Technical overview of biodieselPresentation Transcript
Biodiesel 101 & Technical Overview National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Program February 2010
After today’s session, you will be able to do the following:
Understand why your customers want biodiesel
Answer general questions about biodiesel that your customers may ask you
Understand the importance of quality and the BQ-9000 program
Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit your shop
Biodiesel Driving Forces
Reduce dependence on imported crude oil and petrodiesel from unstable parts of the world
Reduce global warming by using a renewable fuel
Reduce harmful emissions from diesel engines
Can be used in any diesel engine without modifications, existing fueling stations can be used
Easy to use--drop in substitute for petroleum diesel fuel
Produces over 3 times more energy than it takes to grow and process the fuel
Engine and vehicle companies approve the fuel for use
Over 100 million miles of on-road trouble-free use both here and abroad
Why People Want Biodiesel
amount imported from Iraq U.S. Industry Goal :
5% on-road displacement by 2015 ≈ 1.85 BGY (met in various blend levels)
5% ≈ ¼ of diesel equivalent refined from Persian Gulf Crude or about the
Biodegradable and Non-Toxic - safer than diesel and biodegrades as fast as dextrose, a test sugar.
Greenhouse Gases – A 78% life cycle decrease in CO 2 according to a USDA and DOE study.
2007: 21,803 jobs
2007: $4.1 billion to GDP
$26 billion to U.S. economy by 2012
Create 38,856 new jobs in all sectors of the economy
Renewable Fuel Standard:
Requires 1 billion gallons B100 by 2012
B5 in 2/3 of all on road diesel!
Low cost option to meet RFS
National Biodiesel Board
Why make biodiesel? Diesel fuel injectors are not designed for viscous fuels like vegetable oil Glycerin (thick) Biodiesel
Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100.
Biodiesel Blend , n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
This tight definition was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injection equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs
Beware of Biodiesel Imposters!
ASTM D6751 Definition Eliminates:
Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats
Hydro-treated Oils and Fats
Proprietary Veg Oil / Ethanol blends
Blends With Diesel
Auto, engine, and fuel injection equipment makers only support D6751 biodiesel
What is Biodiesel?? Ethanol—NO! Raw Veg Oil—NO! “ Bio-Willie” Yes, but not from marijuana oil!
Ethanol is not Biodiesel!!!
Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol
Ethanol is intended only for spark ignited (i.e. gasoline) applications since it has good octane but poor cetane, zero lubricity
“Drink the best and burn the rest”!
Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines!
Biodiesel Raw Materials
Oil or Fat Alcohol
Sunflower Sodium hydroxide
Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide
Used cooking oils
Potential New Sources National Biodiesel Board Brown Grease Etc. Brassica Juncea Low Ricin Castor Algae Seashore Mallow Jatropha
Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Methanol (or Ethanol) One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) molecules Biodiesel Triglyceride
Vegetable Oil or
Biodiesel (100 lbs.) + Glycerin (10 lbs.) In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields
Important Biodiesel Parameters
Complete Reaction/Removal of Glycerin
Insured through total/free glycerin spec
Removal of Catalyst
Insured through sulfated ash spec
Removal of Alcohol
Insured through flash point spec
Absence of Free Fatty Acids
Insured through acid value spec
All these insured through ASTM D 6751
– Represents over $50 million and 15 years of testing
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are now available nationwide from more than:
1,600 Distributors and
Visit the NBB website at: www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/ or www.biotrucker.com to view biodiesel retailers near you, by state, or along a route
Biodiesel Pump Labeling
No Label Required:
Fuel blends containing no more than five percent biodiesel and no more than 5 percent biomass-based diesel and that meet ASTM D975.
Fuel blends containing more than five but no more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel.
Fuel blends containing more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based diesel.
Separate Labels for Biodiesel (Blue Labels) and
Biomass-Based Diesel (Orange Labels)
Biodiesel Production Locations Represent ~ 80% of biodiesel production volume in U.S.
ASTM D 6751
No Sulfur (1-2 ppm)
High Cetane (over 50)
Superior Lubricity in Low Blends
3.2 to 1 Positive Energy Balance
BTU same or higher than No. 1
78% Life Cycle CO 2 Reduction
All Proven: $70MM Scientific Study over 18 years
Biodiesel Performance Properties
B20 Similar Performance to Petrodiesel:
1-2% fewer BTUs per gallon than #2 diesel
B2 has up to 66% more lubricity than #2 Diesel
EPA required sulfur reduction in diesel
No overdosing concerns
1-2% 66% Improvement
Cleaner emissions * http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/38296.pdf Emission Type B100 B20 B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67% -20% -2.2% Carbon Monoxide -48% -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -47% -12% -1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) +10% +/-2%* +.2%
B100 Blending Component Specification
Cold Soak Filtration or Control of Minor Components added
Major steps forward for passage of biodiesel blend specifications
Critical for obtaining OEM approval
Critical for ensuring that biodiesel performs as advertised so market can grow
D6751-08 Requirements McCormick, R.L, Westbrook, S.R. “Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends” Standardization News , page 28, April 2007
ASTM Biodiesel Specs Now Approved
Started ASTM process in 1993
After 15 years, biodiesel blends were approved by ASTM in 2008
D6751: Pure biodiesel blend stock
D975: On/off road diesel with up to 5% Biodiesel
D7467: On/off road diesel with biodiesel between 6% and 20%
BQ 9000 Quality Program
Biodiesel Industry’s “Good Housekeeping” TM seal of approval for biodiesel production & distribution companies
Quality Control System covers biodiesel manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending, storage, shipping, distribution
ASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies
ASTM D 6751 is CRITICAL BQ 9000 is becoming a given
Spec Grade B20 and Lower
Made with ASTM grade B100
Drop in replacement for petrodiesel
Millions of miles of trouble free use
B20 holds similar levels of water as petrodiesel
Take cold weather precautions like diesel
Good detergent—may clean out systems upon first use (filter change in 2% cases)
Use within 6 months
See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information
Going over B20 requires caution
But it can be done with proper pre-cautions
NBB recommends average user stay at B20
Cold flow issues are greater
Materials compatibility (hoses, gaskets)
Cleaning effect is more immediate
Engine oil may become diluted with fuel
Cold Flow Properties
Biodiesel (B100) freezes faster than most petrodiesel
Untreated B20 freezes about 3-10 º F faster than petrodiesel, depending on:
the cold flow properties of the biodiesel
the cold flow properties of the petrodiesel
B2 properties are similar to diesel fuel
B20 has been used successfully in climates below -20 º F
Traditional cold weather options for diesel work well with biodiesel and blends
Blend with kerosene, use of additives
Block and filter heaters
Indoor vehicle storage
In specification B100
Out of spec B100: High raw oil
Biodiesel Handling and Storage
Some older fuel lines (Buna, natural rubbers) are not compatible with biodiesel and will degrade.
Viton and Teflon hoses and seals are widely used today and are compatible with biodiesel.
No copper, brass, bronze, zinc, or other galvanized surfaces
Engine to Fuel System
Biodiesel only contacts the fuel system so use should not affect bearings, turbo, oil/water pumps, and other wear-related parts.
Biodiesel improves fuel lubricity and thus can be used as a lubricity additive for poor quality diesel fuels.
In Europe, there have been some claims of crankcase oil dilution and oil thickening. This has not been observed in the U.S.
Low energy content
Not harmful, but may cause power loss and increased fuel consumption
Cold flow – fuel filter plugging
Microbial growth – fuel filter plugging
Incomplete reaction – fuel filter plugging
Fuel oxidation – fuel filter plugging
Fuel filter plugging is the most common operational issue
Biodiesel and Exhaust After-Treatment
Biodiesel Enhances Diesel Particulate Filter and NOx After treatment performance compared to petrodiesel (or hydrocarbons) alone
Some models (mostly light duty) may experience high fuel in the engine oil if in-cylinder post-injection used for PM trap light off, especially with blends over B20
No reported issues with B20 with medium/heavy duty
Arctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equipment, Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler (Dodge Ram & Sprinter - Fleets Only), Ford (for 2011+ F-Series trucks), General Motors (for 2011+ models), Hayes Diversified Technologies, John Deere, Navistar/International, Perkins, Toro, Yanmar
Case IH (approx. 50% of models), Fairbanks Morse, New Holland, Tomcar
American Trucking Association Endorses B5 Use
“ ATA is proud to endorse the use of biodiesel in blends of up to 5%.”
- Rich Moskowitz, ATA Regulatory Affairs Counsel
FAQ’s & News
Legislative Incentives for Biodiesel: RFS-2
New Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) will be the single largest factor in biodiesel production and use to date
Final rule accounts for 2009 and 2010 Biomass-based Diesel use requirements.
Consistent with EISA’s requirements, 1.150 billion gallons of biodiesel must be used domestically by
the end of 2010. Biodiesel used domestically in 2009 and 2010 will count towards this total.
State Biodiesel Legislation:
42 states have now legislatively adopted the ASTM D6751 specifications for biodiesel
7 states have passed biodiesel usage requirements:
Two are currently in effect (MN & WA)
Five will be in effect as of July 1, 2010 (LA, MA, NM, OR, PA).
Biodiesel Training Toolkit
News Releases & Information Resources
Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos
OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel
U.S. Diesel Vehicle List
Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies
Listing of BioTrucker retail sites
Biodiesel merchandise, literature, pump labels and more!