1000 Hour Durability Evaluation of a
       Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine
        with Aftertreatment Using
            B20...
Topics
     qIntroduction
     qObjective & Test Plan
     qTest Engine Characteristics
     qTest Cycles
     qTest Fuels...
Introduction

    q A prototype 2007 ISL engine was built at Cummins Technical
      Center and shipped to Southwest Resea...
Test Plan
         qThe objective was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20
          biodiesel fuel, and do a compa...
Test Engine

    qCummins prototype 2007 ISL
    qSix cylinder 8.9 liter
    qRated power of 330 BHP
    qPeak torque of 1...
Test Cycles

    q Durability Testing                        Peak
                                                        ...
Test Fuels
            Fuel         Description                          Sequence of Events
            Type
             ...
Results




8
Oil Analysis                   Percent Amount of Biodiesel Measured
                                        from Engine Lu...
Durability & Emission Results

     q Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used
       during the durabi...
Overhead Components
           Top of cylinder head                Bottom of cylinder head
           No sludge deposits  ...
Power Transfer Components


     Component          Comments
     Cranckshaft Gear   Meets rebuild spec
     Cam Gear     ...
Power Cylinder Components
                                                       Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders.
...
Top Piston Rings




                Top Rings
                                                                         To...
Cooling and Lube Components

                                                                 Cylinder 1 Top
     Componen...
Air Handling Components

     Component               Comments

     Exhaust Manifold        No issues.

     EGR Cooler  ...
Aftertreatment Components
     Component            Comments
     Diesel Oxidation     Looked good. No face plugging.
    ...
Fuel System Pictures
                    Stage 1 Plunger Needle       Plunger Needle – Top View


     No marks
     on ne...
Fuel System Components
     Rail and fuel   Rail – No abnormal wear.
     lines           End Fitting – No unusual wear.
 ...
Summary
     qA Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC,
      DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler ...
Acknowledgements

          National Biodiesel Board
       Southwest Research Institute
      National Renewable Energy L...
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Cummins b20 1000hr durability

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Cummins b20 1000hr durability

  1. 1. 1000 Hour Durability Evaluation of a Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine with Aftertreatment Using B20 Biodiesel Fuel Yolanda Bartoli February 5, 2008 National Biodiesel Conference
  2. 2. Topics qIntroduction qObjective & Test Plan qTest Engine Characteristics qTest Cycles qTest Fuels qCrankcase Oil Analysis qDurability & Emission Results qTeardown Analysis qSummary 2
  3. 3. Introduction q A prototype 2007 ISL engine was built at Cummins Technical Center and shipped to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). q The National Biodiesel Board contracted SwRI to perform durability and emission testing on the prototype engine. q The testing was performed by the Department of Engine and Vehicle Technology in the Engine, Vehicle, and Emissions Research Division at SwRI. q SwRI procured the fuel from suppliers, and performed fuel analyses. 3
  4. 4. Test Plan qThe objective was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20 biodiesel fuel, and do a comparative analysis with engines that have operated under the same type of conditions using #2D diesel fuel. d ie rif ve ce ed d an z d ly ed st e ke st rm a te c an e rfo t he es ns ns pe lc pl o si o oi si ne e am is Accelerated, high-load is em gi ub ls em en e l oi durability cycle ne ne i d gi n be gi ng oa En Lu En E ll l Fu hr 0 25 50 125 1000 4
  5. 5. Test Engine qCummins prototype 2007 ISL qSix cylinder 8.9 liter qRated power of 330 BHP qPeak torque of 1150 ft•lb at 1300 rpm qDiesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) qDiesel Particulate Filter (DPF) qPost injection (in-cylinder) for active regeneration qVariable geometry turbocharger qExhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with cooler qCummins fuel injection system 5
  6. 6. Test Cycles q Durability Testing Peak High Idle Low Idle qAccelerated Power qHigh-load Peak qTransient cycle Torque qVarying load and speed qCycle repeated for 1000 hr >70% of durability cycle at full load q Emissions Testing qFederal Test Procedure (FTP) qOne cold start transient FTP test qThree hot start transient FTP test qOne SET Ramped Modal Cycle 6
  7. 7. Test Fuels Fuel Description Sequence of Events Type Hr Test Fuel A Neat B100 soy-based biodiesel biodiesel from Sun Coast Resources, Inc. 0-125 Durability C B 2007 Emission grade #2D ULSD certified (<15ppm sulfur) which met 125 Emissions B ULSD 2007 EPA specs from Haltermann Products. 125 Emissions (A+B) (A+B) Emission Blend of 2007 cert. ULSD -Grade and Neat biodiesel blended B20 by SwRI used only during 125-1000 Durability C emissions testing Durability B20 blend of neat soy-based 1000 Emissions B C -Grade biodiesel and commercially B20 available ULSD blended by 1000 Emissions (A+B) Sun Coast Resources, Inc. 7
  8. 8. Results 8
  9. 9. Oil Analysis Percent Amount of Biodiesel Measured from Engine Lube Oil Samples at Different Hour Intervals q CJ4 Valvoline Premium Blue Sample Biodiesel Sample Biodiesel (hr) (wt %) (hr) (wt %) 50 0.83 600 0.77 q Soot, viscosity, TBN and elemental analysis were 150 1.48 650 1.15 found to be within normal 200 1.64 700 1.70 range. 300 0.37 750 1.98 350 1.04 800 0.46 q Oil dilution, which measures amount of fuel in the oil, was 400 1.28 850 0.73 conducted by NREL. 450 1.47 900 1.22 500 1.45 950 1.68 550 0.51 1000 1.84 9
  10. 10. Durability & Emission Results q Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability test. q Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported significant changes in performance of the engine. q Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. q Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD. qthe emission-grade B20 test resulted in 6% higher NOx (within expected range) q Fuel consumption was observed to be 3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD test (within expected range). 10
  11. 11. Overhead Components Top of cylinder head Bottom of cylinder head No sludge deposits Deposits comparable to #2D Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuel Intake Valves Exhaust Valves 11
  12. 12. Power Transfer Components Component Comments Cranckshaft Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Cranckshaft Meets rebuild spec During teardown, the crankshaft was Lower & Upper Normal wear found to be in very good condition, and Bearings results were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Bushing 12
  13. 13. Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders. Component Comments Piston Normal light wear and Minor staining deposits. Cylinder Liners Normal light wear. Top rings Normal uniform face wear. Ring Grooves Top and bottom side look Anti-Thrust Side Cylinder 1 typical. Middle rings Normal face wear. Top and bottom sides OK, and light carboning. Oil rings Looked good. Very little Top Piston wear. Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1 Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. 13
  14. 14. Top Piston Rings Top Rings Top Rings Top Side Bottom Side Cylinder 1 Top/Cylinder 6 Bottom Cylinder 1 Top/Cylinder 6 Bottom Top Rings Top Rings Back Side View Front Side View Cylinder 1 Top/Cylinder 6 Bottom Cylinder 1 Top/Cylinder 6 Bottom 14
  15. 15. Cooling and Lube Components Cylinder 1 Top Component Comments Cylinder 6 Bottom Oil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Oil pressure No issues regulator/bypass Piston cooling nozzles No problems due to Bottom (Oil) Piston Rings B20. Oil Pan Normal There were no failures found on the cooling and lube components. The Oil suction tube Gasket showed good imprint of seal wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent with Turbo coolant/oil lines Normal findings found on parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. 15
  16. 16. Air Handling Components Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coating of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diffuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumulation. Carbon deposit layer was generated on the EGR gaskets, No issues found due passage and inside parts of the EGR valve, hoses, tubes, shield, to running with B20. but thickness was very thin and condition was mounting plate, dry which is normal for this durability test. crossover 16
  17. 17. Aftertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Oxidation Looked good. No face plugging. Catalyst (DOC) Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC after 1000 hr of operation, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel fuel for this Particulate Filter type of test. (DPF) Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and outlet Looked good. section Gaskets Looked good. 17
  18. 18. Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle Plunger Needle – Top View No marks on needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining. Plunger Orifice not clogged with oil sludge or Stage 2 Plunger deposits Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test. 18
  19. 19. Fuel System Components Rail and fuel Rail – No abnormal wear. lines End Fitting – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deterioration or cracks observed. Mechanical No unusual wear, deterioration or sludge buildup observed on plungers, Dump Valve plunger seats or orifice. (MDV) 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. Soft Lines No visible damage to any section of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indicating that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pitting damage on any of the surfaces. 19
  20. 20. Summary qA Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy- based biodiesel and ULSD. qDuring the durability testing, no biodiesel related failures occurred. qEngine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with B20 fuel. qA thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. qThere were no failures found on the engine components that were directly attributable to running biodiesel B20. qThe wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with findings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. 20
  21. 21. Acknowledgements National Biodiesel Board Southwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Lab Sustainable Energy Strategies U.S. Department of Transportation 21
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