is a good detergent, and it may clean out systems upon initial use, and then use the fuel within the six-month shelf life time.
  • Going over 20% requires caution—it can be done; some users that do that, but NBB recommends that the average user stay at the B20 level and lower. You end up with greater cold flow issues, materials compatibility issues if you go over the B20 potentially; the cleaning effect is more immediate, and the engine oil may become more diluted with fuel.
  • So that summarizes the tremendous amount of effort with the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in the marketplace, especially with B20 and lower. Meet the ASTM specifications, a significant amount of in-laboratory tests have been run, showing that the fuel will perform well in diesel engines. A tremendous amount of field work has been done. Meeting the ASTM specifications, and following a few simple guidelines should help insure trouble-free use of biodiesel blends up to the B20 level.
  • The last area we will cover in today’s training is some recent information on new diesel emissions technology and biodiesel and then troubleshooting problems that may come into the shop. Thus far we’ve covered existing engines and how biodiesel works with existing engines, but as you know, diesel engines are undergoing a significant amount of change to help reduce the emissions of diesel fuel, which has been brought on by regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and which will provide significant reductions in diesel emissions and will enable diesel engines to be the clean, green technology of the future.
  • This slide depicts the emissions levels that EPA allows for new engines coming off the production line, starting back in the 1970’s and up to the present time. Most people don’t realize, although you as diesel technicians have a better feel for this than most, that both the NOx and the particulate level coming out of diesel engines have been reduced dramatically since the 1970’s. Over 90% reduction has been achieved for both the NOx and particulate levels between the 1970’s and 2005. In addition another 90% reduction from the 2005 levels will be required by 2012 and 2014. By the end of 2014, diesel emissions will be as clean as some of the cleanest natural gas and gasoline technologies that are out today.
  • The way that those emissions standards will be met will be through a series of steps. First was the introduction of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (which started in October, 2006). The ultra low sulfur level of 15 ppm was necessary so that the sulfur doesn’t deactivate the catalyst involved with some of these aftertreatment technologies. Then beginning in 2007, the EPA required diesel particulate filters, or a 90% reduction in diesel particulates vs the 2004/2005 level. Along with that, engine companies used increased levels of exhaust gas recirculation and higher fuel injection pressures. So some pretty significant changes took effect in 2007, resulting in most engines now having diesel particulate filters and increased EGR levels and higher fuel injection pressures. In 2010, another exhaust catalyst for NOx reductions will be introduced. There will need to be a NOx adsorber catalyst using additional unburned diesel fuel for operation, or a selective catalytic reduction type of operation where you have a separate diesel exhaust fluid needed for SCR operation. So the sophistication in diesel engines is increasing substantially compared to where they were in the past.
  • Just a bit of a primer on diesel particulate filters. These particulate filters act as traps. It collects the exhaust through porous wall elements and the particulate matter is trapped on those filters, and then when the engine temperature gets high enough the particulate matter is burned off of the filter into CO2 and water. In some cases, the actual engine operation may get hot enough to burn that solid carbon off the filter, but in most cases, some unburned diesel fuel must be put into the exhaust trap so it burns and creates enough heat for the particulates to begin burning off. You can think of it as something similar to putting lighter fluid on a charcoal grill. In most cases, these particulate filters are loaded with precious metals—platinum, paladium, the very expensive metals—which lower the temperature at which the soot will burn. This reduces the amount of extra fuel you might need, or it lowers the temperature needed for regeneration to help in those cases where the engine might get hot enough for the trap to work on its own. The big issues with particulate filters have been regenerating them at low temperatures in duty cycles which don’t get very hot, i.e. inner city driving, and plugging the filter with incombustible materials like lube oil ash or other fuel contaminants.
  • There are two different levels for NOx control. There is NOx Adsorber Catalyst or what’s called a Lean NOx trap, and there is a Selective Catalytic Reduction system. Most people have abandoned the NOx Adsorber Catalyst or Lean NOx trap, as it doesn’t reduce NOx consistently enough to be able to be able to provide the reliability that most engine companies are looking for. So most companies are now going with the Selective Catalytic Reduction option, which puts in combination the diesel particulate filter and an oxidation catalyst along with another unit which reduces NOx. It usually requires ammonia, derived from urea as a diesel exhaust fluid. Not only do you have another muffler (the diesel particulate which is a large muffler), but you now you’ve got yet another SCR muffler on there, with all the engine controls to go with it. So it’s a significant increase in engine technologies coming down the pike. Any new fuel is going to have to work with these new technologies, and any commercial alternative fuel is going to have to go through the rigors of determining what their impact not only of conventional diesel engines are, but the impacts of these exhaust aftertreatment systems. And Biodiesel has done that. We’ll go through some summary slides in the interest of time on what biodiesel’s impact has been on particulate matter, traps, on NOx catalyst technologies. There are some significant benefits with biodiesel on each one of these technologies, some were quite unexpected, but welcome news for the biodiesel industry.
  • The first of these tests was run at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s ReFUEL laboratory. It was run on a Cummins ISB engine—a 2002 engine with a 2004 certification. It had a Johnson Matthey continuously catalyzed regenerating trap (particulate filter). It was a 12-liter filter, so a pretty big filter. It was a passively regenerated system, so it did not utilize any additional fuel injected into the system. The fuels that were tested on this particular experiment were ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, pure biodiesel, B20 and B5.
  • And here are the results. What this particular engine showed, on the left side of the chart, without the particulate trap on there was about a 25% reduction in just putting B20 in vs the diesel fuel. Once the particulate filter was put on the engine, there was a 90% reduction resulting from the particulate filter. In this particular case, ultra low sulfur diesel fuel with the particulate trap went down to about the .005 level, but the B20 results went down even lower than that. They were 67% lower than that at the .0015 level. There was a 67% reduction just by using B20 vs particulate traps, although both of those numbers are so small it’s actually hard to measure that low. The good news is that the particulate traps did just as well if not a little bit better with biodiesel as with ULSD.
  • This slide combines the results of several different studies on particulate traps. The first important finding is that biodiesel in the fuel reduces the Balance Point Temperature, or BPT of the trap. The BPT is that temperature at which the same amount of particulate is being burned off as that which is accumulating…the so called balance point. The lower the balance point temperature the better. B100 reduces the balance point temperature from 360C with petrodiesel to only 250C. That’s a huge reduction. For many diesel systems, the exhaust never gets hot enough to reach the BPT so un-burned fuel needs to be squirted into the trap to make the particles burn off so the trap doesn’t get clogged. This is especially true with start and stop driving where the engine never gets hot, such as inner city driving or garbage trucks. The practicality of this is that biodiesel fuel engines—even B20—may burn off without putting in the additional fuel which could not only save in trap life (the more regenerations the less life of the trap) but maybe in fuel economy too! The second important finding, which can be seen from the chart with the green (B20), red (B5) and blue (ULSD) lines is that biodiesel particles created burn off at a faster rate when held at the same conditions—even at the B5 level. This chart shows the back pressure of a particulate filter loaded to same pressure and then allowed to run on ULSD, B5 and B20. The back pressure goes up with ULSD, but goes down with B20 and even with B5 indicating an easier burning soot. So, not only do the particles burn off at a lower temperature, the ones that are there burn easier. These are some pretty big advantages for biodiesel vs. petrodiesel only for particulate trap operation and this is very new data!
  • To summarize, biodiesel and biodiesel blends are compatible with diesel particulate filters—and biodiesel provides some distinct advantages compared to petrodiesel alone (read bullets directly). There is one feature which is in the process of being investigated with some of the new particulate trap engine that technicians should be aware of. That feature is how the raw fuel is injected into the system to provide the fuel needed to burn the particles off the PM trap. There are two means to do this. The first way, which is used on most of the new PM trap equipped medium and heavy duty machinery in the US, is through a small fuel nozzle in the exhaust stream right before the particulate trap. Biodiesel blends—perhaps even pure biodiesel—work well with these systems. The second way is to use the injectors in the engine to vaporize raw fuel after combustion and during the exhaust stroke. This is called in-cylinder post combustion injection. Injection in this mode saves a fuel nozzle, but it creates more of an opportunity for fuel to hit the cylinder walls and get washed into the engine oil sump by the piston rings. This happens with petrodiesel alone, and the presence of biodiesel may make it a bit worse. Cummins did not identify this as an issue with B20 in the 1000 hour durability run on the prototype engine, and Ford doesn’t see this as an issues with their new engine, but some light duty car makers say blends over B5 are not recommended because of it. The jury is still out on this particular issue, but if it does happen you will see the level of oil on the dipstick actually go higher over time and if it goes too high that could cause the sump to fill up and cause problems or lower the lubricating properties of the oil. This phenomenon may require more frequent oil changes for B20 blends, or watching the oil level more closely with those models that use in-cylinder post injection but at present it only appears to be newest foreign light duty models that are affected.
  • To close out the other new after-treatment technologies for diesel engine area data from a recent set of tests by NREL was conducted on the two leading NOx technologies: NOx absorber catalyst (NAC) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). This type of testing must now be done in combination with the engine and the particulate trap, as the NOx after treatment operation is dependent upon both the engine as well as the particulate trap. A Daimler Chrysler OM646 diesel engine was used in a Mercedes C200.
  • Here you see the NOx Absorber Catalyst results for the B20 run after the equivalent of 120,000 miles of operation and the ULSD run after that same time for both particulates and NOx. Interestingly enough, the B20 vehicle performed well and maintained a low NOx emission significantly below the 50,000 mile NOx requirement levels while the ULSD only engine had a significant number of results higher than the 50,000 mile standard—although within the 120,000 mile standard. While this is only one test, it does indicate that B20 actually produces less NOx with the DPF/NAC system than petrodiesel over time!
  • Here you see the detailed setup of the corresponding run with the DPF and Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx technology.
  • Here are the results ad 8 different modes of engine operation for the SCR system with ULSD alone and with B20 made from that same ULSD. You can see that the NOx conversion for both B20 and ULSD vary based on engine mode, and that there is no difference in NOx conversion of the SCR system with B20 vs. ULSD. So no improvements shown in this test, but the SCR NOx technology works just as well for B20 as it does for ULSD alone.
  • While these technologies are still new, and more testing is currently underway, it is possible to draw some general conclusions about B20 and the new diesel after treatment systems for NOx and PM control. The testing thus far does indicate that B20 is fully compatible with new engines and after treatment technology for both NOx and Particulates—and provide benefits in some cases over ULSD alone. It confirms that B5 just being part of normal D975 can be maintained, and that the B6 to B20 standard looks to be acceptable for B20 blends. Additional study is underway to better quantify the benefits of biodiesel blends and to further study any negative impact on fuel dilution of the engine oil for some models. The National Biodiesel Board is vigorously encouraging engine companies to abandon the use of in-cylinder post injection as a means of PM trap light off which may close the book on that potential issue once and for all.
  • We will now move into the arena of troubleshooting biodiesel and warranty claims. Based on all the data and information thus far, its no surprise that fuel quality and meeting ASTM specifications are the key to OEM support of biodiesel. At present, all major OEM’s support up to B5 in all their engines, including those rolling off the assembly line now that have all the NOx and PM controls to meet the 2010 EPA emissions standards. Each engine company has a different level of internal experience and expertise, which is the primary reason for the difference in publicly stated positions on the use of blends over B5. Some companies will only say in public they support B20 if it will mean the sale of a new vehicle! With the advent of the new blended fuel specs for B6 to B20 released last fall, and the continued work by the biodiesel industry on fuel quality and after-treatment studies--it seems likely most companies will formally move their support level from B5 to B20 soon. Ford just recently announced their new F Series 2011 year pick-ups are completely compatible with B20 with models hitting store-rooms next summer. The main difference in B20 support vs. B100 support is primarily due to the impact of B100 on hoses and gaskets. B20 is compatible with existing hoses and gaskets, but B100 may not be. Some OEM’s have essentially always used B100 compatible hoses and gaskets, so they already support up to B100.
  • Here is the current status of the recommendations by the major diesel engine companies in the US as of August 2009. An up to date list and further details are kept on the public NBB site at www.biodiesel.org. It is important to realize that although this is the stated position of the company and what it tells users, the use of blends higher than that recommended does not necessarily void the OEM warranty. Legally, an engine company can not deny a warranty claim based simply on the use of a higher biodiesel blend than recommended. A warranty can only be voided if it can be demonstrated that fuel was the reason for the problem—the engine company is still liable for the parts and workmanship of the engine they have sold. However, if the fuel was the cause of the problem, then that is not a fault of the engine company and is not covered by the warranty. This is true whether the fuel used was diesel fuel or a biodiesel blend. From that perspective the warranty status of biodiesel and biodiesel blends is the exactly same as that of diesel fuel, although it may take a lot of talking and a lawyer to get a dealer to see it that way if a user goes over the recommended biodiesel level and some engine issue happens—whether it was caused by biodiesel or not…and most likely it was not.
  • As a diesel technician, what you should see in your shop for B20 blends made to spec will be similar to what you will see with traditional diesel fuel, with a few exceptions. First off, you can expect to see less lubricity related issues with fuel containing biodiesel. You can expect to see fewer issues related to after-treatment (PM, NOx catalysts) with biodiesel. The filter clogging issues—many of which people think are related to biodiesel--are likely to be related to normal diesel issues or to imposter biodiesel issues which we cover next in come detail. And lastly, you can expect to see less black smoke from the exhaust!
  • This slide has both petrodiesel and biodiesel in its title because many of the issues associated with biodiesel filter clogging really aren’t biodiesel related at all. There are some that are related to biodiesel—or out of spec biodiesel—but its important for you as a diesel technician to know the difference so you can provide good advice back to your customers.
  • Air enters all diesel systems and most of that time the air that comes in bring moisture with it. Air and moisture are the enemies of any fuel system—whether that system is petrodiesel or biodiesel. The presence of air will increase oxidation of the fuel over time. The best thing to do to minimize oxidation is to have good turn over of the fuel and not to store if for long periods of time. Most fueling systems do this as part of normal business, so it doesn’t end up being a problem. If there are systems where the fuel might stay around, fuel stabilizers are recommended as are desiccant dryers on the air vents which will minimize the potential for moisture contamination.
  • Micro-organisms have been found in diesel fuel forever, and seem to be an increasing issue since the advent of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. They grow at the water interface at the bottom of the tank, living in the water but feeding off of the fuel—whether that is petrodiesel or biodiesel or a biodiesel blend. If micro-organisms are present in a high enough quantity they can clog a fuel filter. They are relatively easily treated with a variety of conventional biocides which kill the organisms which can then be filtered out. Keeping the water out of tanks on a regular basis can go a long way toward reducing or eliminating micro-organisms. Filters with microbial growth appear black and slimy and typically have an odor different that is normal. There are a variety of microbial testing kits that users can buy to see if their fuel is starting to grow bugs. Its not desirable to regularly treat for bugs unless you actually have them, since you don’t want the bugs to develop a resistance to the biocide.
  • The issue of water contamination is one that is poorly understood with biodiesel and biodiesel blends. This is primarily because of the issues with ethanol being water loving and people just automatically believe the same issues with ethanol exist with biodiesel. Pure biodiesel, B100, can hold slightly more water than diesel fuel—about 1200 ppm vs. 300 ppm) but even that is still a very, very small amount of water (0.12%) and is virtually the same as the amount of water gasoline holds (about 0.1%). In fact, biodiesel processors use the fact that water settles out of biodiesel, as many utilize a water wash step to helps to remove soaps and catalyst from B100. Data from NREL shows that B20 blends have similar water saturation characteristics as does petrodiesel alone. Both petrodiesel and B20 (or lower blends) hold somewhere between 100 and 300 ppm of water, with any more than that settling to the bottom of the tank. Keeping water out of tanks is always a good idea, and a good preventative maintenance program of checking tanks for water and if found removing that water is always a good idea for both petrodiesel and biodiesel.
  • Here are some examples of filters that had high water content.
  • Reading of the bullets is sufficient here.
  • Reading of the bullets is sufficient here.
  • Here are some examples of sediment or Rust build up.
  • Reading of the slides is sufficient here.
  • Here are some examples of filters with paraffin wax.
  • Reading the slides is sufficient here.
  • Reading the slides is sufficient here.
  • Here are some examples of oxidation of petroleum.
  • Reading the slides is sufficient.
  • Here is an example of a filter that was clogged with out of spec biodiesel—saturated monoglycerides.
  • You can use this handy checklist in the shop if you have filters coming in from the field and the user thinks it is a biodiesel problem. More than likely its not a biodiesel problem!
  • Advise your customers of these simple steps which will help maintain high quality fuel and minimize filter clogging.
  • The NBB web site has many useful resources.

Train the trainer Train the trainer Presentation Transcript

  • Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians: Iowa Motor Truck Association Training Wednesday, Decemeber 2, 2009 Sponsored by: Iowa Biodiesel Board, National Biodiesel Board through funding by the Iowa Power Fund
  • Objectives: Instructor Training
    • Provide Iowa Motor Truck Association detailed training with the Biodiesel for Diesel Technician training program
    • Provide access to industry experts for more detailed questions and answers
    • Opportunity to provide feedback and input into the training materials.
  •  
  • Today’s Experts: Steve Howell Technical Director, National Biodiesel Board Jordan Thaeler Technical Projects Manager, National Biodiesel Board Rachel Burton Diesel Technician Program, National Biodiesel Board Dave Stehouwer DMS Consulting, retired Cummins Fuel Systems Randy Olson Executive Director, Iowa Biodiesel Board
  • Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians
    • At the end of today’s session, you will:
    • Answer general questions about biodiesel that you may be asked as a technician
    • Understand why customers want biodiesel
    • Understand the importance of fuel quality and the BQ-9000 program
    • Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit the shop
  • Basics of Petrodiesel
  • How is diesel made?
    • Crude petroleum oil is heated up to separate the complex mixture of hydrocarbons into usable products like diesel, gasoline and engine oils
    • Each petroleum derived product contains hundreds or thousands of compounds and is distinguished by its boiling point and physical properties
    • Today’s diesel fuel undergoes a hydro-treating process to reduce sulfur down to 500 or 15 ppm
      • In future, it will likely all be 15 ppm
  •  
  • Typical Refinery Products From: Schmidt, G.K. and Forster, E.J., “Modern Refining for Today’s Fuels and Lubricants,” SAE Paper 861176, 1986. Solid Petroleum Coke 1000 + 540 + Asphalt 650 - 1200 340 - 650 Residual Oil 650 - 1000 340 - 540 Lube Oils 350 - 650 180 - 340 #2 Diesel, Furnace Oil 340 - 515 170 - 270 Kerosene, Jet Fuel, #1 Diesel 80 - 400 30 - 200 Gasoline -40 - 31 -40 - 0 LPG Product Boiling Range Deg. F Boiling Range Deg. C
  • 3 PROPANE METHANOL ETHANOL 8 ISO OCTANE (GASOLINE) 20 CETANE (DIESEL FUEL) Benzene Toluene Xylene
  • Petrodiesel Composition
    • 20-35 % aromatic compounds (benzene, xylene, toluene, etc.)
    • 60-80 % straight/branched hydrocarbons generally with 8 to 24 carbons
    • Some polycyclic aromatic compounds and sulfur compounds
    • No oxygen containing compounds
  • Petrodiesel Delivers Important Diesel Properties
    • Auto-ignition = Cetane Number
    • BTU Content = Fuel Economy/Power
    • Viscosity = Fuel Thickness
    • Cloud Point = Fuel Gelling Temperature
    • Lubricity = Component Wear
    • Sulfur = Lubricity, Anti-microbial
    • Cleanliness = Dirt, Water, Metals
    • Stability = Shelf Life, Filter Blocking
    • Composition = Emissions
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
    • ASTM sets fuel standards for US
    • Consensus voting
    • Best engineers and chemists from engine, fuel system, users, petroleum, biodiesel, consultants, regulators
    • One negative vote can fail a ballot
    • Super majority (2/3) required for over ride
    Producers Users Consumers General Interests
  • ASTM D975 is the diesel spec
    • The important diesel fuel properties are set by the ASTM specifications
      • Or are pre-determined by the nature of the compounds that make up diesel fuel
    • There is a significant amount of variability in diesel fuel which meets D975
      • Based on engine performance and climate
    • This maximizes availability of fuel that will perform at the lowest cost to user
  • Diesel Fuel -ASTM D 975
  • Commercial Alternative Fuels
    • Some need a totally new engine design:
      • Propane, natural gas, methanol
    • Some can be used in existing engines with some re-design or minor modifications:
      • E85, B100
    • Some can be blended with traditional fuel and used in existing engines with little or no modifications (‘drop in’ fuels):
      • E10, B20 and lower
  • Commercial Alternative Fuels for Existing Engine Technology
    • Must be similar for important parameters of the fuel the engine was designed for
    • Hopefully improves some parameters
    • Brings some other beneficial attribute to the table that people believe is important
      • Social (emissions, green house gases)
      • Physical/chemical (high cetane or lubricity, etc.)
      • Economic (i.e. cheaper, low cost option)
  • What is Biodiesel?? Ethanol—NO! Raw Veg Oil—NO! “ Bio-Willie” Yes, but not from marijuana oil!
  • Ethanol is not Biodiesel!!!
    • Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol
    • Ethanol is intended only for spark ignited (i.e. gasoline) applications since it has good octane but poor cetane, zero lubricity
      • “Drink the best and burn the rest”!
    • Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines!
  • Making Biodiesel
    • Vegetable Oil
    • or
    • Animal Fat
    • (100 lbs.)
    • +
    • Methanol
    • (10 lbs.)
    Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerine (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields
  • Biodiesel Raw Materials
    • Oil or Fat Alcohol
    • Soybean Methanol
    • Corn
    • Canola
    • Cottonseed Catalyst
    • Sunflower Sodium hydroxide
    • Beef tallow
    • Pork lard
    • Chicken fat
    • Used frying oils
  • Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Methanol Biodiesel Triglyceride
    • Biodiesel molecule
    oxygens hydrogens carbons Double bond
    • Biodiesel has 16 or 18 carbons in a long chain with some oxygen at one end (ester):
    • The diesel fuel standard, ‘cetane’, is 20 carbons in a long straight chain but has no oxygen
    • Cetane:
    Biodiesel Molecule
  • Narrow Composition
    • Mother nature produces oils and fats with a narrow range of composition
      • C14 or less: 0 to 5%, usually less than 1%
      • C16: 5 to 30%
      • C18: 70 to 95%
      • C20 or higher: 1% or less
    • Biodiesel has much less variation than petrodiesel for most properties important to diesel engines
      • BTU, viscosity, lubricity, sulfur, emissions
    • Some properties vary as much as petrodiesel, based on the saturation level of the oil/fat
      • Cetane number, cloud point
  • Biodiesel Delivers Important Diesel Properties
    • Auto-ignition = Cetane Number over 50
    • BTU Content = Similar to #1, less than #2
    • Viscosity = Values in diesel fuel range
    • Cloud Point = Current biodiesel higher than #2
    • Lubricity = Naturally high in lubricity
    • Sulfur = Naturally less than 15 ppm
    • Cleanliness = ASTM specs same as petrodiesel
    • Stability = Spec set for 6 month min. shelf life
    • Emissions significantly less for PM, HC, CO
  • Important Specs
    • Complete Reaction/Removal of Glycerine
      • Insured through total/free glycerine
      • Will cause injector coking, filter plugging, sediment formation
      • Shortens shelf life
    • Removal of Alcohol
      • Insured through flash point
      • May cause premature injector failure, safety concern
    • Absence of Free Fatty Acids
      • Insured through acid value
      • Can cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation
    • Removal of Catalyst
      • Insured through sulfated ash and Ca/Mg and Na/K
      • May cause injector deposits and/or filter plugging
    Issues resolved with ASTM D6751 – Represents over $50 million and 15 years of testing
  • ASTM D6751
  • BQ-9000
    • A voluntary quality system certification program for the North American biodiesel industry
    • Applies internationally accepted quality management principles
    • Incorporates fuel specifications
    • Uses a series of audits to verify adherence to the company’s own quality management system
  • BQ-9000 Objectives
    • To promote the commercial success and public acceptance of biodiesel
    • To help assure that biodiesel fuel is produced to and maintained at the industry standard, ASTM D6751
    • Three certifications possible for companies:
      • BQ-9000 Producer
      • BQ-9000 Marketer
      • BQ-9000 Laboratory (March 31, 2009)
    D6751 is CRITICAL: BQ 9000 becoming a given
  • US Biodiesel Production National Biodiesel Board 700 Million Gallons Diesel Fuel Pool: 60 Billion Gallons Changes to EPAct Bioenergy Program Biodiesel Tax Incentive
  • Production Locations 6/22/09 ) BQ-9000 Producers 173 Plants
  • Industry Plant Size Production Capacity 2.69 billion gallons per year Average Plant Size 15.5 million gallons per year 173 Plants
  • 29 Plants New Construction (6/22/09)
  • New Construction & Expansion Construction Capacity 849.9 million gallons per year Average Plant Size 21.2 million gallons per year 40 Plants
  • So why the interest in biodiesel?
  • Biodiesel Markets
    • AG AND OFF-ROAD USERS
    • Lubricity Enhancement
    • Underground Mines
    • MARINE
    • Recreational
    • Tour Boats
    • Environmentally
    • Sensitive Areas
    • REGULATED FLEETS
    • Federal
    • State
    • Selected Utilities
    HOME HEATING
    • ON-HIGHWAY USERS
    • Trucking
    • Fleets
    • Passenger Vehicles
    Biodiesel Markets
  • Biodiesel Improves Diesel Properties
    • Blends with petrodiesel in any percentage
      • Once it is blended it does not separate back out
    • Higher Cetane
      • Over 50 vs. average petrodiesel around 44
      • Smoother, more complete burn
    • High Flash Point Makes it Safer
      • Non hazardous shipping (over 200° F)
    • Virtually Zero Sulfur
      • Meets ULSD limits of 15 ppm or less
    • Zero Aromatics Reduces Toxicity
    • 11% Oxygen Provides Superior Lubricity and Reduces Black Smoke (Particulates)
  • BP 15 BP 15 + 40 % Biodiesel B100 Spray and Combustion at Load with Biodiesel
  • Heavy Duty Emissions Averages FTP Engine Dyno Summary Emission Type B100 B20 B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67% -20% -2.2% Carbon Monoxide -48% -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -47% -12% -1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) +10% +/-2% +/-0.2%
  • Best “Bang for your Buck” at B20
  • RELATIVE EMISSION RATE (MG/HP-HR) B100 B20 0 2 4 6 8 10 2D HEAVY HC SPECIATION - CUMMINS N14 ENGINE
  • Enhanced Lubricity
    • Equipment benefits
      • Superior lubricity
      • B2 has up to 66% more lubricity than #2 Diesel
      • Eliminates need for lubricity additives
    • EPA required sulfur reduction in 2006
    • No overdosing concerns vs. other lubricity additives
  •  
  • Energy security
    • Increases Domestic Fuel Production Capacity
      • Putting renewable feeds through existing refineries doesn’t do this
    • Reduces Energy Imports and Dependence on Foreign Oil Sources
    • U.S. Industry Goal: 5% on-road displacement by 2015 ≈ 1.85 BGY (met in various blend levels)
    • 5% ≈ ¼ of diesel equivalent refined from Persian Gulf Crude or about the amount imported from Iraq
  •  
  •  
  • Creates Domestic Manufacturing Jobs in Rural America
    • Green Jobs
      • 2007: 21,803 jobs
      • 2007: $4.1 billion to GDP
      • $26 billion to U.S. economy by 2012
      • Create 38,856 new jobs in all sectors of the economy
    • Renewable Fuel Standard:
      • Requires 1 billion gallons B100 by 2012
      • RFS can be translated to B5 in 2/3 of all on road diesel!
      • Low cost option to meet RFS
    National Biodiesel Board
  • Biodiesel and Global Warming
    • Closed Carbon Cycle: CO 2 Used to Grow Feedstock is Put Back Into Air
        • 78% Life Cycle Decrease In CO 2
    • Energy Balance 3.2 to 1
        • Over 3 times as much energy out
        • as it took to make the biodiesel
    • Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel) 30% More Efficient Than Spark Ignition (i.e. gasoline, CNG, propane)
  • Producing Feed, and Some Fuel
    • Biodiesel starts with an oil or fat
    • Oils/fats are made as a minor by-product of producing food for humans and animals
      • Soybeans are 80% high protein feed, 20% oil
      • Cattle, hogs and chickens are not grown for fat!
      • People don’t fry more french fries to get used oil!
    • None of the sources for oil are grown for the oil, it is a natural by-product of producing food
    • Biodiesel from existing sources can support feeding and fueling the worlds population.
    • Production of crops for food on existing land may double in 15 years, thus doubling the by-product oil for biodiesel
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory August, 2007 New Biodiesel Sources Crop Oil Yield Gallons/acre Corn 18 Cotton 35 Soybean 48 Mustard seed 61 Sunflower 102 Rapeseed/Canola 127 Jatropha 202 Oil palm 635 Algae “ 10,000”
  • Questions and Answers
    • Break
  • Biodiesel Performance, Engine Durability and Field Studies
  • Biodiesel—A proven fuel
    • Biodiesel is perhaps the most well studied and documented alternative fuel in the world
    • Recent US interests started in 1990
    • ASTM Biodiesel Task Force Started in 1993
    • $100,000,000 in research and development
    • We may know more about biodiesel than we do about ultra low sulfur diesel!
  • Diesel Fuels and Alternatives: Some important terminology
    • Petrodiesel: Traditional petroleum derived diesel fuel meeting ASTM D975
    • Biodiesel: Mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from oils/fats meeting ASTM D6751
    • Biodiesel Blends: A blend of petrodiesel and biodiesel designated BX, XX = percent of biodiesel
    • Renewable or Green Diesel: generic category for any other new fuel for diesel engines for which there are no approved ASTM specifications
  • Beware of Biodiesel Imposters!
    • ASTM D6751 Definition Eliminates:
      • Coal Slurries
      • Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats
      • Non-Esterified Oils
      • Hydro-treated Oils and Fats
      • Proprietary Veg Oil / Ethanol blends
    • Auto, engine, and fuel injection equipment makers only support D6751 biodiesel
    • Other fuels will need to get ASTM specs
  • Quality, Quality, Quality
    • B100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends
    • BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers
    • B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blends
      • See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information
    • Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users
      • See NBB document “Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20” for more information: http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Use_of_Biodiesel_Blends_above_%2020.pdf
  • Why care about biodiesel quality?
    • Off specification biodiesel can cause engine operability problems
    • Quality is critical to continue to grow the industry
      • There is NO room for off-specification fuel
      • Customers need to receive consistent quality from lot to lot, batch to batch
      • Must be on-spec for tax credit and to be legal fuel
  • In specification B100
  • Out of spec: High raw oil
  • Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc.
  • Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc.
  • Biodiesel and Engine Manufacturers
    • After the first passage of ASTM D6751 in 2001, even though engine manufacturers voted positive at ASTM most were not yet willing to put their name behind B20
    • National Biodiesel Board set forth on intensive effort to work with OEM’s to address any issues and concerns
    • B20 Fleet Evaluation Team Formed
  • B20 Fleet Evaluation Team
    • Develop fact based informed position on B20
    • Most major diesel engine and fuel injection companies participated in this process
    • B20 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
      • Detailed identification of everything that can go wrong when using B20
      • Rank: Severity, Occurrence, Detection modes
      • Develop RIN: Risk Identification Number
      • Develop plan to address high RIN areas
  • B20 Fleet Evaluation Members
    • Bosch
    • Case New Holland
    • Caterpillar
    • Cummins
    • DaimlerChrysler
    • Delphi Diesel Systems
    • Department of Defense
    • Engine Manufacturers Association
    • Ford Motor Co
    • General Motors
    • International
    • John Deere
    • National Biodiesel Board
    • National Renewable Energy Lab
    • Parker - Racor
    • Siemens Diesel Systems
    • Stanadyne Corp
    • Volkswagen AG
    • Volvo Truck
    • Fleetguard
  • B20 FMEA Results
    • Most potential ‘problems’ are eliminated if the B100 meets D6751 prior to blending
    • More info is needed on after-treatment
    • More info is needed on stability/shelf life
    • More info is needed from field (materials compatibility, un-anticipated issues)
    • Provide user advise to help trouble-free use
    • Biodiesel is the pure, or 100 percent, biodiesel fuel. It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel.
    • A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B20 blend is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent by volume petrodiesel ).
    • Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petrodiesel. Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends only from companies that have been registered under the BQ-9000 fuel quality program.
    B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
    • Ensure the B20 blend meets properties for ASTM D 975, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils or the ASTM specification for B20 once it is approved.
    • Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used within six months.
    • Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. See the NREL Biodiesel Storage and Handling Guidelines for further information.
    B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
    • Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning properties. The use of B20 can dissolve sediments in the fuel system and result in the need to change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the petrodiesel.
    • Be aware of B20’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. When operating in winter climates, use winter blended diesel fuel. If B20 is to be used in winter months, make sure the B20 cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and time of year the fuel will be used.
    B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
    • Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine operation and maintenance manual. If using B20 in seasonal operations where fuel is not used within 6 months, consider storage enhancing additives or flushing with diesel fuel prior to storage.
    • These recommendations on use of B20 are preliminary and are not provided to extend or supplant warranty limitation provided by an individual engine or equipment supplier. Use of B20 blends is solely at the discretion and risk of the customer and any harm effect caused by the use of B20 are not the responsibility of the engine or equipment maker.
    B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
  • Biodiesel Performance: Meeting ASTM Specifications
  • 2004 B100 Quality Survey
    • Under guidance of B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (OEM’s, NREL, NBB)
    • Samples obtained nationwide from biodiesel blenders (27 samples)
    • 85% of samples tested met the ASTM D6751 specification
    • Four samples failed with high levels of:
    • phosphorus (lube oil contamination?)
    • total glycerin
    • acid number
    • acid number and total glycerin
  • 2006 B100 Quality Survey
    • A subcontractor visited the site of a biodiesel blender, usually a terminal operator or jobber, to collect the B100 sample
    • 32 B100s, 6 B99s, and 1 B50
    • 59% of B100 samples tested fail the D6751 specification
    • 30% fail total glycerin – immediate operational problems in cold weather
    • Other issue of concern is 20% failure rate for Na+K
    • Samples were collected randomly, not on production volume basis
      • Biodiesel, based on production volume, may have different failure rate
      • Poor quality batch may have contaminated larger fuel lot
  • 2008 B100 Quality Survey
    • Collect B100 samples directly from producers and analyze for properties most likely to impact engine performance and emission control systems
      • Flash point, oxidation stability, acid value, free and total glycerin, cloud point, Na+K, Ca+Mg, P, water & sediment
    • First survey that will link test results to production volume
    • Results presented at 2008 National Biodiesel Conference and Expo
  • 2008 B100 Quality Survey
    • Over 90% of the volume sold in the US met ASTM specifications
    • BQ-9000 companies consistently met or exceeded ASTM specifications, regardless of size of company/plant
    • Of non BQ-9000 companies, out of spec product was more likely with smaller companies
  • Biodiesel Performance: Some Examples of Field Durability Studies
  • Many detailed B20 Studies have been performed and published
    • US Postal Service, St. Louis Bus System
    • Denver Regional Transit Bus System
    • Las Vegas Valley Water District
    • Clark County, NV School District
    • Connecticut DOT; Keene, NH; NC DOT; Cedar Rapids, IA Buses, etc. etc. etc.
    • Department of Energy (DOE)
    • B100 & Blends
    • Material Compatibility
    • Engine Performance
    • Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions
    Handling & Usage
  • Fleet Management Experiences
    • Cold weather can cloud and even gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel.
    • Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit.
    • Similar precautions employed for petroleum
    • diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends.
    • blending with #1 diesel (kerosene)
    • using fuel heaters and parking indoors
    • and using a cold-flow improvement additive
  • User B20 Results Summary
    • Similar fuel economy
    • Similar maintenance costs
    • Some initial filter clogging—’cleaning the system’
    • Some cold weather filter clogging
      • Usually due to in-adequate blending or handling, ‘normal diesel issues, poor quality biodiesel or imposter biodiesel
      • Following established guidelines give trouble free use
    • Positive driver and user experience—smell, smoke
  • Biodiesel Performance: Some Examples of Lab Durability Studies
  • 1000 Hour Durability B20
      • The objective was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20 biodiesel fuel, and do a comparative analysis with engines that have operated under the same type of conditions using #2D diesel fuel.
    hr 0 25 50 125 1000 Accelerated, high-load durability cycle Lube oil samples analyzed Engine emissions tested Engine lube oil checked Engine emissions tested Full load engine performance verified
  • Test Engine
    • Cummins prototype 2007 ISL
    • Six cylinder 8.9 liter
    • Rated power of 330 BHP
    • Peak torque of 1150 ft•lb at 1300 rpm
    • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
    • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
    • Post injection (in-cylinder) for active regeneration
    • Variable geometry turbocharger
    • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with cooler
    • Cummins fuel injection system
  • Test Cycles
    • Durability Testing
      • Accelerated
      • High-load
      • Transient cycle
      • Varying load and speed
      • Cycle repeated for 1000 hr
    • Emissions Testing
      • Federal Test Procedure (FTP)
        • One cold start transient FTP test
        • Three hot start transient FTP test
        • One SET Ramped Modal Cycle
    >70% of durability cycle at full load High Idle Low Idle Peak Torque Peak Power
  • Durability & Emission Results
    • Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability test.
    • Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported significant changes in performance of the engine.
    • Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation.
    • Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD.
      • The emission-grade B20 test resulted in ≈6% higher NOx (within expected range)
    • Fuel consumption was observed to be ≈3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD test (within expected range).
  • Overhead Components Top of cylinder head No sludge deposits Bottom of cylinder head Deposits comparable to #2D Intake Valves Exhaust Valves Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuel
  • Power Transfer Components During teardown, the crankshaft was found to be in very good condition, and results were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Component Comments Cranckshaft Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Cranckshaft Meets rebuild spec Lower & Upper Bearings Normal wear Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Connecting Rod Bushing Meets rebuild spec
  • Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders. Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust Side Cylinder 1 Top Piston Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1 Minor staining Component Comments Piston Normal light wear and deposits. Cylinder Liners Normal light wear. Top rings Normal uniform face wear. Top and bottom side look typical. Middle rings Normal face wear. Top and bottom sides OK, and light carboning. Oil rings Looked good. Very little wear.
  • Cooling and Lube Components There were no failures found on the cooling and lube components. The wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent with findings found on parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. Bottom (Oil) Piston Rings Cylinder 1 Top Cylinder 6 Bottom Component Comments Oil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Oil pressure regulator/bypass No issues Piston cooling nozzles No problems due to B20. Oil Pan Normal Oil suction tube Gasket showed good imprint of seal Turbo coolant/oil lines Normal
  • Air Handling Components Carbon deposit layer was generated on the passage and inside parts of the EGR valve , but thickness was very thin and condition was dry which is normal for this durability test. Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coating of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diffuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumulation. EGR gaskets, hoses, tubes, shield, mounting plate, crossover No issues found due to running with B20.
  • Aftertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Looked good. No face plugging. Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC after 1000 hr of operation, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel fuel for this type of test. Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and outlet section Looked good. Gaskets Looked good.
  • Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle No marks on needle surface or the edge. Plunger Needle – Top View Some slight staining. Stage 2 Plunger Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test. Plunger Orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits
  • Fuel System Components Rail and fuel lines Rail – No abnormal wear. End Fitting – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deterioration or cracks observed. Mechanical Dump Valve (MDV) No unusual wear, deterioration or sludge buildup observed on plungers, plunger seats or orifice. 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. Soft Lines No visible damage to any section of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indicating that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pitting damage on any of the surfaces.
  • Summary
      • A Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy-based biodiesel and ULSD.
      • During the durability testing, no biodiesel related failures occurred.
      • Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with B20 fuel.
      • A thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed.
      • There were no failures found on the engine components that were directly attributable to running biodiesel B20.
      • The wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with findings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests.
  • Oil Lubrication for Modern Diesel Fuels
  • Emissions Regulation Drives Modern Oil Quality 1988 14.4 1990 1991 1994 1998 2000 2002 2010 0.80 0.33 0.134 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 NO x , g/kW-Hr Particulate, g/kW-Hr 8.05 6.7 6.7 5.4 3.3 1.5 0 . 013 14 16 2007 0.27 PC-11? CJ-4 CI-4 CH-4 CG-4 CF-4 CE
  • Each Generation of Oil Improved Performance
    • More engine tests added
      • Tests are more demanding
      • Costs are very high ($1.5 to 2.0 Million for a new oil)
    • Additive treat levels go up
      • Lube ash content increases
    • DPF (Diesel Particulate Filters) required for 2007 standards
      • Trap exhaust soot to meet particulate standard
      • Traps get plugged by lube ash
    • CJ-4 is first API Category to limit composition
      • Now the oils must give higher performance with lower ash
  • DPF’s Limit Lube Ash Ash Volatility Phosphorus Sulfur CJ-4 2007 API CI-4 2002 1.5-1.3% Range CDPF No After-Treatment 1.0% Range
  • Engine Durability Tests for CJ-4 Oil Demand Increased Performance Caterpillar C-13 Oil Consumption Blow-By and Piston Deposits Cummins ISB Slider Valve Train Wear and After-Treatment Mack T-12 Power Cylinder Wear and Oxidation Cummins ISM Power Cylinder, Valve Train Wear, Filter Life and Sludge Control
  • What do these tests mean for Biodiesel
    • All of these new tests to define oil quality run on 15 ppm S fuel that is carefully controlled
    • There were real questions about the effect of B20 on lube performance
    • Why?
    • How did NBB help to answer these questions?
  • Engine Lube Tests with B-20
    • Objective: To determine if there are any effects on lubricant performance from the use of B-20 fuel
    • Plan: Run standard engine tests with B-20 using reference oils to compare lube performance with # 2 diesel
    • Fuel: B-20 blended from PC-10 fuel and B-100 such that the blend meets D 7467
  • Summary: Engine Test Parameters
    • Examination of the control parameters for these engine tests:
      • All wear data within acceptance limits
        • No evidence of unique, higher wear type of soot
      • All controlled piston / ring deposits within acceptance limits
      • Low temperature viscometrics not an issue
    • Non rated engine parts appeared clean and free of sludge
    • General trend toward higher TAN
      • Without corresponding loss of TBN
      • Only Pb Corrosion and T 12 oxidation are worse than acceptance limits
  • Bottom Line
    • Engine / Fuel / Lubricant are inter-related
    • Current lubricants protect the engines operating on B20 for most applications
    • Oil companies & OEM’s recommend a premium lubricant with on oil analysis program to protect your engines with B-20
      • Watch trends in TAN & TBN as well as used oil lead values
  • ASTM Biodiesel Specs Now Approved
    • Started ASTM process in 1993
    • After 15 years, biodiesel blends were approved by ASTM in 2008
    • D6751: Pure biodiesel blend stock
    • D975: On/off road diesel with up to 5% Biodiesel
    • D7467: On/off road diesel with biodiesel between 6% and 20%
  • Spec Grade B5 and lower (D975)
    • Made with ASTM grade B100
    • Is now just considered traditional diesel fuel falling under D975
    • All the same practices and procedures that apply for diesel fuel apply for B5 and lower
    • Lubricity attributes of small levels of biodiesel may enhance engine life, reduce lubricity related repairs and problems.
  • Spec Grade B6 to B20 (D7467)
    • Made with ASTM grade B100
    • Drop in replacement for petrodiesel
    • Millions of miles of trouble free use
    • B20 holds similar levels of water as petrodiesel
    • Take cold weather precautions like diesel
    • Good detergent—may clean out systems upon first use (filter change in 2% cases)
    • Use within 6 months
  • Going over B20 requires caution
    • But it can be done with proper pre-cautions
    • NBB recommends average user stay at B20
    • Cold flow issues are greater
    • Materials compatibility (hoses, gaskets)
    • Cleaning effect is more immediate
    • Engine oil may become diluted with fuel
  • Questions and Answers
    • Break
  • New Diesel Emissions Technology and Biodiesel; Troubleshooting
  • Diesel Emission Reductions
  • 2010 standards
    • Introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel in October 2006
    • EPA emissions standard for 2007:
    • Diesel particle filters (DPF)
    • Increased levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and higher fuel injection pressures
    • Full EPA emissions standard in 2010:
    • DPF, EGR, high pressure fuel injection
    • Exhaust catalysts for NOx reduction
      • NOx adsorber catalysts, unburned diesel fuel for operation
      • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
        • Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) needed for SCR operation
  • Diesel Particle Filters
    • Exhaust flows through porous wall-flow elements
      • PM is trapped on the walls of the filter
    • When exhaust temperature is high enough, PM is burned off
      • In most cases, unburned diesel fuel is injected to accomplish this
    • Precious metal is loaded onto filter walls to lower the temperature required for regeneration
    • Issues:
      • Regeneration at low temperatures/duty cycles
      • Plugging with incombustible materials like lube oil ash
  • NO x Controls
    • NO x Adsorber Catalyst/Lean NO x trap
      • Catalyst converts all NO x to NO 2 , adsorbent bed “traps” NO 2
      • When bed is saturated, exhaust forced rich
      • NO 2 is released and converted to N2
      • Bed also traps SO 2 , but doesn’t release it
        • Near sulfur free exhaust is needed
        • Higher temps, longer time needed to release sulfur
      • 90%+ conversion is possible
    • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
      • Used for industrial NO x control for years
      • Requires a supplemental “reductant”
      • Typically ammonia, derived from urea
        • “ Diesel Exhaust Fluid”
      • 80-90% reduction efficiency
      • Generally sulfur tolerant
    NO x adsorber catalyst (NAC) is also known as a lean-NO x trap (LNT) SCR NOx + NH3 Sensor Urea Injection
  • Biodiesel Testing
    • Cummins ISB 300
    • 2002 Engine, 2004 Certification
    • Cooled EGR, VGT
    • Johnson Matthey CCRT
    • 12 Liter DPF
    • Passively Regenerated System
    • Pre Catalyst (NO 2 Production)
    • Fuels: ULSD, B100, B20, B5
    • ReFUEL Test Facility
    • 400 HP Dynamometer
    • Transient & Steady State Testing
    • Cummins
    • Soot Characterization
    • Significant financial support for testing
  • B20 results in substantial PM reduction even with DPF (data for 2003 Cummins ISB with Johnson Matthey CCRT on HD FTP) B20 Testing
    • Reduction with DPF ranges from 20% to 70%, depending on basefuel, test cycle, and other factors
    • Reduction in sulfate emissions
    • Increased PM reactivity
    Williams, et al., “Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance” SAE 2006-01-3280
  • Superb Results BPT ULSD 360ºC B20 320ºC B100 250ºC
    • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20
    • Soot is more easily burned off of filter
    • B20 can be used for lower temperature duty cycle
    • Regeneration rate increases with increasing biodiesel content
    • Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly
  • Biodiesel and DPF
    • Biodiesel is compatible with Diesel Particulate Filters, and has some distinct advantages:
      • Lowers regeneration temperatures
      • Less engine out particulate matter
      • May provide increased performance and decreased maintenance vs. ULSD alone
      • May provide increased fuel economy
    • Regeneration mode is important
      • Late in-cylinder injection may cause increased fuel dilution of engine oil and limit the level of biodiesel that can be used (i.e. B20 or B5)
      • Most US heavy duty applications use exhaust stream fuel injection which is compatible with B20, perhaps higher blends
      • Some light duty OEM’s recommend max B5 at present
  • Biodiesel Testing with LD Emission Systems
    • Includes two emission control systems and two fuel blends on a light-duty platform
      • NAC/DPF and SCR/DPF
      • 5% and 20 % biodiesel blends
    • Performance, optimization and durability
      • Aging to represent 2100 hours of operation (approximately 120,00 miles or full useful life) for B20
      • Emissions evaluations over UDDS, US06, and HFET– testing by EPA
      • Perform engine and fuel component teardown at end of aging
    Engine: DCX OM646 Vehicle: Mercedes C200 CDI
  • EPA Chassis Dynamometer NOx Adsorber Catalyst (NAC) B20 ULSD
  • Experimental: SCR
    • Diesel Particulate Filter
    • JM CCRT (12 Liters)
    • Passively Regenerated
    • Pre Catalyst for NO 2 Production
    • Compare SCR catalyst performance with ULSD and Soy B20 through engine testing
    • Measure relative importance of catalyst temp, exhaust chemistry and catalyst space velocity
    • Measure B20’s impact on these system variables and overall NOx conversion
    • Focus on Steady-State Modal Testing
    • de-NOx Aftertreatment
    • JM Zeolite SCR (15.5 Liters)
    • Urea Injection (air assisted)
    • NH3 Slip Catalyst
    • Diesel Engine
    • 2002 Cummins ISB (300 hp)
    • 2004 Emissions Cert
    • Cooled EGR, VGT, HPCR
    Urea Injection Diesel Particulate Filter DOC Selective Catalytic Reduction NH3 Slip Cat
  • ULSD vs B20 – SCR
    • No statistical difference in NOx Conversion with B20
  • Conclusions:
    • NBB, the US Department of Energy, and the engine and vehicle manufacturers are expending significant resources to understand how biodiesel blends interact with new diesel emission controls
    • Detailed testing thus far indicates B20 and lower blends are compatible with both diesel and NOx after treatment
      • Provides benefits in some cases
    • B5 is now just part of normal D975 diesel fuel
    • Additional study is underway
      • Quantify long term benefits of biodiesel blends
      • Late in-cylinder injection may cause fuel dilution
      • NBB is encouraging OEM’s to publicly support B20
  • OEM’s and Biodiesel Support
    • Fuel Quality and ASTM specs are KEY
    • B5 across the board, especially now its in D975
    • Experience/familiarity of each OEM yields differing opinions for blends over B5
    • B20 vs. B100 is primarily gasket/hose issue
    • Customer base makes a big difference
      • When customers say they won’t buy new engines unless B20 is fully warranted, all of a sudden its OK!
    • NBB is actively working with most major OEM’s to achieve B20 support by all OEM’s
      • Fuel quality enforcement programs
      • ASTM Blend Standards passed last year
      • Aftertreatment studies
  • OEM Biodiesel Blends
    • Approve B5 :
      • Detroit Diesel, Isuzu, Kubota, Mack, Mercedes, Volkswagen, Volvo
    • Approve B20 or higher on at least some models:
      • A rctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equip., Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler (Dodge Ram & Sprinter - Fleets), Ford, General Motors (SEO for fleets), Hayes Diversified Technologies, John Deere, Navistar, Perkins, Toro
    • Approve B100:
      • Case IH, Fairbanks Morse, New Holland, Tomcar
  • B20 vs. Diesel: In the shop
    • With in spec B20 and lower, the issues you can expect to see in your shop are the same as you will see with petrodiesel
    • Except:
      • Expect to see less lubricity related issues
      • Expect to see less problems with after-treatment
      • Filter related issues likely normal diesel issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel
      • Less black smoke from exhaust!
  • Sources for Filter Clogging: Petrodiesel and Biodiesel
  • Exposure to Air
    • Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture.
    • Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emptied.
    • It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank.
    • Will increase the oxidation of fuel.
    • Do not store fuels for long periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers.
    • Consider desiccant dryers.
  • Microbial Growth
    • Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.
    • Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.
    • Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.
    • This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.
    • The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
  • Water Contamination
    • ULSD reaches water saturation at approximately 200-300 ppm. More settles to the bottom.
    • NREL B20 survey data: same water saturation level as petrodiesel. More settle to the bottom
    • B100 can hold more water, up to 1200 ppm
      • Still very small—0.12%, on the same order as gasoline can hold water. Un-dissolved water settles to the bottom like it does in petrodiesel tanks.
      • While higher than petrodiesel, biodiesel is not water loving (i.e. hygroscopic) like ethanol is. Most people do not understand this fact.
  • High Water Concentration
  • Icing of the filter
    • When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging in cold temps. A filter which has been plugged but is clean and new at room temperature indicates that icing is the likely cause.
    • Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures.
    Free water
  • Sediment/Rust build-up
    • Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.
    • Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.
    • Not related to biodiesel use
  • Sediment/Rust build-up
  • Paraffin Wax
    • High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.
    • When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.
    • When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid.
    • Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.
  • Paraffin Wax
  • Oxidation
    • Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up.
    • Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black “asphaltene” petrodiesel type material collecting on the filter.
    • This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.
  • Oxidation
    • Petrodiesel does not have an oxidation specification, while B100 and B6 to B20 specs already do.
    • Biodiesel can also oxidize, but oxidized biodiesel manifests itself in acid numbers which are out of spec
    • The acid number for biodiesel will go out of spec before filter clogging occurs
  • Oxidation
  • Monoglyceride Build-up
    • The next filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material—an out of spec or ‘imposter’ biodiesel.
    • Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if not within spec
    • Monoglycerides do not turn back into a liquid at room temperature
    • Can be distinguished from diesel by its brownish, butterscotch pudding type of appearance
  • Un-reacted Biodiesel: Saturated Mono-glyceride
  • Troubleshooting Checklist
    • Microbial Growth – Exposure to air and water
    • Icing of Filter – Excess water in tank
    • Oxidation – Hot fuel return to fuel tank
    • Monoglyceride Build Up – Off specification
    • Paraffin Wax – Temperature at or below cloud point
  • Steps to Maintaining Fuel
    • Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment
    • Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space
    • Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks
    • Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.
    • Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
  • NBB Resources
    • www.biodiesel.org
    • News Releases & Information Resources
    • Educational Videos Available
    • Technical Library & Resources
    • On-line Database & Spec Sheets
    • OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel
    • U.S. Diesel Vehicle List
    • www.BQ-9000.org
    • Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies
    • www.allthingsbiodiesel.com
    • Biodiesel merchandise, literature, signage, pump labels and more!
  • The Iowa Biodiesel Board and the National Biodiesel Board authorize the reproduction or use of this material for educational purposes National Biodiesel Board 605 Clark Ave • PO Box 104898 Jefferson City, MO 65110-4898 (800) 841-5849  Iowa Biodiesel Board 4554 114 th Street Urbandale, IA 50322-5410 (515) 727-0664