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  • 1. CANADIAN DIESEL FUEL CURRENT TOPICS
    • Dr. Andy Pickard
    • Senior Advisor, Fuels
    • Petro-Canada
    North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001
  • 2. DIESEL FUEL TOPICS
    • Fuel Standards and Specifications; Canadian & American; OEM
    • Emissions Issues
    • Fuel Qualities <=> operations / problems
    • Miscellaneous Diesel Fuel Issues
  • 3. CAN/CGSB-3.6 & -3.517
    • National Standards of Canada for Regular Sulphur Diesel Fuel and Automotive Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel .
    • Consensus standards
    • Provinces must legislate for legal standing
    • Minimum standard in practice.
    • [www.pwgsc.gc.ca/cgsb]
  • 4. U.S. Diesel Fuel Standard
    • ASTM D 975 - consensus standard
      • RSD & LSD
    • State Responsibility
    • California Diesel Fuel: “CARB Diesel”
    • [www.astm.org]
  • 5. OEM FUEL SPECIFICATIONS
    • Individual OEM companies may spell out fuel requirements or recommendations.
    • World Wide Fuel Charter
      • EMA, AAM; JAMA; ACEA
      • 4 categories of diesel fuel
      • www.engine-manufacturers.org
  • 6. EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS
    • Driver: Air quality in urban areas.
    • Particulates & Nitrogen Oxides (NO x )
    • Forcing most engine and fuel changes.
    • On-highway versus off-highway.
    • Fuel: low sulphur & ultra low sulphur
  • 7. EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS
    • Major engine changes
      • electronics
      • higher fuel injection pressures
      • timing changes / more soot
      • EGR
      • NO x catalysts and particulate traps
  • 8. IMPACTS on FUELS
    • Electronics: hotter fuel; thermal stability;
            • fire safety issue.
    • Injection pressure: lubricity / wear.
    • Soot: lighter fuel / lower aromatics.
    • EGR: --
    • NO x catalysts: “no” sulphur.
    • Particulate traps: lighter fuel / lower aromatics.
  • 9. FUEL QUALITIES : OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS
    • Individual specification requirements will be discussed, with implications for diesel engine operations or problems.
  • 10. FUEL QUALITIES : OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS
    • CLEANLINESS !!!!
    • Clean & Dry is critical, and is the most important single quality requirement!!
    • Dirt / particles will plug filters, restrict fuel flow / power, and lead to wear in pumps and injectors.
    • Water can cause rusting, corrosion, erosion, wear & catastrophic failure.
  • 11. CETANE NUMBER
    • Diesel fuel combustion quality
    • Higher cetane = quicker combustion
      • ( shorter ignition delay )
    • Cetane number = engine test result.
    • Cetane index = calculation to predict cetane number.
    • No correlation to fuel density.
  • 12. CETANE NUMBER
    • 40 cetane number is minimum standard in North America ( typically 41 - 46 ).
    • Higher cetane is desirable, but expensive.
    • Cetane quality effects cold starting:
      • white smoke
      • warm-up (smooth or rough)
      • noise level
    • Cetane requirement drops when engine hot.
  • 13. SYNCRUDE: OIL SANDS
  • 14. SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel
    • Organic sulphur compounds in crude oil.
    • Regular (high) sulphur diesel = < 0.5 % S
        • ( RSD , < 5,000 ppm sulphur )
    • Low sulphur diesel fuel = < 0.05 % S
    • ( LSD ; < 500 ppm sulphur )
    • Ultra low sulphur diesel fuel = < 15 ppm S
    • ( ULSD , June, 2006 )
  • 15. SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel
    • Sulphur in diesel fuel: burns to form SO x
    • Corrosive to engine and exhaust system SO x + H 2 O ---> H 2 SO 3 , H 2 SO 4
    • Air pollutant
    • increases particulates
    • degrades engine oil
  • 16. LOW SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel
    • Lower particulate emissions
    • Lower SO x emissions
    • Less engine / exhaust corrosion
    • Less engine oil degradation (longer oil drain or better quality oil)
  • 17. LUBRICITY
    • The ability of fuel to lubricate parts of fuel systems (pumps and injectors).
    • Most fuels have good lubricity.
    • Low lubricity fuels require lubricity additive in Canada (but not in U.S.).
    • Laboratory lubricity tests are poor, and may not show the presence of additives.
  • 18. LUBRICITY
    • Rotary and distributor pumps are most vulnerable.
    • Unit or in-line units (which are oil-lubricated) are less effected by fuel lubricity, and more likely to be ‘gummed’ by excessive lubricity additive or reaction of additive with engine oil.
  • 19. VISCOSITY
    • The “flow” property of diesel fuel;
    • Minimum and maximum limits;
    • Effects: nozzle spray pattern & droplet size;
    • “slippage” past pump;
    • possible filter restriction;
    • lubricity / wear.
  • 20. DENSITY: ENERGY CONTENT
    • kg / L @ 15 ºC; typically 0.855 kg / L
    • Energy content is related to density:
    • Higher density = higher energy content
    • Better fuel economy or higher power
    • Total range only about 7 % in energy (0.800 to 0.875 kg / L)
    • Typically < 2 % variation winter to summer.
  • 21. API GRAVITY (Obsolete term)
  • 22. TYPICAL TRUCK TERMINAL
  • 23. LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES
    • Cloud point normally used.
    • Obsolete term: pour point .
    • “2.5 % low end design temperature” (2.5 % of hourly temperature readings are lower than the design temperature.)
    • Not required in U.S. D 975.
  • 24. DIESEL FUEL NAMES
    • Names related to temperature:
    • Seasonal diesel fuel - seasonally adjusted.
    • Identified by Celsius cloud point .
    • Obsolete names : Diesel 40 or P-40 negative Fahrenheit pour point: -40 ºF.
    • Other names: Arctic Diesel / No. 1 Diesel / Diesel 50 / “Diesel Light”,
  • 25. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS
    • Icing : most common winter problem; ice crystals or layer of ice plug fuel filter.
    • Note: engine may run for a while before stalling.
    • Actions : change filter / drain water when warm; change fuel for winter fuel.
  • 26. WATER & ICE
    • No free water , however
    • No limit on dissolved water .
    • Solubility of water in diesel fuel decreases as the temperature drops.
    • Excess water separates as a haze or as ice crystals , which cause fuel filter plugging.
    • Action: drain any water while fuel is hot.
  • 27. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS
    • Waxing or gelling : rare problem.
    • Wax crystals separate below cloud point and plug filter; eventually fuel ‘gels’ and goes solid.
    • Action: Warm up & change fuel; replace fuel filter.
    • (It takes a lot of kerosene to ‘cut’ waxy fuel!)
  • 28. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS
    • Fuel flow restriction :
    • Symptom : engine runs but does not develop full power. Causes : fine filtration; partly plugged filter; high viscosity fuel. Actions : replace filter / use higher porosity filter; change fuel.
  • 29. DISTILLATION
    • Boiling range of diesel fuel.
    • Higher boiling (heavier) components increase soot and deposits.
    • Only real “choice” is between Type B (No. 2 - heavier fuel; seasonal diesel fuel) and Type A (No. 1 - lighter fuel).
  • 30. FLASH POINT
    • The temperature of the fuel at which the vapours will burn when ignited with a spark or flame.
    • Minimum +40 ºC; typically +50 to +70 ºC.
    • Safety issue ; not a diesel engine issue.
    • Auto-ignition: 225 ºC
  • 31. HIBERNIA
  • 32. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
    • Safety issue : Canadian diesel fuels must have suitable conductivity to dissipate static electrical charges that may develop during pumping.
    • Minimum 25 pS/m; typically > 100 pS/m
    • Not a requirement in the U.S.
  • 33. OTHER REQUIREMENTS
    • These specification requirements are usually “non-issues”:
        • Copper corrosion
        • Acidity (total acid number)
        • Carbon residue
        • Ash
  • 34. MISCELLANEOUS
    • “ Bad Fuel ”: usually the sign of a mechanic who does not know what’s wrong!
    • Identify the real issue: e.g. dirt, water.
    • Differentiate between symptoms and causes .
    • Talk to local fuel suppliers!
  • 35. MISCELLANEOUS
    • “ Bad Fuel ” continued:
    • When there is a genuine fuel quality problem, there are usually many vehicles effected.
    • When a single vehicle is effected, it may be due to dirty or contaminated fuel in that vehicle, but not to ‘all fuel’.
  • 36. HARMONIZATION
    • Harmonization of fuels :
    • Canada will follow U.S. fuel developments in order to benefit from lower emissions from new engine designs.
    • e.g. 15 ppm ULSD “at point of sale” for on-highway diesel fuel.
  • 37. QUALITY
    • Quality Control / Quality Assurance
    • Many refineries and laboratories are now following ISO 9000 practices to ensure quality products.
    • Still work to be done on quality practices in distribution and at point-of-sale .
  • 38. QUALITY PROBLEMS
    • # 1 issue is cleanliness: clean & dry!!
    • # 2 issue is water / ice at low temperatures.
    • All other fuel-related problems are minor by comparison.
  • 39. INVESTIGATION of COMPLAINTS
    • What is the problem ? What was really observed , not possible causes.
    • When did it start?
    • Where is the problem?
    • Where is the problem not occurring?
    • Test possible causes for consistency .
  • 40. HEALTH & SAFETY
    • Use normal ‘good hygiene’ practices in handling diesel fuel:
        • Minimize skin contact.
        • Remove any fuel-soaked clothing.
        • Wash with soap and water before eating or smoking.
    • See MSDS
  • 41. FUTURE DIESEL FUEL
    • All changes driven by lower emissions.
    • June 1, 2006 : ULSD = 15 ppm sulphur for on-road diesel fuel. Harmonized with U.S.
    • 2007?: off-road diesel fuel: 500 ppm S ?
    • 2010?: possible limits on cetane / density / aromatics / < 10 ppm sulphur?
  • 42. QUESTIONS ??
    • Are there any questions on fuel topics?
    • There are no silly questions…
    • There are only people who make
    • silly mistakes because they didn’t ask simple questions!
  • 43. HIGH QUALITY DIESEL FUEL
    • Dr. Andy Pickard
    • Senior Advisor, Fuels
    • Petro-Canada
    • [email_address]
    • (403) 296-8019
    North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001