The industry has made great strides in fuel quality, and certainly fuel quality and meeting specification helps ensure performance. However, the proof is in the pudding, so let’s look at some examples of field durability studies that have been conducted on biodiesel over the last 7-10 years.
There have been a tremendous amount of detailed studies that have been published and performed on B20 usage in the United States over the last 7-10 years. The US Postal Service, the St. Louis bus system, the Denver Regional bus system, Las Vegas Valley Water District, Clark County School District in Nevada, everywhere from Connecticut to New Hampshire, to North Carolina, to Cedar Rapids, IA etc, etc. The list is impressive indeed. In addition to having use in a variety of different types of equipment, you’ll see that this list also contains a variety of different climatic conditions, both hot desert, cold winters and steamy hot summers in humid parts of the country.
Even after the B100 specifications at ASTM were actually passed in 2001, after 8 years of intense research and balloting, some engine manufacturers were still not willing to recommend B20 to their customers. The NBB began an intensive effort to address any issues and concerns that OEM’s might have and formed a ‘B20 Fleet Evaluation Team’ with the major OEM’s in the 2003 timeframe.
The B20 Fleet Evaluation Team was to develop a fact based informed position on B20. Members from most of the major diesel fuel and fuel injection equipment companies agreed to participate on the effort. The first order of business was to use typical industry tools used to evaluate issues and risks and apply them to the use of biodiesel. A Failure Mode and Effects Analysis—FMEA for short—was conducted for B20. This is a useful means to identify things that can go wrong with a product and how to prevent them from going wrong. Usually an FMEA is done with an engine part or component, but in this case the group applied the FMEA to using B20 in an existing engine. A prestigious group of engineers from the OEM’s detailed everything they could think of that might go wrong when fueling an existing diesel engine with B20, ranked each item based on the severity of the issue, how often it might occur, and how easy it is to detect the issue. Based on those rankings, a Risk Identification number was generated and a plan to address high RIN areas was developed
Here is a listing of the companies and entities who participated in the B20 Fleet Evaluation Team. A virtual who’s who of diesel engines in the US and even some from overseas.
Interestingly enough, and to the surprise of some of the OEM’s in the group, the FMEA completed in 2005 pointed out that if the biodiesel met the ASTM specifications for B100, most of the ‘problems’ identified were eliminated. If the fuel met specs, most of the concerns with B20 evaporated. This served to validate the ASTM specifications, which was a key finding. The effort also identified several areas where additional study or information is needed as you can see from the slide….more information is needed on biodiesel’s impact on after-treatment systems, more on stability/shelf life, more data from the field—especially with materials compatibility and any issues that have surfaced that the FMEA didn’t identify, providing the user some advise to help insure trouble free use of B20 blends. Each of these issues has since been addressed, either through additional testing or through updates of the ASTM specifications.
One of the pieces of follow-up was to provide the users guidance on what to do to have a successful B20 experience. This guidance is what the OEM and fuel system companies of the B20 Fleet Evaluation Team came up with as guidance to consumers using B20. It was presented by John Deere at the National Biodiesel Conference and Expo in 2006 and adopted by the National Biodiesel Board. It is still in use today and millions of customers who follow this guidance have had successful trouble free experience with B20. Each bullet should be read in its entirety.
Each bullet should be read in its entirety
Each bullet should be read in its entirety
Each bullet should be read in its entirety. As you can see….no rocket science here. Meet the specifications, buy from quality companies, take the precautions that are normally done with diesel fuel, be prepared to change fuel filters upon initial use if needed, monitor for leaks.
In addition to all of those documented studies, many of which can be found through searches of the Society of Automotive Engineers papers, or through simple searches on the internet, there have been a variety of other useful summary documents which have been prepared and are available, which review biodiesel performance and use in the field. One such document is the biodiesel handling and use guidelines prepared by the Department of Energy, which covers a variety of experience with both B100 as well as biodiesel blends. It goes over engine performance, diesel emissions, materials compatibility, and all sorts of other useful data from all of the field experience which has been generated with biodiesel.
The Transportation Research Board has also published a summary document from biodiesel use in transit fleets in which over forty different fleet experiences were summarized in this comprehensive document which is available on the internet.
Additional information has been documented on biodiesel’s use in cold weather. Of course, cold weather we know can cloud and gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel, and users with B20 with No. 2 usually see a slight increase of the cold flow properties, about 2-10 degrees F colder than with normal diesel fuel. Similar precautions can be employed for petroleum diesel that are needed for biodiesel blends. Blends with No. 1 fuel use fuel heaters or parking indoors, or use a cold flow improvement additive.
While the short nature of our training program doesn’t allow us to go through the detailed results for individual fleet system, they certainly are available for your review. To summarize these, users with B20 show similar fuel economy as with conventional diesel fuel. Some users see a slight increase, some see a slight decrease, but usually it’s well within the range of normal variability of fuel economy. They see similar maintenance costs as with conventional diesel fuel. Initially, most users see some filter clogging when the system is being cleaned, although this is somewhat dependent on the condition of the fueling system and whether diesel fuel has left significant deposits over time. We do see users with some cold weather filter clogging, which is usually due to either inadequate blending or handling, or knowledge of the fuel. The normal type of diesel issues with filter clogging were water related issues, microbial contamination associated with conventional diesel fuel. We saw some poor quality of biodiesel or imposter biodiesels that caused some cold weather filter clogging. So some small incidents of cold weather filter clogging, but all can be handled by using the established guidelines to allow trouble free use. In general, studies showed a very positive driver and user experience. Most users note the decrease in smell, the decrease in smoke. A lot of technicians have noted that their eyes don’t sting anymore, their lungs don’t burn when smelling biodiesel exhaust. It doesn’t dry out skin if spilled like conventional diesel does. There was a lot of positive driver, user and technician experience with B20.
One of the reasons for that is some of the durability runs that had been done on B20 in existing engines. It’s fairly typical for an engine company to run durability runs with diesel fuel to make sure the engines they put out are going to perform well in the field over time. They do that with an accelerated program plan, and in this case, Cummins ran a 1000 hour durability on B20, with the objective to operate the engine for 1000 hours using B20 fuel and do a comprehensive analysis of the engine that had operated on the fuel with the same type of conditions that they would use for No. 2 diesel fuel. You see the test plan here, looking at 1000 hour test plan, 125 hours of initial break-in, measuring emissions, and then running the engine for another 875 hours for a total 1000 hours. Then they run the emissions again to see how the emissions of the engine might have changed throughout its useful life. Most of the time, the engine is run on an accelerated high load durability cycle to stress the engine out again, stressing the engine as much as possible to gain maximum potential negative effects, should there be any on the engine.
The test engine used was a Cummins prototype 2007 ISL engine, six cylinder, 8.9 liter with 330 brake horsepower at 1150 ft lb of torque at 1300 rpm. It was outfitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst and a diesel particulate filter. That filter used the in-cylinder post injection for active regeneration. It had variable geometry turbocharging, exhaust gas recirculation with an inner cooler, and the Cummins proprietary fuel injection system. So it really had the latest bells and whistles on a prototype engine with both EGR and a diesel particulate filter. There were no NOx controls on this particular engine.
The test cycle that was used had about 70% of the durability cycles at full load, so it accelerates through high load in a transient cycle, it varies the load and speed, and then it repeats those cycles anywhere from peak torque power to high idle to low idle to peak torque, and goes through that cycle over 1000 hours. The emissions testing that was done was according to the Federal Test Procedure. One cold start transient FTP test and then three hot starts, and then one set of Ramped Modal Cycle.
The results for that engine are shown on this slide. Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 was used during the test. The test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, no reported significant changes in performance of the engine. The engine performance was essentially the same when it was tested at 125 hours and at 1000 hours after the accumulated durability operation. The emissions results indicated that the hydrocarbon, CO and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and the ULSD in this particular test. We do see PM, CO and hydrocarbon levels on non particulate trapped engines, but with the particulate trap, the B20 didn’t provide that much more than the ULSD alone did. On the emissions also, the B20 was slightly higher in NOx, but is within the range that we expected to see for this particular test cycle and this particular engine. We may see lower NOx, in other applications or if a chassis dyno was used rather than an engine dynomometer. The fuel consumption was observed to be about 3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD, which was within the expected range. That is about the expected range of the BTU content of the biodiesel.
Here are some pictures of the components. We see the top cylinder heads had no sludge deposits. Deposits were comparable on the bottom of the cylinder head between diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel. Both the intake and exhaust valves were typical for this type of test run on conventional No. 2 diesel.
For the power transfer components, the crank shaft was in very good condition, with the results comparable to No. 2 diesel fuel, and at least in this particular case, no adverse impacts on any of the engine oil related areas. All of the components from the crank shaft gear to the cam bearing to the bushings, fuel pump gears, connecting rods, etc all looked normal and meet the traditional rebuild specs that we would expect for this engine operating that long.
The power cylinder components—the crosshatch was still visible on all six cylinders, the ring grooves similar, the top of the pistons similar.
Everything looked normal, and the same situation with the cooling and the lube components. No issues, no problems, just all around a clean bill of health.
The same with the air handling components. There was a little bit of soot in some areas, but in the areas where there was soot, we would expect that with normal diesel fuel as well. So nothing out of the ordinary.
The aftertreatment components—this was something that was of interest, because one of the questions was whether or not it would have an impact on aftertreatment, and in this particular test, the diesel oxidation catalyst looked good. There were some blockages found, but that’s normal for what we’d expect with diesel fuel. On the diesel particulate filter, and this was one of the runs with the diesel particulate filter after 1000 hours of operation, that looked good. And the gaskets looked good, as well as the inlet and outlet section.
Here you see some pictures of injectors, plungers, etc. No issues to note there.
The other fuels system components had no issues noted there either.
In summary with this engine, it was a Cummins 2007 prototype with a particulate trap that was in-cylinder post injection for control with EGR and variable turbo charging, was operated successfully. No biodiesel related failures, engine performance with the same, emissions were the same. A thorough engine teardown analyzed pretty much all the parts that we could look at, and there were no failures related to B20, and the wear and deposits were consistent with what we’d see with diesel fuel. So a good bill of health, and really show that the ASTM specs and for biodiesel meeting those specs, even in this new prototype engine, is going to perform well for users in the fuel system.
NC is one of the top 5 states using biodiesel use In the Triangle, B20 use has increased 46% since 2001 to more than 1.5 million gallons NC Department of Transportation used 1.9 M gallons of B20 in 22 locations from 9/02-9/03 Military Bases (Camp Lejuene, Seymor Johnson & Cherry Point) 5 0,000 gallons of B20 annually
Biodiesel fleet case studies
Biodiesel Performance: Some Examples of Fleet use & Field Durability Studies National Biodiesel Board Diesel Technician Training Program
Today’s Topics <ul><li>B20 Fleet Evaluation Team </li></ul><ul><li>NREL/NBB B20 Bus Fleet Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>USPS Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>B20 Cummins 1000 hr. Durability Test </li></ul><ul><li>Health Effects in Keene, NH </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina Dept. of Transportation </li></ul>
Many detailed B20 Studies have been performed and published <ul><li>US Postal Service, St. Louis Bus System </li></ul><ul><li>Denver Regional Transit Bus System </li></ul><ul><li>Las Vegas Valley Water District </li></ul><ul><li>Clark County, NV School District </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut DOT; Keene, NH; NC DOT; Cedar Rapids, IA Buses, etc. etc. etc. </li></ul>
Biodiesel and Engine Manufacturers <ul><li>After the first passage of ASTM D6751 in 2001, even though engine manufacturers voted positive at ASTM most were not yet willing to put their name behind B20 </li></ul><ul><li>National Biodiesel Board set forth on intensive effort to work with OEM’s to address any issues and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>B20 Fleet Evaluation Team Formed </li></ul>
B20 Fleet Evaluation Team <ul><li>Develop fact based informed position on B20 </li></ul><ul><li>Most major diesel engine and fuel injection companies participated in this process </li></ul><ul><li>B20 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed identification of everything that can go wrong when using B20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank: Severity, Occurrence, Detection modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop RIN: Risk Identification Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop plan to address high RIN areas </li></ul></ul>
B20 Fleet Evaluation Members <ul><li>Bosch </li></ul><ul><li>Case New Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Cummins </li></ul><ul><li>DaimlerChrysler </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi Diesel Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Manufacturers Association </li></ul><ul><li>Ford Motor Co </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>John Deere </li></ul><ul><li>National Biodiesel Board </li></ul><ul><li>National Renewable Energy Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Parker - Racor </li></ul><ul><li>Siemens Diesel Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Stanadyne Corp </li></ul><ul><li>Volkswagen AG </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo Truck </li></ul><ul><li>Fleetguard </li></ul>
B20 FMEA Results <ul><li>Most potential ‘problems’ are eliminated if the B100 meets D6751 prior to blending </li></ul><ul><li>More info is needed on after-treatment </li></ul><ul><li>More info is needed on stability/shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>More info is needed from field (materials compatibility, un-anticipated issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide user advise to help trouble-free use </li></ul>
<ul><li>Biodiesel is the pure, or 100 percent, biodiesel fuel. It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B20 blend is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent by volume petrodiesel ). </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petrodiesel. Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends only from companies that have been registered under the BQ-9000 fuel quality program. </li></ul>B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
<ul><li>Ensure the B20 blend meets properties for ASTM D 975, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils or the ASTM specification for B20 once it is approved. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used within six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. See the NREL Biodiesel Storage and Handling Guidelines for further information. </li></ul>B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
<ul><li>Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning properties. The use of B20 can dissolve sediments in the fuel system and result in the need to change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the petrodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of B20’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. When operating in winter climates, use winter blended diesel fuel. If B20 is to be used in winter months, make sure the B20 cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and time of year the fuel will be used. </li></ul>B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
<ul><li>Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine operation and maintenance manual. If using B20 in seasonal operations where fuel is not used within 6 months, consider storage enhancing additives or flushing with diesel fuel prior to storage. </li></ul><ul><li>These recommendations on use of B20 are preliminary and are not provided to extend or supplant warranty limitation provided by an individual engine or equipment supplier. Use of B20 blends is solely at the discretion and risk of the customer and any harm effect caused by the use of B20 are not the responsibility of the engine or equipment maker. </li></ul>B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations
<ul><li>Department of Energy (DOE) </li></ul><ul><li>B100 & Blends </li></ul><ul><li>Material Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Engine Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions </li></ul>Handling & Usage
<ul><li>Cold weather can cloud and even gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar precautions employed for petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends. </li></ul><ul><li>blending with #1 diesel (kerosene) </li></ul><ul><li>using fuel heaters and parking indoors </li></ul><ul><li>and using a cold-flow improvement additive </li></ul>
User B20 Results Summary <ul><li>Similar fuel economy </li></ul><ul><li>Similar maintenance costs </li></ul><ul><li>Some initial filter clogging—’cleaning the system’ </li></ul><ul><li>Some cold weather filter clogging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually due to in-adequate blending or handling, ‘normal diesel issues, poor quality biodiesel or imposter biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following established guidelines give trouble free use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive driver and user experience—smell, smoke </li></ul>
1000 Hour Durability B20 <ul><ul><li>The objective was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20 biodiesel fuel, and do a comparative analysis with engines that have operated under the same type of conditions using #2D diesel fuel. </li></ul></ul>hr 0 25 50 125 1000 Accelerated, high-load durability cycle Lube oil samples analyzed Engine emissions tested Engine lube oil checked Engine emissions tested Full load engine performance verified
Test Engine <ul><li>Cummins prototype 2007 ISL </li></ul><ul><li>Six cylinder 8.9 liter </li></ul><ul><li>Rated power of 330 BHP </li></ul><ul><li>Peak torque of 1150 ft•lb at 1300 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) </li></ul><ul><li>Post injection (in-cylinder) for active regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Variable geometry turbocharger </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with cooler </li></ul><ul><li>Cummins fuel injection system </li></ul>
Test Cycles <ul><li>Durability Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transient cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying load and speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle repeated for 1000 hr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emissions Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Test Procedure (FTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One cold start transient FTP test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three hot start transient FTP test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One SET Ramped Modal Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>>70% of durability cycle at full load High Idle Low Idle Peak Torque Peak Power
Durability & Emission Results <ul><li>Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability test. </li></ul><ul><li>Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported significant changes in performance of the engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The emission-grade B20 test resulted in ≈6% higher NOx (within expected range) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel consumption was observed to be ≈3% higher than the 2007 certified ULSD test (within expected range). </li></ul>
Overhead Components Top of cylinder head No sludge deposits Bottom of cylinder head Deposits comparable to #2D Intake Valves Exhaust Valves Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuel
Power Transfer Components During teardown, the crankshaft was found to be in very good condition, and results were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Component Comments Cranckshaft Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Cranckshaft Meets rebuild spec Lower & Upper Bearings Normal wear Connecting Rod Meets rebuild spec Connecting Rod Bushing Meets rebuild spec
Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders. Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test. Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust Side Cylinder 1 Top Piston Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1 Minor staining Component Comments Piston Normal light wear and deposits. Cylinder Liners Normal light wear. Top rings Normal uniform face wear. Top and bottom side look typical. Middle rings Normal face wear. Top and bottom sides OK, and light carboning. Oil rings Looked good. Very little wear.
Cooling and Lube Components There were no failures found on the cooling and lube components. The wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent with findings found on parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. Bottom (Oil) Piston Rings Cylinder 1 Top Cylinder 6 Bottom Component Comments Oil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Oil pressure regulator/bypass No issues Piston cooling nozzles No problems due to B20. Oil Pan Normal Oil suction tube Gasket showed good imprint of seal Turbo coolant/oil lines Normal
Air Handling Components Carbon deposit layer was generated on the passage and inside parts of the EGR valve , but thickness was very thin and condition was dry which is normal for this durability test. Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coating of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diffuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumulation. EGR gaskets, hoses, tubes, shield, mounting plate, crossover No issues found due to running with B20.
Aftertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) Looked good. No face plugging. Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC after 1000 hr of operation, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel fuel for this type of test. Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and outlet section Looked good. Gaskets Looked good.
Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle No marks on needle surface or the edge. Plunger Needle – Top View Some slight staining. Stage 2 Plunger Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test. Plunger Orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits
Fuel System Components Rail and fuel lines Rail – No abnormal wear. End Fitting – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deterioration or cracks observed. Mechanical Dump Valve (MDV) No unusual wear, deterioration or sludge buildup observed on plungers, plunger seats or orifice. 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger orifice not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. Soft Lines No visible damage to any section of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indicating that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pitting damage on any of the surfaces.
Summary <ul><ul><li>A Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy-based biodiesel and ULSD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the durability testing, no biodiesel related failures occurred. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability operation. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not significantly different between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with B20 fuel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were no failures found on the engine components that were directly attributable to running biodiesel B20. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with findings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests. </li></ul></ul>
NCDOT emissions studies <ul><li>A characterization study by NCDOT and NCSU using on-board diagnostic equipment on 8 dump trucks found an average decrease in NO of about 10% with B20 versus petroleum diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/tpb/research/download/2004-18FinalReport.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>A new DOT study is being conducted by NCSU’s Dr Chris Frey to analyze emissions from construction equipment Study will utilize the Montana Portable On-Board Real Time Emissions Recording System” manufactured by Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. and evaluate B20 and low sulfer diesel emission on graders, loaders and back hoes. Final results expected July 2007 </li></ul>
Who Uses Biodiesel in NC? <ul><li>State Agencies - NC Department of Transportation (DOT), the NC Zoo </li></ul><ul><li>Military -Camp Lejuene Marine Corps Base </li></ul><ul><li>Airport -RDU International Airport </li></ul><ul><li>Private Business - moving and construction companies </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital - Pitt County Memorial Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Public School Busses - Durham & Gaston County Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Universities - UNC-CH, Duke, and NC State </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments – over a dozen municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Service stations 16 public stations selling B10-B99 blends w 3 more expected to open in coming weeks! </li></ul>