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Clean diesel and aftertreatment 2
 

Clean diesel and aftertreatment 2

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    Clean diesel and aftertreatment 2 Clean diesel and aftertreatment 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Clean Diesel and After-Treatment Systems Gary M. Parsons Global OEM and Industry Liaison Manager February 1, 2009
    • Presentation Overview ! U.S. Emissions Requirements " Drivers of new technologies ! Common Rail Injection ! Diesel Particulate Filters " Regeneration Strategies " Plugging ! Biodiesel Fuel Dilution ! Critical Biodiesel Properties To Avoid DPF Plugging ! NOx After-Treatment ! Summary
    • Progression of US Highway Heavy Duty Emissions Requirements 12 10 1988 to 2010 1988 8 ~98% reduction in NOx NOx , g/hp-hr ~99% reduction in PM 6 1994 4 1998 1991 1990 2 2002 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 2007/2010 Particulate, g/hp-hr
    • Impact of HD Soot Emissions Regulations in the US Particulate Matter 1988 0.6g/Bhp-Hr 1994 47 miles 0.1g/Bhp-Hr 285 miles 114 miles New 2007 York 0.01g/Bhp-Hr City 2,853 miles 1991 0.25g/Bhp-Hr Los Angeles
    • Relative Contribution of Particulate Matter of HD Diesel On-Road Engines – 1988 Versus 2007 1988 475 pounds of P.M. in 120,000 miles 2007 9 pounds of P.M. in 120,000 miles Photos Courtesy of Freightliner Trucks
    • Light Duty Gasoline and Diesel Must Now Meet The Same Emissions Regulations ! Both diesel and gasoline need to meet the same Tier 2 Bin 5 requirement ! Diesel fuel price and exhaust after-treatment differential presents the most significant barrier for light duty diesel engines in US vehicles US Federal Emission Standards Passenger Cars FTP 75 cycle, (g/mi) CO NOx NOx PM diesel gasoline Tier 1 phased in 1994-97 4.2 1.25 0.6 0.10 100.000 mi useful life Tier 2 EPA bin phased in 2004-09 7 4.2 0.20 0.02 120.000 mi useful life 6 4.2 0.15 0.02 5 4.2 0.07 0.01 4 2.1 0.07 0.01 3 2.1 0.04 0.01 2 2.1 0.02 0.01 1 0 0.00 0.00 OEM Fleet avg NOx, max 0.07 Additional standards for NMOG (Non-Methane Organic Gas) and HCHO (formaldehyde) • California LEV 2 is similar to EPA Tier 2 bin 5
    • Partnership – A Necessity Fuels, Lubricants, Additives and After-treatment to Achieve Diesel Emissions Targets Low Ash Engine Engine Oil Engine Oil Additives Heat Tolerance Low SAPs EGR Advanced Injection System Volatility Oxidation Inhibitors Base Oil Change Diesel Particulate Filters Low Emissions Low Sulfur • Fuel • Base Oil Ultra-Low • Additive Sulfur NOx abs Diesel Fuel Low Phosphorous • Additive DeNOx cat Urea • Additive Lubricity and SCR Cold Flow Additive Emissions Catalysts
    • U.S. Reducing Diesel Fuel Sulfur Direct Correlation With PM Emissions To Reduce Particulate and for Compatibility With Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) 5,000 ppm 1993 500 ppm Off Highway 95% On-Highway June 2006 500 ppm 15 ppm 2010 15 ppm On and Off Highway
    • Fuel Sulfur Levels, Hardware Changes, and Engine Oils Have Had To Change To Meet Regulations 10.7 10.7 12 6.0 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 NOx, g/BHP-Hr 10 4.0 4.0 8 6 2.0 2.0 1988 1990 1.2 1991 4 1.2 CE 1994 2 .2 .2 CF-4 1998 Pa .01 0 CG-4 rt 0.1 2000 ic ul 0.25 2002 CH-4 at e, 2007 CI-4 CI-4 g/ BH 0.6 2010 PLUS 500-5,000 ppm P- CJ-4 H 500 ppm max r 15 ppm max
    • Alternate Emissions Technology Solutions to Meet On- Highway Emission Limits HD Exhaust Emission Standards 0.15 1996 Euro 2 US 2004 Particulate Matter (g/kWh) 0.10 2000 Euro 3 De-NOx DPF 0.05 2008 Euro 5 NOx/PM trade-off 2005 Euro 4 US 2007 SCR 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 US 2010 NOx (g/kWh)
    • Lowering NOx Through In-Cylinder Techniques Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooled EGR Cooled EGR In-Cylinder Temperature No EGR EGR TDC G9801035
    • Common Rail Direct Injection For Improved Combustion Reduced Emissions and Better Fuel Economy Supply Pump Common Rail # Precise fuel control #Working pressures to 32,000 psi # 1µM plunger clearance. Human hair is ~50 µM #Fuel cleanliness critical Injector ECU Source : DENSO Home page
    • Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) to Meet PM Requirements Heavy Duty Trucks 2007 & Passenger Car 2009 0.4 0.35 Diesel Particulate 1991 Particulate (g/kWh) 0.3 Filter (DPFs) 0.25 on All Diesels 0.2 Heavy Duty Emissions Standards 0.15 0.1 2002 1998 1994 0.05 2010 2007 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NOX (g/kWh)
    • Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Shown With Wall-Flow Filter Substrate Engine Clean Exhaust Exhaust Removes ~ 97% of Particulate (Carbon) © Copyright Johnson Matthey Pic 2005
    • Diesel Particulate Filter Chemical Reactions 2NO + O2 $ 2NO2 (~500 deg F) PM + O2 $ CO2 +H2O (~1,000 deg F) 2NO2 + 2C $ N2 +2CO2
    • Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Engine Fuel Injection Exhaust to Heat Clean Exhaust Gas Exhaust or Auxilary Fuel Burner System to Heat Exhaust Gas or Late Post Injection With Common Rail Fuel System © Copyright Johnson Matthey Pic 2005
    • DPF Regeneration With Dosing Injector System Used In Most Heavy Duty Truck Applications
    • 2007 Caterpillar ACERT On-Highway Engine Configuration Combustor for DPF Regeneration Combustor For Manual DPF Regeneration • 2 Fuel Lines (~250 psi) • 2 Coolant Lines (in/out) • 1 Air Line • Spark Plug Igniter
    • Late Post-Injection in DPF Vehicles Leads to Higher Levels of Fuel Dilution Multiple Injection Strategy to Control Combustion • Late post injection is typically used in light duty diesels equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) Source: Robert Bosch GmbH
    • Crankcase Fuel Dilution With Biodiesel Properties of Biodiesel Lead to Higher Fuel Dilution Levels Than Mineral Diesel Surface Tension 30 Diesel – normal 25.4 25 22.5 droplet size 20 15 Diesel RME Biodiesel Specific Gravity 0.89 0.874 0.852 0.86 0.83 0.8 Diesel RME Biodiesel Viscosity, cSt at 100°C Larger fuel spray 3 2.4 droplet size 2 1.3 1 Late post-injection leads to 0 Diesel RME Biodiesel higher levels of fuel dilution
    • Late Post Injection Leads to Higher Levels of Fuel Dilution Conventional Late Injection Timing Post-Injection Increased Wall Wetting Fuel Enters Crankcase
    • Crankcase Fuel Dilution With Biodiesel Higher and Narrower boiling range of biodiesel makes it more persistent once it enters the crankcase 100 80 Mass % 60 40 20 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Carbon Number Soy Methyl Ester 12 10 8 Mass % 6 4 2 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 • OEMs have reported 15-20% fuel dilution (FAME) at oil drain Carbon number • OEMs often reduce drain intervals when Biodiesel blends are Mineral Diesel used
    • Oil Dilution During Particular Trap Regeneration Source: Volkswagen
    • DPF Collects Lubricant Derived Materials “Clean Air” VI VI Improver Improver Detergent Ash and Inhibitor Base Oil • Impurities and ash forming compounds in diesel fuel collect in the DPF too
    • DPF Service Life ! For Heavy Duty Trucks, EPA has mandated a minimum DPF servicing interval of 150,000 miles and a minimum DPF life of 435,000 miles (10 years or 6,000 hours) " Soot may be eliminated through oxidation " Ash must be physically removed " Engine makers are responsible for DPF maintenance cost if maintenance cycle less than 150,000 miles
    • Critical Biodiesel Properties and Specifications DPF Ash Loading Property ASTM D6751 Test Method Limits Calcium and Magnesium 5 max EN 14538 Water and Sediment 0.05 max D 2709 Sulfated Ash 0.02 max D 874 Carbon Residue 0.050 max D 4530 Phosphorous Content 0.001 max D 4951 Sodium and Potassium, 5 max EN 14538 Combined
    • NOx Emissions Control Trends U.S. Off-highway Emissions Standards 130<kW<225 (175<hp<300) Particulate g/bhp-hr 0.60 0.50 The combination of • EGR 0.40 • SCR & Urea (or NOx Adsorber, Light Duty Diesel) 0.30 • TC – Two Compressor Tier 1 - 1996 (Turbo’s) and Two Intercoolers Tier 4 will 0.20 require ULSD & exhaust Tier 2 – 2003 after 0.10 Tier 4 - 2012=>2014 Tier 3 - 2007 treatment 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NOx g/bhp-hr
    • Alternate Emissions Technology Solutions to Meet On- Highway Emission Limits HD Exhaust Emission Standards 0.15 1996 Euro 2 US 2004 Particulate Matter (g/kWh) 0.10 2000 Euro 3 De-NOx DPF 0.05 2008 Euro 5 NOx/PM trade-off 2005 Euro 4 US 2007 SCR 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 US 2010 NOx (g/kWh)
    • In-Cylinder and After Treatment Systems for On- and Off-Highway Heavy Duty Aqueous EGR Two Stage Urea Air to Turbos and Solution Air Cooler Two Stage Tank Intercoolers Pump and (Diesel Exhaust Injector Fluid - DEF) 1 Exhaust Atomized Dosing Urea 2 Injector Solution C 3 T 4 5 Closed SCR Ammonia 6 Closed Catalyzed Catalyst Slip Common Crankcase Particulate Catalyst Rail Fuel Filter System
    • Compact DPF-SCR-Urea to Meet Particulate and NOx Standards Ex hau st Catalyst to Urea Mixing Unit O Reduce NOx ut le t Ammonia Slip SCR SCR Exhaust Inlet Oxicat DPF Slip SCR SCR Urea Injection Point With Wide Spray Catalyst to Prevent Ammonia Release
    • Lean NOx Trap Being Used in VW Clean Diesels " Lean NOx traps highly sensitive to fuel sulfur levels and other contaminants " Fuel economy penalty as fuel is consumed in after- treatment system
    • Diesel Exhaust After-Treatment Systems Positives Negatives Diesel Particulate #Scalable to all engine sizes #Increased back pressure and applications impacts fuel economy Filter (DPF) #Highly efficient #Periodic maintenance to clean out ash #Fuel dilution when late post injection is used Selective Catalyst #Good fuel economy #Infrastructure for Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Reduction (SCR) - #Difficult to downsize Urea #Doesn’t work well in city driving mode Lean NOx Trap #No extra fluid required #Worse fuel economy #Not sensitive to driving mode #Sensitive to sulfur (LNT) #Reliability for HD applications
    • Summary ! Emissions regulations are driving new hardware, fuels, and lubricants technologies into the market ! A systems approach is required in order to meet sometimes conflicting requirements simultaneously ! The introduction of Common Rail Injection systems has lead to reduced emissions, noise, and fuel consumption but requires very clean fuel ! Exhaust after-treatment devices are required to meet the latest Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx emissions requirements ! In-use compliance requirements can result in the OEM being responsible for emissions system performance for 10+ years ! Late-post injection can lead to elevated levels of biodiesel fuel dilution ! Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) require regeneration and can plug due to ash forming compounds ! The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 has a provision for OEMs to capture CAFÉ credits if they produce B20 vehicles (similar to E85 credit for FlexFuel vehicles).