Technical overview of biodiesel


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  • So what is biodiesel? It is not your hillbilly in Kentucky with a still (that’s ethanol, not biodiesel). It’s not pouring Mazola into your engine (that’s raw vegetable oil which has a much higher viscosity and will cause a variety of engine problems). It IS “Bio-Willie”. I’m sure you’ve heard of Willie Nelson and Neil Young (pictured), and what they do is biodiesel, as long as its not from marijuana oil….at least until marijuana is legalized!
  • One thing that should be emphasized throughout this training, is the difference between ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is NOT biodiesel. Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol. It is only intended for spark-ignited or gasoline applications since ethanol has good octane, but poor cetane and zero lubricity. A term that some people are using in the industry regarding ethanol is “drink the best and burn the rest”!. Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines due to its poor lubricity and lack of blending with diesel fuel. So—ethanol is NOT biodiesel. When you are thinking about biodiesel, put ethanol out of your mind. This is one of the points we would like to bring across with this training.
  • Note 2006 and 2007 Quality Surveys
  • Technical overview of biodiesel

    1. 1. Biodiesel 101 & Technical Overview National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Program February 2010
    2. 2. After today’s session, you will be able to do the following: <ul><li>Understand why your customers want biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Answer general questions about biodiesel that your customers may ask you </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of quality and the BQ-9000 program </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit your shop </li></ul>
    3. 3. Biodiesel Driving Forces <ul><li>Reduce dependence on imported crude oil and petrodiesel from unstable parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce global warming by using a renewable fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce harmful emissions from diesel engines </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in any diesel engine without modifications, existing fueling stations can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use--drop in substitute for petroleum diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Produces over 3 times more energy than it takes to grow and process the fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Engine and vehicle companies approve the fuel for use </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 million miles of on-road trouble-free use both here and abroad </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why People Want Biodiesel <ul><li>Energy Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amount imported from Iraq U.S. Industry Goal : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% on-road displacement by 2015 ≈ 1.85 BGY (met in various blend levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% ≈ ¼ of diesel equivalent refined from Persian Gulf Crude or about the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable and Non-Toxic - safer than diesel and biodegrades as fast as dextrose, a test sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gases – A 78% life cycle decrease in CO 2 according to a USDA and DOE study. </li></ul><ul><li>Green Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: 21,803 jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: $4.1 billion to GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$26 billion to U.S. economy by 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create 38,856 new jobs in all sectors of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Fuel Standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 1 billion gallons B100 by 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B5 in 2/3 of all on road diesel! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost option to meet RFS </li></ul></ul>National Biodiesel Board
    5. 5. Why make biodiesel? Diesel fuel injectors are not designed for viscous fuels like vegetable oil Glycerin (thick) Biodiesel
    6. 6. Biodiesel Defined <ul><li>Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Blend , n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This tight definition was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injection equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Beware of Biodiesel Imposters! <ul><li>ASTM D6751 Definition Eliminates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Slurries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Esterified Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro-treated Oils and Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Veg Oil / Ethanol blends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blends With Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auto, engine, and fuel injection equipment makers only support D6751 biodiesel </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Biodiesel?? Ethanol—NO! Raw Veg Oil—NO! “ Bio-Willie” Yes, but not from marijuana oil!
    9. 9. Ethanol is not Biodiesel!!! <ul><li>Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol is intended only for spark ignited (i.e. gasoline) applications since it has good octane but poor cetane, zero lubricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Drink the best and burn the rest”! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines! </li></ul>
    10. 10. Biodiesel Raw Materials <ul><li>Oil or Fat Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean Methanol </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Canola </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower Sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Pork lard </li></ul><ul><li>Used cooking oils </li></ul>
    11. 11. Potential New Sources National Biodiesel Board Brown Grease Etc. Brassica Juncea Low Ricin Castor Algae Seashore Mallow Jatropha
    12. 12. Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Methanol (or Ethanol) One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) molecules Biodiesel Triglyceride
    13. 13. Biodiesel Reaction <ul><li>Vegetable Oil or </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat </li></ul><ul><li>(100 lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol or </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>(10 lbs.) </li></ul>Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerin (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields
    14. 14. Important Biodiesel Parameters <ul><li>Complete Reaction/Removal of Glycerin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through total/free glycerin spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of Catalyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through sulfated ash spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removal of Alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through flash point spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absence of Free Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insured through acid value spec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All these insured through ASTM D 6751 </li></ul><ul><li>– Represents over $50 million and 15 years of testing </li></ul>
    15. 16. Biodiesel Infrastructure <ul><li>Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are now available nationwide from more than: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,600 Distributors and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,300 Retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visit the NBB website at: or to view biodiesel retailers near you, by state, or along a route </li></ul>
    16. 17. Biodiesel Pump Labeling <ul><li>No Label Required: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel blends containing no more than five percent biodiesel and no more than 5 percent biomass-based diesel and that meet ASTM D975. </li></ul><ul><li>Labels Required: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel blends containing more than five but no more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel blends containing more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate Labels for Biodiesel (Blue Labels) and </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass-Based Diesel (Orange Labels) </li></ul>
    17. 18. Biodiesel Production Locations Represent ~ 80% of biodiesel production volume in U.S.
    18. 19. B100--Properties <ul><li>ASTM D 6751 </li></ul><ul><li>No Sulfur (1-2 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>No Aromatics </li></ul><ul><li>High Cetane (over 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Lubricity in Low Blends </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable, Non-Toxic </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 to 1 Positive Energy Balance </li></ul><ul><li>BTU same or higher than No. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>78% Life Cycle CO 2 Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>All Proven: $70MM Scientific Study over 18 years </li></ul>
    19. 20. Biodiesel Performance Properties <ul><li>B20 Similar Performance to Petrodiesel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horsepower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mileage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2% fewer BTUs per gallon than #2 diesel </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Enhanced Lubricity <ul><li>Equipment benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior lubricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2 has up to 66% more lubricity than #2 Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA required sulfur reduction in diesel </li></ul><ul><li>No overdosing concerns </li></ul>1-2% 66% Improvement
    21. 22. Cleaner emissions * Emission Type B100 B20 B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67% -20% -2.2% Carbon Monoxide -48% -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -47% -12% -1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) +10% +/-2%* +.2%
    22. 23. B100 Blending Component Specification <ul><li>Recent changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Soak Filtration or Control of Minor Components added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major steps forward for passage of biodiesel blend specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for obtaining OEM approval </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for ensuring that biodiesel performs as advertised so market can grow </li></ul>D6751-08 Requirements McCormick, R.L, Westbrook, S.R. “Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends” Standardization News , page 28, April 2007
    23. 24. ASTM Biodiesel Specs Now Approved <ul><li>Started ASTM process in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>After 15 years, biodiesel blends were approved by ASTM in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>D6751: Pure biodiesel blend stock </li></ul><ul><li>D975: On/off road diesel with up to 5% Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>D7467: On/off road diesel with biodiesel between 6% and 20% </li></ul>
    24. 25. BQ 9000 Quality Program <ul><li>Biodiesel Industry’s “Good Housekeeping” TM seal of approval for biodiesel production & distribution companies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distribution </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies </li></ul>
    25. 26. ASTM D 6751 is CRITICAL BQ 9000 is becoming a given
    26. 27. Spec Grade B20 and Lower <ul><li>Made with ASTM grade B100 </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in replacement for petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of miles of trouble free use </li></ul><ul><li>B20 holds similar levels of water as petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Take cold weather precautions like diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Good detergent—may clean out systems upon first use (filter change in 2% cases) </li></ul><ul><li>Use within 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information </li></ul>
    27. 28. Going over B20 requires caution <ul><li>But it can be done with proper pre-cautions </li></ul><ul><li>NBB recommends average user stay at B20 </li></ul><ul><li>Cold flow issues are greater </li></ul><ul><li>Materials compatibility (hoses, gaskets) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning effect is more immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Engine oil may become diluted with fuel </li></ul>
    28. 29. Cold Flow Properties <ul><li>Biodiesel (B100) freezes faster than most petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated B20 freezes about 3-10 º F faster than petrodiesel, depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the cold flow properties of the biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cold flow properties of the petrodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B2 properties are similar to diesel fuel </li></ul><ul><li>B20 has been used successfully in climates below -20 º F </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional cold weather options for diesel work well with biodiesel and blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend with kerosene, use of additives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block and filter heaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor vehicle storage </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. In specification B100
    30. 31. Out of spec B100: High raw oil
    31. 32. Biodiesel Handling and Storage <ul><li>Some older fuel lines (Buna, natural rubbers) are not compatible with biodiesel and will degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Viton and Teflon hoses and seals are widely used today and are compatible with biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>No copper, brass, bronze, zinc, or other galvanized surfaces </li></ul>
    32. 33. Engine to Fuel System <ul><li>Biodiesel only contacts the fuel system so use should not affect bearings, turbo, oil/water pumps, and other wear-related parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel improves fuel lubricity and thus can be used as a lubricity additive for poor quality diesel fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, there have been some claims of crankcase oil dilution and oil thickening. This has not been observed in the U.S. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Operational issues <ul><li>Low energy content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not harmful, but may cause power loss and increased fuel consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold flow – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete reaction – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel oxidation – fuel filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel filter plugging is the most common operational issue </li></ul>
    34. 35. Biodiesel and Exhaust After-Treatment <ul><li>Biodiesel Enhances Diesel Particulate Filter and NOx After treatment performance compared to petrodiesel (or hydrocarbons) alone </li></ul><ul><li>Some models (mostly light duty) may experience high fuel in the engine oil if in-cylinder post-injection used for PM trap light off, especially with blends over B20 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No reported issues with B20 with medium/heavy duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VW 2009 light duty: No more than B5 due to this </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. New Diesel Technology -2010
    36. 37. DPF: Balance Point Temp - Regeneration Rate Results BPT ULSD 360 ºC B20 320ºC B100 250ºC <ul><li>BPT is 40ºC lower for B20 </li></ul><ul><li>Soot is more easily burned off of filter </li></ul><ul><li>B20: lower temperature duty cycle OK </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration rate increases with increasing biodiesel content </li></ul><ul><li>Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly </li></ul>
    37. 38. B20 vs. Diesel: In the shop <ul><li>With in spec B20 and lower, the issues you can expect to see in your shop are the same as you will see with petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect to see less lubricity related issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect to see less problems with after-treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter related issues likely normal diesel issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less black smoke from exhaust! </li></ul></ul>
    38. 39. What could I see in a Diesel Fuel Filter? Diesel Oxidation or Aphaltenes Diesel Fuel Paraffin wax
    39. 40. What could I see in a Diesel Fuel Filter? Water saturated filter paper Other contaminants like water and sediment or microbial contamination
    40. 41. What could I see that’s different than normal Diesel Fuel Filters? Partial reaction products from off specification biodiesel or imposter biodiesel
    41. 42. Filter Biodiesel plant Filter Filter Oil Filter Filter Filtration
    42. 43. OEM Support for Biodiesel Blends
    43. 44. OEM Warranty Statements and Biodiesel <ul><li>All major U.S. OEMs support at least B5 and lower blends, provided they are made with biodiesel meeting ASTM D 6751 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 55% of U.S. manufacturers support B20 or higher blends in at least some of their equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Several more are completing testing and progressing toward support for B20 now that new ASTM standards for B6-B20 blends have been published (ASTM D7467) </li></ul><ul><li>Most are also recommending use of a BQ-9000 supplier </li></ul>
    44. 45. OEMs Supporting B20
    45. 46. Other OEM Biodiesel Positions <ul><li>Expected to enter the U.S. diesel market (2010+), blend TBA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acura, Honda, Hyundai, Mahindra, Mini Cooper, Nissan, Smart Car, Subaru, Toyota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approve B5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audi, BMW, Detroit Diesel, Freightliner, Isuzu, Kubota, Mack, Mercedes, Volkswagen, Volvo </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. OEM Biodiesel Blend Approvals <ul><li>Approve B20 or higher on at least some models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equipment, Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler (Dodge Ram & Sprinter - Fleets Only), Ford (for 2011+ F-Series trucks), General Motors (for 2011+ models), Hayes Diversified Technologies, John Deere, Navistar/International, Perkins, Toro, Yanmar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approve B100: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case IH (approx. 50% of models), Fairbanks Morse, New Holland, Tomcar </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Truck Market <ul><li>American Trucking Association Endorses B5 Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ATA is proud to endorse the use of biodiesel in blends of up to 5%.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Rich Moskowitz, ATA Regulatory Affairs Counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAQ’s & News </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Legislative Incentives for Biodiesel: RFS-2 <ul><li>New Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) will be the single largest factor in biodiesel production and use to date </li></ul><ul><li>Final rule accounts for 2009 and 2010 Biomass-based Diesel use requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with EISA’s requirements, 1.150 billion gallons of biodiesel must be used domestically by </li></ul><ul><li>the end of 2010. Biodiesel used domestically in 2009 and 2010 will count towards this total. </li></ul>
    49. 50. State Biodiesel Legislation: <ul><li>42 states have now legislatively adopted the ASTM D6751 specifications for biodiesel  </li></ul><ul><li>7 states have passed biodiesel usage requirements:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two are currently in effect (MN & WA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five will be in effect as of July 1, 2010 (LA, MA, NM, OR, PA).    </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. NBB Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Training Toolkit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News Releases & Information Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Diesel Vehicle List </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listing of BioTrucker retail sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel merchandise, literature, pump labels and more! </li></ul></ul>