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Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians, Iowa Biodiesel Board training

Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians, Iowa Biodiesel Board training

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  • 1. Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians Sponsored b S d by: Iowa Biodiesel Board, National Biodiesel Board through funding by the Iowa Power Fund and the Soybean Checkoff Biodiesel for Diesel Technicians At the end of today’s session, you will: Answer general questions about biodiesel that you may b asked as a technician be k d t h i i Understand why customers want biodiesel Understand the importance of fuel quality and the BQ-9000 program Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit the shop 1
  • 2. Basics of Petrodiesel How is diesel made? Crude petroleum oil is heated up to separate the complex mixture of hydrocarbons i t usable products h d b into bl d t like diesel, gasoline and engine oils Each petroleum derived product contains hundreds or thousands of compounds and is distinguished by its boiling point and physical properties Today’s diesel fuel undergoes a hydro-treating process to reduce sulfur down to 500 or 15 ppm In future, it will likely all be 15 ppm 2
  • 3. Typical Refinery Products Product Boiling Range Boiling Range Deg. C Deg. F LPG -40 - 0 -40 - 31 Gasoline 30 - 200 80 - 400 Kerosene, Jet Fuel, #1 Diesel 170 - 270 340 - 515 #2 Diesel, Furnace Oil 180 - 340 350 - 650 Lube Oils 340 - 540 650 - 1000 Residual Oil 340 - 650 650 - 1200 Asphalt 540 + 1000 + Petroleum Coke Solid From: Schmidt, G.K. and Forster, E.J., “Modern Refining for Today’s Fuels and Lubricants,” SAE Paper 861176, 1986. 3
  • 4. 3 PROPANE METHANOL ETHANOL Benzene 8 ISO OCTANE (GASOLINE) Toluene Xylene 20 CETANE (DIESEL FUEL) Petrodiesel Composition 20 35 20-35 % aromatic compounds (benzene, (benzene xylene, toluene, etc.) 60-80 % straight/branched hydrocarbons generally with 8 to 24 carbons Some polycyclic aromatic compounds and p y y p sulfur compounds No oxygen containing compounds 4
  • 5. Petrodiesel Delivers Important Diesel Properties Auto-ignition = Cetane Number BTU Content = Fuel Economy/Power Viscosity = Fuel Thickness Vi it F l Thi k Cloud Point = Fuel Gelling Temperature Lubricity = Component Wear Sulfur = Lubricity, Anti-microbial Cleanliness = Dirt, Water, Metals Dirt Water Stability = Shelf Life, Filter Blocking Composition = Emissions American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ASTM sets fuel standards for US Consensus voting Best engineers and chemists from engine, fuel system, users, Users Producers petroleum, biodiesel, Consumers consultants, regulators General One O negative vote can i Interests fail a ballot Super majority (2/3) required for over ride 10 5
  • 6. ASTM D975 is the diesel spec The important diesel fuel properties are set by the ASTM specifications Or are pre-determined by the nature of the compounds that make up diesel fuel There is a significant amount of variability in diesel fuel which meets D975 Based on engine performance and climate This maximizes availability of fuel that will perform at the lowest cost to user Diesel Fuel -ASTM D 975 Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Property LS #1 LS #2 No. 1-D No. 2-D Flash point °C, min 38 52 38 52 Water and sediment, % vol, max. 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 Distillation temp., °C, 90% Min. -- 282 -- 282 Max. Max 288 338 288 338 Kinematic Viscosity, mm2/s at 40°C Min. 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.9 Max. 2.4 4.1 2.4 4.1 Lubricity, HFRR@60C 520 520 520 520 Micron, max Ramsbottom carbon residue, on 10%, %mass, max. 0.15 0.35 0.15 0.35 Ash, % mass, max. 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Sulfur, % mass, max 0.05 0.05 0.50 0.50 Copper strip corrosion, Max 3 hours at 50 C 50°C No. No 3 No. No 3 No. No 3 No. No 3 Cetane Number, min. 40 40 40 40 One of the following Properties must be met: (1) cetane index 40 40 -- -- -- (2) Aromaticity, % vol, max 35 35 -- -- -- 6
  • 7. Commercial Alternative Fuels Some need a totally new engine design: Propane, natural gas, methanol Some can be used in existing engines with some re-design or minor modifications: E85, B100 Some can be blended with traditional fuel and used in existing engines with little or no modifications (‘drop in’ fuels): E10, B20 and lower Commercial Alternative Fuels for Existing Engine Technology Must be similar for important parameters of the fuel the engine was designed for Hopefully improves some parameters Brings some other beneficial attribute to the table that people believe is important Social (emissions green house gases) (emissions, Physical/chemical (high cetane or lubricity, etc.) Economic (i.e. cheaper, low cost option) 7
  • 8. What is Biodiesel?? Raw Veg Oil—NO! “Bio-Willie” Yes, Yes but not from marijuana oil! Ethanol—NO! Ethanol is not Biodiesel!!! Ethanol is made from fermenting the whole corn kernel to ethanol Ethanol is intended only for spark ignited (i.e. gasoline) applications since it has good octane but poor cetane, zero lubricity “Drink the best and burn the rest”! Drink rest ! Raw ethanol in diesel fuel can severely damage diesel engines! 8
  • 9. Making Biodiesel In the presence of a catalyst Combining Yields Vegetable Oil Biodiesel or (100 lbs.) Animal Fat + (100 lbs.) Glycerine (10 lbs.) + Methanol (10 lbs.) Biodiesel Raw Materials Oil or Fat Alcohol Soybean Methanol Corn Canola Cottonseed Catalyst Sunflower Sodium hydroxide Beef tallow Pork lard Chicken fat Used frying oils 9
  • 10. Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Methanol Biodiesel Triglyceride Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Biodiesel molecule The diesel fuel standard, ‘cetane’, is 20 carbons in a long straight chain but has no oxygen Cetane: Biodiesel has 16 or 18 carbons in a long chain with some oxygen at one end (ester): Biodiesel Molecule carbons Double bond oxygens hydrogens 10
  • 11. Narrow Composition Mother nature produces oils and fats with a narrow range of composition C14 or less: 0 to 5%, usually less than 1% , y C16: 5 to 30% C18: 70 to 95% C20 or higher: 1% or less Biodiesel has much less variation than petrodiesel for most properties important to diesel engines BTU, viscosity, lubricity sulfur BTU viscosity lubricity, sulfur, emissions Some properties vary as much as petrodiesel, based on the saturation level of the oil/fat Cetane number, cloud point Biodiesel Delivers Important Diesel Properties Auto-ignition = Cetane Number over 50 BTU Content = Similar to #1, less than #2 Viscosity = Values in diesel fuel range Cloud Point = Current biodiesel higher than #2 Lubricity = Naturally high in lubricity Sulfur = Naturally less than 15 ppm Cleanliness = ASTM specs same as petrodiesel p p Stability = Spec set for 6 month min. shelf life Emissions significantly less for PM, HC, CO 11
  • 12. Important Specs Issues resolved with ASTM D6751 – Represents over $50 million and 15 years of testing Complete Reaction/Removal of Glycerine Insured through total/free glycerine Will cause injector coking, filter plugging, sediment formation Shortens shelf life Removal of Alcohol Insured through flash point May cause premature injector failure, safety concern Absence of Free Fatty Acids Insured through acid value Can cause fuel system deposits and effect fuel pump and filter operation Removal of Catalyst Insured through sulfated ash and Ca/Mg and Na/K May cause injector deposits and/or filter plugging Grade ASTM D6751 Grade Grade Grade Grade Property No. 2-D Flash point °C, min 52 Water and sediment, % vol, max. 0.05 Distillation temp., °C, 90% Min. Min 282 Max. 338 Kinematic Viscosity, mm2/s at 40°C Min. 1.9 Max. 4.1 Lubricity, HFRR@60C 520 Micron, max Ramsbottom carbon residue, on 10%, %mass, max. 0.35 Ash, % mass, max. 0.01 Sulfur, % mass, max 0.50 Copper strip corrosion, pp p , Max 3 hours at 50°C No. 3 Cetane Number, min. 40 One of the following Properties must be met: (1) cetane index -- (2) Aromaticity, % vol, max -- -- 12
  • 13. BQ-9000 A voluntary quality system certification program for the North American biodiesel N th A i bi di l industry Applies internationally accepted quality management principles Incorporates fuel specifications Uses a series of audits to verify adherence to the company’s own quality management system BQ-9000 Objectives To promote the commercial success and public acceptance of biodiesel To help assure that biodiesel fuel is produced to d t and maintained at the i t i d t th industry standard, ASTM D6751 13
  • 14. D6751 is CRITICAL: BQ 9000 becoming a given Three certifications possible for companies: BQ-9000 BQ 9000 Producer BQ-9000 Marketer BQ-9000 Laboratory (March 31, 2009) US Biodiesel Production 700 Million Gallons 700,000,000 Total Distillates Used: 60 Billion Gallons 600,000,000 On R d Diesel U d 30 Billi G ll O Road Di l Used: Billion Gallons 500,000,000 400,000,000 Biodiesel Tax Gallons Incentive 300,000,000 Bioenergy 200,000,000 200 000 000 Changes to Program P EPAct 100,000,000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 National Biodiesel Board 28 14
  • 15. Production Locations 6/22/09) 173 Plants BQ-9000 Producers Industry Plant Size 173 Plants Production Capacity 2.69 billion gallons per year Average Plant Size 15.5 million gallons per year 15
  • 16. New Construction (6/22/09) 29 Plants New Construction & Expansion 40 Plants Construction Capacity 849.9 million gallons per year Average Plant Size 21.2 million gallons per year 16
  • 17. So why the interest in biodiesel? Biodiesel Markets Biodiesel Markets ON-HIGHWAY USERS REGULATED FLEETS • Trucking • Federal • Fleets • State • Passenger Vehicles • Selected Utilities MARINE • Recreational • Tour Boats HOME HEATING • Environmentally Sensitive Areas AG AND OFF-ROAD USERS •Lubricity Enhancement •Underground Mines 17
  • 18. Biodiesel Improves Diesel Properties Blends with petrodiesel in any percentage Once it is blended it does not separate back out Higher Cetane Over 50 vs. average petrodiesel around 44 Smoother, more complete burn High Flash Point Makes it Safer Non hazardous shipping (over 200° F) Virtually Zero Sulfur Meets ULSD limits of 15 ppm or less Zero Aromatics Reduces Toxicity 11% Oxygen Provides Superior Lubricity and Reduces Black Smoke (Particulates) Spray and Combustion at Load with Biodiesel BP 15 BP 15 + 40 % Biodiesel B100 18
  • 19. Heavy Duty Emissions Averages FTP Engine Dyno Summary Emission Type B100 B20 B2 Total Unburned -67% -20% -2.2% Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide -48% -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -47% -12% -1.3% Oxides f Nit O id of Nitrogen (NOX) +10% 10% +/-2% +/-0.2% / 2% / 0 2% For engines without PM or NOx after-treatment Best “Bang for your Buck” at B20 Emissions vs Blend Level 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 -10 -20 Percent Reduction -30 Particulate Matter Reduction -40 Hydrocarbon Reduction Carbon Monoxide Reduction -50 -60 -70 -80 Biodiesel Blend Level 19
  • 20. HEAVY HC SPECIATION - CUMMINS N14 ENGINE B100 B20 2D octadecenoic acid methyl ester octadecadienoic acid methyl ester hexadecanoic acid methyl ester C18 n-octadecane C17 n-heptadecane diphenyl methanone trimethyl pentadecane C16 n-hexadecane trimethyl t i th l naphthalene hth l methyl ethyl naphthalene 1.1'-biphenyl, 3-methyl- 1,1'-ethylidenebis-benzene C15 n-pentadecane 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione tetramethyl hexadecane hexanedioic acid, bis methylethyl dimethyl naphthalene ethyl naphthalene C14 n-tetradecane trimethyl dodecane undecanol methyl naphthalene C13 n-tridecane tetrahydro dimethyl naphthalene methyl tridecane nonanoic acid hexyl cyclohexane dimethyl undecane C12 n-dodecane 1-dodecene butoxyethoxy ethanol nonanol octanoic acid (caprylic acid) ethyl dimethyl benzene benzoic acid C11 n-undecane methylisopropylbenzene phenyl ethanone C4-Benzene or C2-benzene methyl propyl benzene diethyl benzene ethyl hexanol Heptenoic acid, methyl ester C10 n-decane Heptanol ethyl methyl benzene C9 n-nonane xylene (dimethyl benzene) ethyl benzene tetramethyl butane 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 RELATIVE EMISSION RATE (MG/HP-HR) Enhanced Lubricity Equipment benefits Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Superior lubricity 800 700 B2 h up t 66% has to more lubricity than HFRR WSD (micron) 600 500 #2 Diesel 400 300 Eliminates need for 200 lubricity additives 100 0 EPA required sulfur reduction in 2006 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Biodiesel Blend (%) No overdosing concerns vs. other lubricity additives 20
  • 21. Energy security Increases Domestic Fuel Production Capacity Putting renewable feeds through existing refineries doesn’t do this Reduces Energy Imports and Dependence on Foreign Oil Sources U.S. Industry Goal: 5% on-road displacement by 2015 ≈ 1.85 BGY (met in various blend levels) ( ) 5% ≈ ¼ of diesel equivalent refined from Persian Gulf Crude or about the amount imported from Iraq 21
  • 22. USA Energy Security Highway Carbon Emissions 14 (million metric tons) 1990 2000 2010 2020 12 Domestic Oil Production 325 384 455 507 lions of Barrels per Day 10 Heavy Trucks GAP ssenger Vehicles 8 Light Trucks 6 4 Mill Pas 2 Automobiles 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19, DOE/ORNL-6958, September 1999, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA- 0383(2000), December 1999 4 44 22
  • 23. Creates Domestic Manufacturing Jobs in Rural America Green Jobs 2007: 21,803 jobs 2007: $4.1 billion to GDP $26 billion to U.S. economy by 2012 Create 38,856 new jobs in all sectors of the economy Renewable Fuel Standard: Requires 1 billion gallons B100 by 2012 RFS can be translated to B5 in 2/3 of all on road diesel! Low cost option to meet RFS National Biodiesel Board 45 Biodiesel and Global Warming Closed Carbon Cycle: CO2 Used to Grow Feedstock is Put Back Into Air • 78% Life Cycle Decrease In CO2 Energy Balance 3.2 to 1 • Over 3 times as much energy out as it took to make the biodiesel Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel) 30% More Efficient Than Spark Ignition (i.e. gasoline, CNG, propane) 23
  • 24. Producing Feed, and Some Fuel Biodiesel starts with an oil or fat Oils/fats are made as a minor by product of producing food by-product for humans and animals Soybeans are 80% high protein feed, 20% oil Cattle, hogs and chickens are not grown for fat! People don’t fry more french fries to get used oil! None of the sources for oil are grown for the oil, it is a natural by-product of producing food Biodiesel f Bi di l from existing sources can support feeding and i ti t f di d fueling the worlds population. Production of crops for food on existing land may double in 15 years, thus doubling the by-product oil for biodiesel New Biodiesel Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory August, 2007 Crop Oil Yield Gallons/acre Corn 18 Cotton 35 Soybean 48 Mustard seed 61 Sunflower 102 Rapeseed/Canola 127 Jatropha 202 Oil palm 635 Algae “10,000” 24
  • 25. Questions and Answers Break Biodiesel Performance, Engine Durability and Field Studies 25
  • 26. Biodiesel—A proven fuel Biodiesel is perhaps the most well studied and documented alternative fuel in the world Recent US interests started in 1990 ASTM Biodiesel Task Force Started in 1993 $100,000,000 $100 000 000 in research and development We may know more about biodiesel than we do about ultra low sulfur diesel! Diesel Fuels and Alternatives: Some important terminology Petrodiesel: Traditional petroleum derived diesel fuel meeting ASTM D975 Biodiesel: Mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from oils/fats meeting ASTM D6751 Biodiesel Blends: A blend of petrodiesel and biodiesel designated BX, XX = percent of biodiesel g , p Renewable or Green Diesel: generic category for any other new fuel for diesel engines for which there are no approved ASTM specifications 26
  • 27. Beware of Biodiesel Imposters! ASTM D6751 Definition Eliminates: Coal Slurries Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats R V t bl Oil dF t Non-Esterified Oils Hydro-treated Oils and Fats Proprietary Veg Oil / Ethanol blends Auto, engine, and fuel injection equipment makers only support D6751 biodiesel Other fuels will need to get ASTM specs Quality, Quality, Quality B100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blends See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users See NBB document “Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20” for more information: 27
  • 28. Why care about biodiesel quality? Off specification biodiesel can cause engine operability problems Quality is critical to continue to grow the industry There is NO room for off-specification fuel Customers need to receive consistent quality from lot to lot, batch to batch Must be on-spec for tax credit and to be legal fuel In specification B100 28
  • 29. Out of spec: High raw oil Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc. 29
  • 30. Out of spec: Incomplete reaction and high catalyst conc. Biodiesel and Engine Manufacturers After the first passage of ASTM D6751 in 2001, even though engine manufacturers voted positive at ASTM most were not yet willing to put their name behind B20 National Biodiesel Board set forth on intensive effort to work with OEM’s to address any issues and concerns B20 Fleet Evaluation Team Formed 30
  • 31. B20 Fleet Evaluation Team Develop fact based informed position on B20 e e op act o ed pos t o o 0 Most major diesel engine and fuel injection companies participated in this process B20 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Detailed identification of everything that can go wrong when using B20 g g Rank: Severity, Occurrence, Detection modes Develop RIN: Risk Identification Number Develop plan to address high RIN areas B20 Fleet Evaluation Members Bosch International Case New Holland John Deere Caterpillar National Biodiesel Board Cummins National Renewable l bl DaimlerChrysler Energy Lab Delphi Diesel Systems Parker - Racor Department of Defense Siemens Diesel Systems Engine Manufacturers Stanadyne Corp Association Volkswagen AG Ford Motor Co Volvo Truck General Motors Fleetguard 31
  • 32. B20 FMEA Results Most potential ‘problems’ are eliminated if the problems B100 meets D6751 prior to blending More info is needed on after-treatment More info is needed on stability/shelf life More info is needed from field (materials compatibility, un-anticipated issues) Provide user advise to help trouble-free use B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations Biodiesel is the pure, or 100 percent, biodiesel fuel. It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel. A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B20 blend is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent by volume petrodiesel ). Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petrodiesel. ( ) g p Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends only from companies that have been registered under the BQ-9000 fuel quality program. 32
  • 33. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations Ensure the B20 blend meets properties for ASTM D 975, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils or the ASTM specification for B20 once it is approved. Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used within six months. Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. See the NREL Biodiesel Storage and Handling Guidelines for further information. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning properties. The use of B20 can dissolve sediments in the fuel system and result in the need to d h f l d l h d change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the petrodiesel. Be aware of B20’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. When operating in winter climates, climates use winter blended diesel fuel If B20 is to fuel. be used in winter months, make sure the B20 cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and time of year the fuel will be used. 33
  • 34. B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine operation and maintenance manual. If using B20 in seasonal operations where fuel is not used within 6 months, consider storage enhancing additives or flushing with diesel fuel prior to storage. These recommendations on use of B20 are preliminary and are not provided to extend or supplant warranty limitation provided by an individual engine or equipment supplier. Use of B20 blends is solely at the discretion and risk of the customer and any harm effect caused by the use of B20 are not the responsibility of the engine or equipment maker. Biodiesel Performance: Meeting ASTM Specifications 34
  • 35. 2004 B100 Quality Survey • Under guidance of B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (OEM’s, NREL, NBB) • Samples obtained nationwide from biodiesel blenders (27 samples) • 85% of samples tested met the ASTM D6751 specification Four samples failed with high levels of: l l f •phosphorus (lube oil contamination?) •total glycerin •acid number •acid number and total glycerin 2006 B100 Quality Survey A subcontractor visited the site of a biodiesel blender usually a terminal blender, operator or jobber, to collect the B100 sample 32 B100s, 6 B99s, and 1 B50 59% of B100 samples tested fail the D6751 specification 30% fail total glycerin – immediate operational problems in cold weather Other issue of concern is 20% failure rate for Na+K Samples were collected randomly, not on production volume basis • Biodiesel, based on production volume, may have different failure rate • Poor quality batch may have contaminated larger fuel lot 35
  • 36. 2008 B100 Quality Survey Collect B100 samples directly from producers and analyze for p p y properties most likely to y impact engine performance and emission control systems Flash point, oxidation stability, acid value, free and total glycerin, cloud point, Na+K, Ca+Mg, P, water & sediment First survey that will link test results to y production volume Results presented at 2008 National Biodiesel Conference and Expo 2008 B100 Quality Survey Over 90% of the volume sold in the US met ASTM specifications BQ-9000 companies consistently met or exceeded ASTM specifications, regardless of size of company/plant p y/p Of non BQ-9000 companies, out of spec product was more likely with smaller companies 36
  • 37. Biodiesel Performance: Some E S Examples of Field l f Fi ld Durability Studies Many detailed B20 Studies have been performed and published US Postal Service, St Louis Bus System Service St. Denver Regional Transit Bus System Las Vegas Valley Water District Clark County, NV School District Connecticut DOT; Keene, NH; NC DOT; Keene Cedar Rapids, IA Buses, etc. etc. etc. 37
  • 38. Handling & Usage Department of Energy (DOE) B100 & Blends Material Compatibility Engine Performance Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions Fleet Management Experiences 38
  • 39. Cold weather can cloud and even gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel. Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit. Similar precautions employed for petroleum diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends. • blending with #1 diesel (kerosene) • using fuel heaters and parking indoors • and using a cold-flow improvement additive User B20 Results Summary Similar fuel economy Similar maintenance costs Some initial filter clogging—’cleaning the system’ Some cold weather filter clogging Usually due to in-adequate blending or handling, ‘normal diesel issues, poor quality biodiesel or imposter normal issues biodiesel Following established guidelines give trouble free use Positive driver and user experience—smell, smoke 39
  • 40. Biodiesel Performance: Some E S Examples of Lab l fL b Durability Studies 1000 Hour Durability B20 These slides courtesy of Cummins. Testing at SwRI. The objective was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20 biodiesel fuel, and do a comparative analysis with engines that have operated under the same type of conditions using #2D diesel fuel. Accelerated, high-load durability c cle d rabilit cycle hr 0 25 50 125 1000 40
  • 41. Test Engine Cummins prototype 2007 ISL Six cylinder 8.9 liter Rated power of 330 BHP Peak torque of 1150 ft•lb at 1300 rpm Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Post injection (in-cylinder) for active regeneration Variable geometry turbocharger g y g Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with cooler Cummins fuel injection system Test Cycles Durability Testing Accelerated High Idle Peak High-load Power Low Idle Transient cycle Peak Varying load and speed Torque Cycle repeated for 1000 hr >70% of durability Emissions Testing cycle at full load Federal Test Procedure (FTP) One cold start transient FTP test Three hot start transient FTP test One SET Ramped Modal Cycle 41
  • 42. Durability & Emission Results Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability t t th d bilit test. Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported significant changes in performance of the engine. Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD. g y The emission-grade B20 test resulted in ≈6% higher NOx (within expected range) Fuel consumption was observed to be ≈3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD test (within expected range). Overhead Components Top of cylinder head Bottom of cylinder head No sludge deposits Deposits comparable to #2D Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuel Intake Valves Exhaust Valves 42
  • 43. Power Transfer Components Component p Comments Cranckshaft Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Cranckshaft Meets rebuild spec Lower & Upper Normal wear During teardown, the crankshaft was Bearings found to be in very good condition, and f d b i d di i d Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec results were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Bushing Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders. Component Comments Piston Normal light wear and Minor staining deposits. Cylinder Normal light wear. Liners Top rings Normal uniform face Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust Side wear. Top and bottom Cylinder 1 side look typical. Middle rings g Normal face wear. Top p and bottom sides OK, and light carboning. Top Piston Oil rings Looked good. Very little Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1 wear. Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. 43
  • 44. Cooling and Lube Components Cylinder 1 Top Component Comments Cylinder 6 Bottom Oil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Oil pressure No issues regulator/bypass Bottom (Oil) Piston Rings Piston cooling No problems due nozzles l to B20. There were no failures found on the cooling and lube components. The Oil Pan Normal wear and deposits found on the parts Oil suction tube Gasket showed were normal and consistent with good imprint of findings found on parts that ran with seal #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. Turbo coolant/oil Normal lines Air Handling Components Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coating of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diffuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumulation. EGR gaskets, hoses, No issues found due Carbon deposit layer was generated on the tubes, shield, to running with B20. passage and inside parts of the EGR mounting plate, valve, but thickness was very thin and crossover condition was dry which is normal for this durability test. 44
  • 45. Aftertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Looked good. No face plugging. Oxidation Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Catalyst (DOC) Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC after 1000 hr of operation, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel Particulate fuel for this type of test. Filter (DPF) Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and Looked good. outlet section Gaskets Looked good. Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle Plunger Needle – Top View No marks on needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining. Plunger Orifice not clogged with oil sludge or Stage 2 Plunger deposits Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test. 45
  • 46. Fuel System Components Rail and fuel Rail – No abnormal wear. lines End Fitting – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deterioration or cracks observed. observed Mechanical No unusual wear, deterioration or sludge buildup observed on Dump Valve plungers, plunger seats or orifice. (MDV) 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. Soft Lines No visible damage to any section of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indicating that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pitting damage on any of the surfaces. Summary A Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy-based biodiesel and ULSD. During the durability testing, no biodiesel related failures occurred. Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with B20 fuel. A thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. There were no failures found on the engine components that were directly attributable to running biodiesel B20. The wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with findings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. 46
  • 47. Emissions Regulation Drives Modern Oil Quality 14.4 16 14 8.05 12 6.7 6.7 NOx, g/kW-Hr 10 5.4 8 6 3.3 1988 1990 4 1.5 1991 2 1994 CE 0.27 0.013 0 1998 CF-4 0.134 2000 CG-4 0.33 2002 CH-4 2007 CI-4 0.80 2010 CJ-4 PC-11? Engine Lube Tests with B-20 Objective: To determine if there are any effects on lubricant performance f f from th use of B 20 fuel the f B-20 f l B5 and lower is now considered covered as ‘normal’ diesel fuel Plan: Run standard engine tests with B-20 using standard reference oils to compare lube performance with a standard # 2 diesel Fuel: B-20 blended from PC-10 fuel and B-100 such that the blend meets D 7467 47
  • 48. Engine Durability Tests for CJ-4 Oil Demand Increased Performance Caterpillar C-13 C 13 Mack T-12 T 12 Cummins ISB Cummins ISM Oil Consumption Power Cylinder Slider Valve Train Power Cylinder, Valve Blow-By and Wear and Wear and After- Train Wear, Filter Life Piston Deposits Oxidation Treatment and Sludge Control Engine Tests for B-20 Evaluation API CJ-4 Engine Test and Performance Criteria Cummins Cummins GM Cat Cat Mack Mack Gasoline Navistar Performance ISM ISB 6.5L C13 1N T-12 T-11(A) IIIG / IIIF 7.3L Valve T i W V l Train Wear X X X Liner Wear X Ring Wear X X Bearing Corrosion X Oxidation X X Oil Consumption X X X Iron Piston Deposits X Aluminum Piston Deposits X Soot Viscosity Increase X Sludge X Filter Plugging X Aeration X Low Temp Pump @ 5.2% Soot X Performance areas covered in B-20 testing “API CJ-4: Diesel Oil Category for Both Legacy Engines and Low Emission Engines Using Diesel Particulate Filters” James A McGeehan, SAE 2006-01-3439 SAE 2006 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 48
  • 49. Summary: Engine Test Parameters Examination of the control parameters for these engine tests: All wear data within acceptance limits • No evidence of unique, higher wear type of soot All controlled piston / ring deposits within acceptance limits Low temperature viscometrics not an issue Non rated engine parts appeared clean and free of sludge O y b Co os o a d Only Pb Corrosion and T 12 oxidation are slightly outside normal values see o dat o a e s g t y outs de o a a ues seen with engine oils and petrodiesel alone Neither have caused issues with B20 use in the field Mack T-12 Parts Cleanliness 49
  • 50. Bottom Line Engine / Fuel / Lubricant are inter-related B5 and lower is just considered normal diesel fuel Treat exactly the same as petrodiesel alone No special engine oils are needed when using B20 at the present time Engine companies are evaluating lab and field data to determine if any changes are needed in the future Some may recommend a special oil designed for biodiesel in the future or lower drain intervals, some may not Follow OEM recommendations for oil change intervals and type of engine oil Trends in wear metals such as lead, total acid number (TAN) and total base number (TBN) are useful indicators ASTM Biodiesel Specs Now Approved Started ASTM process in 1993 After 15 years, biodiesel blends were y , approved by ASTM in 2008 D6751: Pure biodiesel blend stock D975: On/off road diesel with up to 5% Biodiesel D7467: On/off road diesel with biodiesel between 6% and 20% 50
  • 51. Spec Grade B5 and lower (D975) Made with ASTM grade B100 Is now just considered traditional diesel fuel falling under D975 All the same practices and procedures that apply for diesel fuel apply for B5 and lower pp y Lubricity attributes of small levels of biodiesel may enhance engine life, reduce lubricity related repairs and problems. Spec Grade B6 to B20 (D7467) Made with ASTM grade B100 g Drop in replacement for petrodiesel Millions of miles of trouble free use B20 holds similar levels of water as petrodiesel Take cold weather precautions like diesel Good detergent—may clean out systems upon first use (filter change in 2% cases) Use within 6 months 51
  • 52. Going over B20 requires caution But it can be done with proper pre cautions pre-cautions NBB recommends average user stay at B20 Cold flow issues are greater Materials compatibility (hoses, gaskets) Cleaning effect is more immediate Engine oil may become diluted with fuel Questions and Answers Break 52
  • 53. New Diesel Emissions Technology and Biodiesel; Troubleshooting Diesel Emission Reductions 53
  • 54. 2010 standards • Introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel in October 2006 • EPA emissions standard for 2007: • Diesel particle filters (DPF) • Increased levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and higher fuel injection pressures • Full EPA emissions standard in 2010: • DPF, EGR, high pressure fuel injection • Exhaust catalysts for NOx reduction •NOx adsorber catalysts unburned diesel fuel for operation catalysts, •Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) •Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) needed for SCR operation Diesel Particle Filters Exhaust flows through porous wall-flow elements PM is trapped on the walls of the filter When exhaust temperature is high enough, PM is burned off In most cases, unburned diesel fuel is injected to accomplish this Precious metal is loaded onto filter walls to lower the temperature required for regeneration Issues: Regeneration at low temperatures/duty cycles Plugging with incombustible materials like lube oil ash 54
  • 55. NOx Controls NOx Adsorber Catalyst/Lean NOx trap Catalyst converts all NOx to NO2, adsorbent bed “traps” NO2 When bed is saturated, exhaust forced rich NO2 is released and converted to N2 Bed also traps SO2, but doesn’t release it • Near sulfur free exhaust is needed • Higher temps, longer time needed to NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) is also release sulfur known as a lean-NOx trap (LNT) 90%+ conversion is possible Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Used for industrial NOx control for years NOx + NH3 ensor Requires a supplemental “reductant” Se Typically ammonia, derived from urea • “Diesel Exhaust Fluid” SCR 80-90% reduction efficiency Generally sulfur tolerant Injection Urea Biodiesel Testing Cummins ISB 300 2002 Engine, 2004 Certification Cooled EGR, VGT Johnson Matthey CCRT 12 Liter DPF Passively Regenerated System Pre Catalyst (NO2 Production) Fuels: ULSD, B100, B20, B5 ReFUEL Test Facility 400 HP Dynamometer Transient & Steady State Testing Cummins Soot Characterization Significant financial support for testing 55
  • 56. B20 Testing B20 results in substantial PM reduction even with DPF (data for 2003 Cummins ISB with Johnson Matthey CCRT on HD FTP) Reduction with DPF ranges from 20% to 70%, depending on basefuel, test cycle, and other factors • Reduction in sulfate emissions • Increased PM reactivity Williams, et al., “Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance” SAE 2006-01-3280 Superb Results BPT • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20 ULSD 360ºC • Soot is more easily burned off of filter B20 320ºC • B20 can be used for lower temperature duty cycle B100 250ºC • Regeneration rate increases with increasing biodiesel content • Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly 56
  • 57. Biodiesel and DPF Biodiesel is compatible with Diesel Particulate Filters, and has some distinct advantages: Lowers regeneration temperatures Less engine out particulate matter May provide increased performance and decreased maintenance vs. ULSD alone May provide increased fuel economy Regeneration mode is important Late in-cylinder injection may cause increased fuel dilution of engine oil and limit the level of biodiesel that can be used (i.e. B20 or B5) h b d (i Most US heavy duty applications use exhaust stream fuel injection which is compatible with B20, perhaps higher blends Some light duty OEM’s recommend max B5 at present Biodiesel Testing with LD Emission Systems Includes two emission control systems and two fuel blends on a light-duty platform NAC/DPF and SCR/DPF 5% and 20 % biodiesel blends Performance, optimization and durability Aging to represent 2100 hours of operation (approximately 120,00 miles or full useful life) for B20 Emissions evaluations over UDDS, US06, and HFET– testing by EPA Perform engine and fuel component teardown at end of aging Engine: DCX Vehicle: Mercedes OM646 C200 CDI 57
  • 58. EPA Chassis Dynamometer NOx Adsorber Catalyst (NAC) 11 10 9 Cold LA4 50,000 mile PM [mg/mile] 120,000 mile B20 8 7 Hot LA4 Standard Standard 6 Composite FTP75 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 NOx [g/mile] 11 10 9 Cold LA4 50,000 mile g/mile] 120,000 mile 8 ULSD 7 Hot LA4 Standard Standard 6 Composite FTP75 PM [mg 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 NOx [g/mile] Experimental: SCR Diesel Particulate Filter Compare SCR catalyst performance JM CCRT (12 Liters) with ULSD and Soy B20 through Passively Regenerated engine testing Pre Catalyst for NO2 Production y Measure relative importance of catalyst temp, exhaust chemistry and catalyst de-NOx Aftertreatment JM Zeolite SCR (15.5 Liters) space velocity Urea Injection (air assisted) Measure B20’s impact on these system NH3 Slip Catalyst variables and overall NOx conversion Focus on Steady-State Modal Testing Diesel Engine 2002 Cummins ISB (300 hp) 2004 Emissions Cert Cooled EGR, VGT, HPCR Urea Injection Diesel Selective NH3 DOC Particulate Catalytic Slip Filter Reduction Cat 58
  • 59. ULSD vs B20 – SCR No statistical difference in NOx Conversion with B20 Conclusions: NBB, the US Department of Energy, and the engine and vehicle manufacturers are expending significant resources to understand how biodiesel blends interact with new diesel emission controls Detailed testing thus far indicates B20 and lower blends are compatible with both diesel and NOx after treatment Provides benefits in some cases B5 is now just part of normal D975 diesel fuel j p Additional study is underway Quantify long term benefits of biodiesel blends Late in-cylinder injection may cause fuel dilution NBB is encouraging OEM’s to publicly support B20 59
  • 60. OEM’s and Biodiesel Support Fuel Quality and ASTM specs are KEY B5 across the board, especially now its in D975 Experience/familiarity of each OEM yields differing opinions for blends over B5 B20 vs. B100 is primarily gasket/hose issue Customer base makes a big difference When customers say they won’t buy new engines unless B20 is fully warranted, all of a sudden its OK! NBB is actively working with most major OEM’s to achieve OEM s B20 support by all OEM’s Fuel quality enforcement programs ASTM Blend Standards passed last year Aftertreatment studies OEM Biodiesel Blends Approve B5 : Detroit Diesel, Isuzu, Kubota, Mack, Mercedes, Volkswage n, Volvo Approve B20 or higher on at least some models: Arctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equip., Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler (Dodge Ram & Sprinter - Fleets) Ford, General Motors (SEO for Fleets), Ford fleets), Hayes Diversified Technologies, John Deere, Navistar, Perkins, Toro Approve B100: Case IH, Fairbanks Morse, New Holland, Tomcar 60
  • 61. B20 vs. Diesel: In the shop With in spec B20 and lower, the issues you can expect to see in your shop are the same as you will see with petrodiesel Except: Expect to see less lubricity related issues Expect to see less problems with after-treatment p p Filter related issues likely normal diesel issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel Less black smoke from exhaust! Sources for Filter Clogging: Petrodiesel and Biodiesel 61
  • 62. Exposure to Air • Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture. • Generally Gene all displaces the f el fuel as tank is emptied. • It is not practical to keep air from entering the tank. • Will increase the oxidation of fuel. • Do not store fuels for long g periods of time in partially empty tanks without stabilizers. • Consider desiccant dryers. Microbial Growth Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and g propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface. Water needed to live—no water, no bugs. Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen. This environment is needed for living growth living, growth, and reproduction. The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell. 62
  • 63. Water Contamination ULSD reaches water saturation at approximately 200-300 ppm. More settles to the bottom. NREL B20 survey data: same water saturation level as petrodiesel. More settle to the bottom B100 can hold more water, up to 1200 ppm Still very small—0.12%, on the same order as gasoline can hold water. Un-dissolved water settles to the bottom like it does in petrodiesel tanks tanks. While higher than petrodiesel, biodiesel is not water loving (i.e. hygroscopic) like ethanol is. Most people do not understand this fact. High Water Concentration 63
  • 64. Icing of the filter When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging in cold temps. A filter which has been plugged but is clean and new at room temperature indicates that icing is the likely cause. Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures. Free water Sediment/Rust build-up Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing. Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel. Not related to biodiesel use 64
  • 65. Sediment/Rust build-up Paraffin Wax High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed. When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank. When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid. q Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel. 65
  • 66. Paraffin Wax Oxidation Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up build up. Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black “asphaltene” petrodiesel type material collecting on the filter. This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines. f i i 66
  • 67. Oxidation Petrodiesel does not have an oxidation specification, while B100 and B6 to B20 specs already d l d do. Biodiesel can also oxidize, but oxidized biodiesel manifests itself in acid numbers which are out of spec The id Th acid number f bi di b for biodiesel will go out l ill of spec before filter clogging occurs Oxidation 67
  • 68. Monoglyceride Build-up The next filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material—an out of spec or ‘imposter’ biodiesel. Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if not within spec Monoglycerides do not turn back into a liquid at room temperature Can be distinguished from diesel by its brownish, butterscotch pudding type of appearance Un-reacted Biodiesel: gy Saturated Mono-glyceride 68
  • 69. Troubleshooting Checklist Microbial Growth – Exposure to air and water Icing of Filter – Excess water in tank Oxidation – Hot fuel return to fuel tank Monoglyceride Build Up – Off specification Paraffin Wax – T Temperature at or below cloud t t b l l d point Steps to Maintaining Fuel Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months. Once a year send your f l to lab t be t t d for O d fuel t l b to b tested f microbial contamination 69
  • 70. NBB Resources News Releases & Information Resources Educational Videos Available Technical Lib T h i l Library & Resources R On-line Database & Spec Sheets OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel U.S. Diesel Vehicle List Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies BQ 9000 Biodiesel merchandise, literature, signage, pump labels and more! The Iowa Biodiesel Board and the National Biodiesel Board authorize the reproduction or use of this material for educational purposes National Biodiesel Board Iowa Biodiesel Board 605 Clark Ave • PO Box 104898 4554 114th Street Jefferson City, MO 65110-4898 Urbandale, IA 50322-5410 (800) 841-5849 (515) 727-0664 70